James Joyce

Book I

chapter 1

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28




    riverrun, past Eve and Adam's, from swerve of shore to bend
of bay, brings us by a commodius vicus of recirculation back to
Howth Castle and Environs.
    Sir Tristram, violer d'amores, fr'over the short sea, had passen-
core rearrived from North Armorica on this side the scraggy
isthmus of Europe Minor to wielderfight his penisolate war: nor
had topsawyer's rocks by the stream Oconee exaggerated themselse
to Laurens County's gorgios while they went doublin their mumper
all the time: nor avoice from afire bellowsed mishe mishe to
tauftauf thuartpeatrick: not yet, though venissoon after, had a
kidscad buttended a bland old isaac: not yet, though all's fair in
vanessy, were sosie sesthers wroth with twone nathandjoe. Rot a
peck of pa's malt had Jhem or Shen brewed by arclight and rory
end to the regginbrow was to be seen ringsome on the aquaface.
    The fall (bababadalgharaghtakamminarronnkonnbronntonner-
nuk!) of a once wallstrait oldparr is retaled early in bed and later
on life down through all christian minstrelsy. The great fall of the
offwall entailed at such short notice the pftjschute of Finnegan,
erse solid man, that the humptyhillhead of humself prumptly sends
an unquiring one well to the west in quest of his tumptytumtoes:
and their upturnpikepointandplace is at the knock out in the park
where oranges have been laid to rust upon the green since dev-
linsfirst loved livvy

    What clashes here of wills gen wonts, oystrygods gaggin fishy-
gods! Brékkek Kékkek Kékkek Kékkek! Kóax Kóax Kóax! Ualu
Ualu Ualu! Quaouauh! Where the Baddelaries partisans are still
out to mathmaster Malachus Micgranes and the Verdons cata-
pelting the camibalistics out of the Whoyteboyce of Hoodie 
Head. Assiegates and boomeringstroms. Sod's brood, be me fear!
Sanglorians, save! Arms apeal with larms, appalling. Killykill-
killy: a toll, a toll. What chance cuddleys, what cashels aired 
and ventilated! What bidimetoloves sinduced by what tegotetab-
solvers! What true feeling for their's hayair with what strawng 
voice of false jiccup! O here here how hoth sprowled met the
duskt the father of fornicationists but, (O my shining stars and
body!) how hath fanespanned most high heaven the skysign of
soft advertisement! But was iz? Iseut? Ere were sewers? The oaks
of ald now they lie in peat yet elms leap where askes lay. Phall if
you but will, rise you must: and none so soon either shall the
pharce for the nunce come to a setdown secular phoenish.
    Bygmester Finnegan, of the Stuttering Hand, freemen's mau-
rer, lived in the broadest way immarginable in his rushlit toofar-
back for messuages before joshuan judges had given us numbers
or Helviticus committed deuteronomy (one yeastyday he sternely 
struxk his tete in a tub for to watsch the future of his fates but ere
he swiftly stook it out again, by the might of moses, the very wat-
er was eviparated and all the guenneses had met their exodus so
that ought to show you what a pentschanjeuchy chap he was!)
and during mighty odd years this man of hod, cement and edi-
fices in Toper's Thorp piled buildung supra buildung pon the
banks for the livers by the Soangso. He addle liddle phifie Annie
ugged the little craythur. Wither hayre in honds tuck up your part
inher. Oftwhile balbulous, mithre ahead, with goodly trowel in
grasp and ivoroiled overalls which he habitacularly fondseed, like
Haroun Childeric Eggeberth he would caligulate by multiplicab-
les the alltitude and malltitude until he seesaw by neatlight of the
liquor wheretwin 'twas born, his roundhead staple of other days
to rise in undress maisonry upstanded (joygrantit!), a waalworth 
of a skyerscape of most eyeful hoyth entowerly, erigenating from 

next to nothing and celescalating the himals and all, hierarchitec-
titiptitoploftical, with a burning bush abob off its baubletop and
with larrons o'toolers clittering up and tombles a'buckets clotter-
ing down.
    Of the first was he to bare arms and a name: Wassaily Boos-
laeugh of Riesengeborg. His crest of huroldry, in vert with
ancillars, troublant, argent, a hegoak, poursuivant, horrid, horned.
His scutschum fessed, with archers strung, helio, of the second.
Hootch is for husbandman handling his hoe. Hohohoho, Mister
Finn, you're going to be Mister Finnagain! Comeday morm and,
O, you're vine! Sendday's eve and, ah, you're vinegar! Hahahaha,
Mister Funn, you're going to be fined again!
    What then agentlike brought about that tragoady thundersday
this municipal sin business? Our cubehouse still rocks as earwitness 
to the thunder of his arafatas but we hear also through successive
ages that shebby choruysh of unkalified muzzlenimiissilehims that
would blackguardise the whitestone ever hurtleturtled out of
heaven. Stay us wherefore in our search for tighteousness, O Sus-
tainer, what time we rise and when we take up to toothmick and
before we lump down upown our leatherbed and in the night and
at the fading of the stars! For a nod to the nabir is better than wink
to the wabsanti. Otherways wesways like that provost scoffing 
bedoueen the jebel and the jpysian sea. Cropherb the crunch-
bracken shall decide. Then we'll know if the feast is a flyday. She
has a gift of seek on site and she allcasually ansars helpers, the
dreamydeary. Heed! Heed! It may half been a missfired brick, as
some say, or it mought have been due to a collupsus of his back
promises, as others looked at it. (There extand by now one thou-
sand and one stories, all told, of the same). But so sore did abe 
ite ivvy's holired abbles, (what with the wallhall's horrors of rolls-
rights, carhacks, stonengens, kisstvanes, tramtrees, fargobawlers,
autokinotons, hippohobbilies, streetfleets, tournintaxes, mega-
phoggs, circuses and wardsmoats and basilikerks and aeropagods 
and the hoyse and the jollybrool and the peeler in the coat and
the mecklenburk bitch bite at his ear and the merlinburrow bur-
rocks and his fore old porecourts, the bore the more, and his 

blightblack workingstacks at twelvepins a dozen and the noobi-
busses sleighding along Safetyfirst Street and the derryjellybies
snooping around Tell-No-Tailors' Corner and the fumes and the
hopes and the strupithump of his ville's indigenous romekeepers,
homesweepers, domecreepers, thurum and thurum in fancymud
murumd and all the uproor from all the aufroofs, a roof for may 
and a reef for hugh butt under his bridge suits tony) wan warn-
ing Phill filt tippling full. His howd feeled heavy, his hoddit did
shake. (There was a wall of course in erection) Dimb! He stot-
tered from the latter. Damb! he was dud. Dumb! Mastabatoom,
mastabadtomm, when a mon merries his lute is all long. For
whole the world to see.
    Shize? I should shee! Macool, Macool, orra whyi deed ye diie?
of a trying thirstay mournin? Sobs they sighdid at Fillagain's
chrissormiss wake, all the hoolivans of the nation, prostrated in
their consternation and their duodisimally profusive plethora of
ululation. There was plumbs and grumes and cheriffs and citherers 
and raiders and cinemen too. And the all gianed in with the shout-
most shoviality. Agog and magog and the round of them agrog.
To the continuation of that celebration until Hanandhunigan's
extermination! Some in kinkin corass, more, kankan keening.
Belling him up and filling him down. He's stiff but he's steady is
Priam Olim! 'Twas he was the dacent gaylabouring youth. Sharpen 
his pillowscone, tap up his bier! E'erawhere in this whorl would ye
hear sich a din again? With their deepbrow fundigs and the dusty 
fidelios. They laid him brawdawn alanglast bed. With a bockalips 
of finisky fore his feet. And a barrowload of guenesis hoer his head.
Tee the tootal of the fluid hang the twoddle of the fuddled, O!
    Hurrah, there is but young gleve for the owl globe wheels in
view which is tautaulogically the same thing. Well, Him a being
so on the flounder of his bulk like an overgrown babeling, let wee
peep, see, at Hom, well, see peegee ought he ought, platterplate.
Hum! From Shopalist to Bailywick or from ashtun to baronoath
or from Buythebanks to Roundthehead or from the foot of the
bill to ireglint's eye he calmly extensolies. And all the way (a
horn!) from fiord to fjell his baywinds' oboboes shall wail him

rockbound (hoahoahoah!) in swimswamswum and all the livvy-
long night, the delldale dalppling night, the night of bluerybells,
her flittaflute in tricky trochees (O carina! O carina!) wake him.
With her issavan essavans and her patterjackmartins about all
them inns and ouses. Tilling a teel of a tum, telling a toll of a tea-
ry turty Taubling. Grace before Glutton. For what we are, gifs 
a gross if we are, about to believe. So pool the begg and pass the
kish for crawsake. Omen. So sigh us. Grampupus is fallen down
but grinny sprids the boord. Whase on the joint of a desh? Fin-
foefom the Fush. Whase be his baken head? A loaf of Singpan-
try's Kennedy bread. And whase hitched to the hop in his tayle?
A glass of Danu U'Dunnell's foamous olde Dobbelin ayle. But,
lo, as you would quaffoff his fraudstuff and sink teeth through
that pyth of a flowerwhite bodey behold of him as behemoth for
he is noewhemoe. Finiche! Only a fadograph of a yestern scene.
Almost rubicund Salmosalar, ancient fromout the ages of the Ag-
apemonides, he is smolten in our mist, woebecanned and packt
away. So that meal's dead off for summan, schlook, schlice and
    Yet may we not see still the brontoichthyan form outlined a-
slumbered, even in our own nighttime by the sedge of the trout-
ling stream that Bronto loved and Brunto has a lean on. Hiccubat 
edilis. Apud libertinam parvulam. Whatif she be in flags or flitters,
reekierags or sundyechosies, with a mint of mines or beggar a
pinnyweight. Arrah, sure, we all love little Anny Ruiny, or, we
mean to say, lovelittle Anna Rayiny, when unda her brella, mid
piddle med puddle, she ninnygoes nannygoes nancing by. Yoh!
Brontolone slaaps, yoh snoores. Upon Benn Heather, in Seeple
Isout too. The cranic head on him, caster of his reasons, peer yu-
thner in yondmist. Whooth? His clay feet, swarded in verdigrass,
stick up starck where he last fellonem, by the mund of the maga-
zine wall, where our maggy seen all, with her sisterin shawl.
While over against this belles' alliance beyind Ill Sixty, ollol-
lowed ill! bagsides of the fort, bom, tarabom, tarabom, lurk the
ombushes, the site of the lyffing-in-wait of the upjock and hock-
ums. Hence when the clouds roll by, jamey, a proudseye view is

enjoyable of our mounding's mass, now Wallinstone national
museum, with, in some greenish distance, the charmful water-
loose country and the two quitewhite villagettes who hear show
of themselves so gigglesomes minxt the follyages, the prettilees!
Penetrators are permitted into the museomound free. Welsh and
the Paddy Patkinses, one shelenk! Redismembers invalids of old
guard find poussepousse pousseypram to sate the sort of their butt.
For her passkey supply to the janitrix, the mistress Kathe. Tip.
    This the way to the museyroom. Mind your hats goan in!
Now yiz are in the Willingdone Museyroom. This is a Prooshi-
ous gunn. This is a ffrinch. Tip. This is the flag of the Prooshi-
ous, the Cap and Soracer. This is the bullet that byng the flag of
the Prooshious. This is the ffrinch that fire on the Bull that bang
the flag of the Prooshious. Saloos the Crossgunn! Up with your
pike and fork! Tip. (Bullsfoot! Fine!) This is the triplewon hat of
Lipoleum. Tip. Lipoleumhat. This is the Willingdone on his
same white harse, the Cokenhape. This is the big Sraughter Wil-
lingdone, grand and magentic in his goldtin spurs and his ironed
dux and his quarterbrass woodyshoes and his magnate's gharters 
and his bangkok's best and goliar's goloshes and his pullupon-
easyan wartrews. This is his big wide harse. Tip. This is the three
lipoleum boyne grouching down in the living detch. This is an
inimyskilling inglis, this is a scotcher grey, this is a davy, stoop-
ing. This is the bog lipoleum mordering the lipoleum beg. A
Gallawghurs argaumunt. This is the petty lipoleum boy that
was nayther bag nor bug. Assaye, assaye! Touchole Fitz Tuo-
mush. Dirty MacDyke. And Hairy O'Hurry. All of them
arminus-varminus. This is Delian alps. This is Mont Tivel,
this is Mont Tipsey, this is the Grand Mons Injun. This is the
crimealine of the alps hooping to sheltershock the three lipoleums.
This is the jinnies with their legahorns feinting to read in their
handmade's book of stralegy while making their war undisides
the Willingdone. The jinnies is a cooin her hand and the jinnies is
a ravin her hair and the Willingdone git the band up. This is big
Willingdone mormorial tallowscoop Wounderworker obscides
on the flanks of the jinnies. Sexcaliber hrosspower. Tip. This

is me Belchum sneaking his phillippy out of his most Awful
Grimmest Sunshat Cromwelly. Looted. This is the jinnies' hast-
ings dispatch for to irrigate the Willingdone. Dispatch in thin
red lines cross the shortfront of me Belchum. Yaw, yaw, yaw!
Leaper Orthor. Fear siecken! Fieldgaze thy tiny frow. Hugact-
ing. Nap. That was the tictacs of the jinnies for to fontannoy the
Willingdone. Shee, shee, shee! The jinnies is jillous agincourting
all the lipoleums. And the lipoleums is gonn boycottoncrezy onto
the one Willingdone. And the Willingdone git the band up. This
is bode Belchum, bonnet to busby, breaking his secred word with a
ball up his ear to the Willingdone. This is the Willingdone's hur-
old dispitchback. Dispitch desployed on the regions rare of me
Belchum. Salamangra! Ayi, ayi, ayi! Cherry jinnies. Figtreeyou!
Damn fairy ann, Voutre. Willingdone. That was the first joke of
Willingdone, tic for tac. Hee, hee, hee! This is me Belchum in
his twelvemile cowchooks, weet, tweet and stampforth foremost,
footing the camp for the jinnies. Drink a sip, drankasup, for he's
as sooner buy a guinness than he'd stale store stout. This is Roo-
shious balls. This is a ttrinch. This is mistletropes. This is Canon
Futter with the popynose. After his hundred days' indulgence.
This is the blessed. Tarra's widdars! This is jinnies in the bonny 
bawn blooches. This is lipoleums in the rowdy howses. This is the
Willingdone, by the splinters of Cork, order fire. Tonnerre!
(Bullsear! Play!) This is camelry, this is floodens, this is the
solphereens in action, this is their mobbily, this is panickburns.
Almeidagad! Arthiz too loose! This is Willingdone cry. Brum!
Brum! Cumbrum! This is jinnies cry. Underwetter! Goat
strip Finnlambs! This is jinnies rinning away to their ouster-
lists dowan a bunkersheels. With a nip nippy nip and a trip trip-
py trip so airy. For their heart's right there. Tip. This is me Bel-
chum's tinkyou tankyou silvoor plate for citchin the crapes in
the cool of his canister. Poor the pay! This is the bissmark of the
marathon merry of the jinnies they left behind them. This is the
Willingdone branlish his same marmorial tallowscoop Sophy-
Key-Po for his royal divorsion on the rinnaway jinnies. Gam-
bariste della porca! Dalaveras fimmieras! This is the pettiest 

of the lipoleums, Toffeethief, that spy on the Willingdone from
his big white harse, the Capeinhope. Stonewall Willingdone
is an old maxy montrumeny. Lipoleums is nice hung bushel-
lors. This is hiena hinnessy laughing alout at the Willing-
done. This is lipsyg dooley krieging the funk from the hinnessy.
This is the hinndoo Shimar Shin between the dooley boy and the
hinnessy. Tip. This is the wixy old Willingdone picket up the
half of the threefoiled hat of lipoleums fromoud of the bluddle
filth. This is the hinndoo waxing ranjymad for a bombshoob.
This is the Willingdone hanking the half of the hat of lipoleums
up the tail on the buckside of his big white harse. Tip. That was
the last joke of Willingdone. Hit, hit, hit! This is the same white
harse of the Willingdone, Culpenhelp, waggling his tailoscrupp
with the half of a hat of lipoleums to insoult on the hinndoo see-
boy. Hney, hney, hney! (Bullsrag! Foul!) This is the seeboy,
madrashattaras, upjump and pumpim, cry to the Willingdone:
Ap Pukkaru! Pukka Yurap! This is the Willingdone, bornstable
ghentleman, tinders his maxbotch to the cursigan Shimar Shin.
Basucker youstead! This is the dooforhim seeboy blow the whole
of the half of the hat of lipoleums off of the top of the tail on the
back of his big wide harse. Tip (Bullseye! Game!) How Copen-
hagen ended. This way the museyroom. Mind your boots goan
    What a warm time we were in there but how keling is here the
airabouts! We nowhere she lives but you mussna tell annaone for
the lamp of Jig-a-Lanthern! It's a candlelittle houthse of a month
and one windies. Downadown, High Downadown. And num-
mered quaintlymine. And such reasonable weather too! The wa-
grant wind's awalt'zaround the piltdowns and on every blasted
knollyrock (if you can spot fifty I spy four more) there's that
gnarlybird ygathering, a runalittle, doalittle, preealittle, pouralittle,
wipealittle, kicksalittle, severalittle, eatalittle, whinealittle, kenalittle,
helfalittle, pelfalittle gnarlybird. A verytableland of bleakbardfields!
Under his seven wrothschields lies one, Lumproar. His glav toside
him. Skud ontorsed. Our pigeons pair are flewn for northcliffs.

The three of crows have flapped it southenly, kraaking of de
baccle to the kvarters of that sky whence triboos answer; Wail,
'tis well! She niver comes out when Thon's on shower or when
Thon's flash with his Nixy girls or when Thon's blowing toom-
cracks down the gaels of Thon. No nubo no! Neblas on you liv!
Her would be too moochy afreet. Of Burymeleg and Bindme-
rollingeyes and all the deed in the woe. Fe fo fom! She jist does
hopes till byes will be byes. Here, and it goes on to appear now,
she comes, a peacefugle, a parody's bird, a peri potmother,
a pringlpik in the ilandiskippy, with peewee and powwows
in beggybaggy on her bickybacky and a flick flask fleckflinging
its pixylighting pacts' huemeramybows, picking here, pecking
there, pussypussy plunderpussy. But it's the armitides toonigh,
militopucos, and toomourn we wish for a muddy kissmans to the
minutia workers and there's to be a gorgeups truce for happinest
childher everwere. Come nebo me and suso sing the day we
sallybright. She's burrowed the coacher's headlight the better to
pry (who goes cute goes siocur and shoos aroun) and all spoiled
goods go into her nabsack: curtrages and rattlin buttins, nappy
spattees and flasks of all nations, clavicures and scampulars, maps,
keys and woodpiles of haypennies and moonled brooches with
bloodstaned breeks in em, boaston nightgarters and masses of
shoesets and nickelly nacks and foder allmicheal and a lugly parson
of cates and howitzer muchears and midgers and maggets, ills and
ells with loffs of toffs and pleures of bells and the last sigh that
come fro the hart (bucklied!) and the fairest sin the sunsaw
(that's cearc!). With Kiss. Kiss Criss. Cross Criss. Kiss Cross.
Undo lives 'end. Slain.
    How bootifull and how truetowife of her, when strengly fore-
bidden, to steal our historic presents from the past postpropheti-
cals so as to will make us all lordyheirs and ladymaidesses of a
pretty nice kettle of fruit. She is livving in our midst of debt and
laffing through all plores for us (her birth is uncontrollable), with
a naperon for her mask and her sabboes kickin arias (so sair! so
solly!) if yous ask me and I saack you. Hou! Hou! Gricks may
rise and Troysirs fall (there being two sights for ever a picture)

for in the byways of high improvidence that's what makes life-
work leaving and the world's a cell for citters to cit in. Let young
wimman run away with the story and let young min talk smooth
behind the butteler's back. She knows her knight's duty while
Luntum sleeps. Did ye save any tin? says he. Did I what? with
a grin says she. And we all like a marriedann because she is mer-
cenary. Though the length of the land lies under liquidation
(floote!) and there's nare a hairbrow nor an eyebush on this glau-
brous phace of Herrschuft Whatarwelter she'll loan a vesta and
hire some peat and sarch the shores her cockles to heat and she'll
do all a turfwoman can to piff the business on. Paff. To puff the
blaziness on. Poffpoff. And even if Humpty shell fall frumpty
times as awkward again in the beardsboosoloom of all our grand
remonstrancers there'll be iggs for the brekkers come to mourn-
him, sunny side up with care. So true is it that therewhere's a
turnover the tay is wet too and when you think you ketch sight
of a hind make sure but you're cocked by a hin.
    Then as she is on her behaviourite job of quainance bandy,
fruting for firstlings and taking her tithe, we may take our review
of the two mounds to see nothing of the himples here as at else-
where, by sixes and sevens, like so many heegills and collines,
sitton aroont, scentbreeched ant somepotreek, in their swisha-
wish satins and their taffetaffe tights, playing Wharton's Folly,
at a treepurty on the planko in the purk. Stand up, mickos!
Make strake for minnas! By order, Nicholas Proud. We may see
and hear nothing if we choose of the shortlegged bergins off
Corkhill or the bergamoors of Arbourhill or the bergagambols
of Summerhill or the bergincellies of Miseryhill or the country-
bossed bergones of Constitutionhill though every crowd has its
several tones and every trade has its clever mechanics and each
harmonical has a point of its own, Olaf's on the rise and Ivor's
on the lift and Sitric's place's between them. But all they are all
there scraping along to sneeze out a likelihood that will solve
and salve life's robulous rebus, hopping round his middle like
kippers on a griddle, O, as he lays dormont from the macroborg
of Holdhard to the microbirg of Pied de Poudre. Behove this

sound of Irish sense. Really? Here English might be seen.
Royally? One sovereign punned to petery pence. Regally? The
silence speaks the scene. Fake!
    So This Is Dyoublong?
    Hush! Caution! Echoland!
    How charmingly exquisite! It reminds you of the outwashed 
engravure that we used to be blurring on the blotchwall of his
innkempt house. Used they? (I am sure that tiring chabelshovel-
ler with the mujikal chocolat box, Miry Mitchel, is listening) I
say, the remains of the outworn gravemure where used to be
blurried the Ptollmens of the Incabus. Used we? (He is only pre-
tendant to be stugging at the jubalee harp from a second existed
lishener, Fiery Farrelly.) It is well known. Lokk for himself and
see the old butte new. Dbln. W. K. O. O. Hear? By the mauso-
lime wall. Fimfim fimfim. With a grand funferall. Fumfum fum-
fum. 'Tis optophone which ontophanes. List! Wheatstone's
magic lyer. They will be tuggling foriver. They will be lichening
for allof. They will be pretumbling forover. The harpsdischord
shall be theirs for ollaves.
    Four things therefore, saith our herodotary Mammon Lujius 
in his grand old historiorum, wrote near Boriorum, bluest book
in baile's annals, f. t. in Dyffinarsky ne'er sall fail til heathersmoke
and cloudweed Eire's ile sall pall. And here now they are, the fear
of um. T. Totities! Unum. (Adar.) A bulbenboss surmounted up-
on an alderman. Ay, ay! Duum. (Nizam.) A shoe on a puir old
wobban. Ah, ho! Triom. (Tamuz.) An auburn mayde, o'brine
a'bride, to be desarted. Adear, adear! Quodlibus. (Marchessvan.) A
penn no weightier nor a polepost. And so. And all. (Succoth.)
    So, how idlers' wind turning pages on pages, as innocens with
anaclete play popeye antipop, the leaves of the living in the boke
of the deeds, annals of themselves timing the cycles of events
grand and national, bring fassilwise to pass how.
    1132 A.D. Men like to ants or emmets wondern upon a groot 
hwide Whallfisk which lay in a Runnel. Blubby wares upat Ub-
    566 A.D. On Baalfire's night of this year after deluge a crone that

hadde a wickered Kish for to hale dead turves from the bog look-
it under the blay of her Kish as she ran for to sothisfeige her cow-
rieosity and be me sawl but she found hersell sackvulle of swart
goody quickenshoon and small illigant brogues, so rich in sweat.
Blurry works at Hurdlesford.
    566 A.D. At this time it fell out that a brazenlockt damsel grieved 
(sobralasolas!) because that Puppette her minion was ravisht of her
by the ogre Puropeus Pious. Bloody wars in Ballyaughacleeagh-
    1132. A.D. Two sons at an hour were born until a goodman 
and his hag. These sons called themselves Caddy and Primas.
Primas was a santryman and drilled all decent people. Caddy
went to Winehouse and wrote o peace a farce. Blotty words for
    Somewhere, parently, in the ginnandgo gap between antedilu-
vious and annadominant the copyist must have fled with his
scroll. The billy flood rose or an elk charged him or the sultrup
worldwright from the excelsissimost empyrean (bolt, in sum)
earthspake or the Dannamen gallous banged pan the bliddy du-
ran. A scribicide then and there is led off under old's code with
some fine covered by six marks or ninepins in metalmen for the
sake of his labour's dross while it will be only now and again in
our rear of o'er era, as an upshoot of military and civil engage-
ments, that a gynecure was let on to the scuffold for taking that
same fine sum covertly by meddlement with the drawers of his
neighbour's safe.
    Now after all that farfatch'd and peragrine or dingnant or clere 
lift we our ears, eyes of the darkness, from the tome of Liber Li-
vidus and, (toh!), how paisibly eirenical, all dimmering dunes
and gloamering glades, selfstretches afore us our fredeland's plain!
Lean neath stone pine the pastor lies with his crook; young pric-
ket by pricket's sister nibbleth on returned viridities; amaid her
rocking grasses the herb trinity shams lowliness; skyup is of ever-
grey. Thus, too, for donkey's years. Since the bouts of Hebear
and Hairyman the cornflowers have been staying at Ballymun,

the duskrose has choosed out Goatstown's hedges, twolips have
pressed togatherthem by sweet Rush, townland of twinedlights,
the whitethorn and the redthorn have fairygeyed the mayvalleys
of Knockmaroon, and, though for rings round them, during a
chiliad of perihelygangs, the Formoreans have brittled the too-
ath of the Danes and the Oxman has been pestered by the Fire-
bugs and the Joynts have thrown up jerrybuilding to the Kevan-
ses and Little on the Green is childsfather to the City (Year!
Year! And laughtears!), these paxsealing buttonholes have quad-
rilled across the centuries and whiff now whafft to us, fresh and
made-of-all-smiles as, on the eve of Killallwho.
    The babbelers with their thangas vain have been (confusium
hold them!) they were and went; thigging thugs were and hou-
hnhymn songtoms were and comely norgels were and pollyfool
fiansees. Menn have thawed, clerks have surssurhummed, the
blond has sought of the brune: Elsekiss thou may, mean Kerry
piggy?: and the duncledames have countered with the hellish fel-
lows: Who ails tongue coddeau, aspace of dumbillsilly? And they
fell upong one another: and themselves they have fallen. And
still nowanights and by nights of yore do all bold floras of the
field to their shyfaun lovers say only: Cull me ere I wilt to thee!:
and, but a little later: Pluck me whilst I blush! Well may they
wilt, marry, and profusedly blush, be troth! For that saying is as
old as the howitts. Lave a whale a while in a whillbarrow (isn't
it the truath I'm tallin ye?) to have fins and flippers that shimmy
and shake. Tim Timmycan timped hir, tampting Tam. Fleppety!
Flippety! Fleapow!
    In the name of Anem this carl on the kopje in pelted thongs a
parth a lone who the joebiggar be he? Forshapen his pigmaid
hoagshead, shroonk his plodsfoot. He hath locktoes, this short-
shins, and, Obeold that's pectoral, his mammamuscles most
mousterious. It is slaking nuncheon out of some thing's brain
pan. Me seemeth a dragon man. He is almonthst on the kiep
fief by here, is Comestipple Sacksoun, be it junipery or febrew-
ery, marracks or alebrill or the ramping riots of pouriose and

froriose. What a quhare soort of a mahan. It is evident the mich-
indaddy. Lets we overstep his fire defences and these kraals of
slitsucked marrogbones. (Cave!) He can prapsposterus the pil-
lory way to Hirculos pillar. Come on, fool porterfull, hosiered
women blown monk sewer? Scuse us, chorley guy! You toller-
day donsk? N. You tolkatiff scowegian? Nn. You spigotty an-
glease? Nnn. You phonio saxo? Nnnn. Clear all so! 'Tis a Jute.
Let us swop hats and excheck a few strong verbs weak oach ea-
ther yapyazzard abast the blooty creeks.
    Jute.       Yutah!
    Mutt.      Mukk's pleasurad.
    Jute.       Are you jeff?
    Mutt.      Somehards.
    Jute.       But you are not jeffmute?
    Mutt.      Noho. Only an utterer.
    Jute.       Whoa? Whoat is the mutter with you?
    Mutt.      I became a stun a stummer.
    Jute.       What a hauhauhauhaudibble thing, to be cause! How,
    Mutt.      Aput the buttle, surd.
    Jute.       Whose poddle? Wherein?
    Mutt.      The Inns of Dungtarf where Used awe to be he.
    Jute.       You that side your voise are almost inedible to me.
                  Become a bitskin more wiseable, as if I were
    Mutt.      Has? Has at? Hasatency? Urp, Boohooru! Booru
                  Usurp! I trumple from rath in mine mines when I
    Jute.       One eyegonblack. Bisons is bisons. Let me fore all
                  your hasitancy cross your qualm with trink gilt. Here
                  have sylvan coyne, a piece of oak. Ghinees hies good
                  for you.
    Mutt.      Louee, louee! How wooden I not know it, the intel-
                  lible greytcloak of Cedric Silkyshag! Cead mealy 
                  faulty rices for one dabblin bar. Old grilsy growlsy!
                  He was poached on in that eggtentical spot. Here

                  where the liveries, Monomark. There where the mis-
                  sers moony, Minnikin passe.
    Jute.       Simply because as Taciturn pretells, our wrongstory-
                  shortener, he dumptied the wholeborrow of rubba-
                  ges on to soil here.
    Mutt.      Just how a puddinstone inat the brookcells by a
    Jute.       Load Allmarshy! Wid wad for a norse like?
    Mutt.      Somular with a bull on a clompturf. Rooks roarum
                  rex roome! I could snore to him of the spumy horn,
                  with his woolseley side in, by the neck I am sutton
                  on, did Brian d' of Linn.
    Jute.       Boildoyle and rawhoney on me when I can beuraly
                  forsstand a weird from sturk to finnic in such a pat-
                  what as your rutterdamrotter. Onheard of and um-
                  scene! Gut aftermeal! See you doomed.
    Mutt.      Quite agreem. Bussave a sec. Walk a dunblink 
                  roundward this albutisle and you skull see how olde 
                  ye plaine of my Elters, hunfree and ours, where wone 
                  to wail whimbrel to peewee o'er the saltings, where
                  wilby citie by law of isthmon, where by a droit of
                  signory, icefloe was from his Inn the Byggning to
                  whose Finishthere Punct. Let erehim ruhmuhrmuhr.
                  Mearmerge two races, swete and brack. Morthering 
                  rue. Hither, craching eastuards, they are in surgence:
                  hence, cool at ebb, they requiesce. Countlessness of
                  livestories have netherfallen by this plage, flick as
                  flowflakes, litters from aloft, like a waast wizzard all of 
                  whirlworlds. Now are all tombed to the mound, isges 
                  to isges, erde from erde. Pride, O pride, thy prize!
    Jute.       'Stench!
    Mutt.      Fiatfuit! Hereinunder lyethey. Llarge by the smal an'
                  everynight life olso th'estrange, babylone the great-
                  grandhotelled with tit tit tittlehouse, alp on earwig,
                  drukn on ild, likeas equal to anequal in this sound
                  seemetery which iz leebez luv.

    Jute.       'Zmorde!
    Mutt.      Meldundleize! By the fearse wave behoughted. Des-
                  pond's sung. And thanacestross mound have swollup 
                  them all. This ourth of years is not save brickdust 
                  and being humus the same roturns. He who runes 
                  may rede it on all fours. O'c'stle, n'wc'stle, tr'c'stle,
                  crumbling! Sell me sooth the fare for Humblin! Hum-
                  blady Fair. But speak it allsosiftly, moulder! Be in
                  your whisht!
    Jute.       Whysht?
    Mutt.      The gyant Forficules with Amni the fay.
    Jute.       Howe?
    Mutt.      Here is viceking's graab.
    Jute.       Hwaad!
    Mutt.      Ore you astoneaged, jute you?
    Jute.       Oye am thonthorstrok, thing mud.
    (Stoop) if you are abcedminded, to this claybook, what curios 
of signs (please stoop), in this allaphbed! Can you rede (since
We and Thou had it out already) its world? It is the same told
of all. Many. Miscegenations on miscegenations. Tieckle. They
lived und laughed ant loved end left. Forsin. Thy thingdome is
given to the Meades and Porsons. The meandertale, aloss and
again, of our old Heidenburgh in the days when Head-in-Clouds
walked the earth. In the ignorance that implies impression that
knits knowledge that finds the nameform that whets the wits that
convey contacts that sweeten sensation that drives desire that
adheres to attachment that dogs death that bitches birth that en-
tails the ensuance of existentiality. But with a rush out of his
navel reaching the reredos of Ramasbatham. A terricolous vively-
onview this; queer and it continues to be quaky. A hatch, a celt,
an earshare the pourquose of which was to cassay the earthcrust at
all of hours, furrowards, bagawards, like yoxen at the turnpaht.
Here say figurines billycoose arming and mounting. Mounting and
arming bellicose figurines see here. Futhorc, this liffle effingee is for
a firefing called a flintforfall. Face at the eased! O I fay! Face at the
waist! Ho, you fie! Upwap and dump em, ace to ace! When a

part so ptee does duty for the holos we soon grow to use of an
allforabit. Here (please to stoop) are selveran cued peteet peas of
quite a pecuniar interest inaslittle as they are the pellets that make
the tomtummy's pay roll. Right rank ragnar rocks and with these
rox orangotangos rangled rough and rightgorong. Wisha, wisha,
whydidtha? Thik is for thorn that's thuck in its thoil like thum-
fool's thraitor thrust for vengeance. What a mnice old mness it
all mnakes! A middenhide hoard of objects! Olives, beets, kim-
mells, dollies, alfrids, beatties, cormacks and daltons. Owlets' eegs
(O stoop to please!) are here, creakish from age and all now
quite epsilene, and oldwolldy wobblewers, haudworth a wipe o
grass. Sss! See the snake wurrums everyside! Our durlbin is
sworming in sneaks. They came to our island from triangular
Toucheaterre beyond the wet prairie rared up in the midst of the
cargon of prohibitive pomefructs but along landed Paddy Wip-
pingham and the his garbagecans cotched the creeps of them
pricker than our whosethere outofman could quick up her whats-
thats. Somedivide and sumthelot but the tally turns round the
same balifuson. Racketeers and bottloggers.
    Axe on thwacks on thracks, axenwise. One by one place one
be three dittoh and one before. Two nursus one make a plaus-
ible free and idim behind. Starting off with a big boaboa and three-
legged calvers and ivargraine jadesses with a message in their
mouths. And a hundreadfilled unleavenweight of liberorumqueue
to con an we can till allhorrors eve. What a meanderthalltale to
unfurl and with what an end in view of squattor and anntisquattor
and postproneauntisquattor! To say too us to be every tim, nick
and larry of us, sons of the sod, sons, littlesons, yea and lealittle-
sons, when usses not to be, every sue, siss and sally of us, dugters
of Nan! Accusative ahnsire! Damadam to infinities!
    True there was in nillohs dieybos as yet no lumpend papeer
in the waste, and mightmountain Penn still groaned for the micies
to let flee. All was of ancientry. You gave me a boot (signs on
it!) and I ate the wind. I quizzed you a quid (with for what?) and
you went to the quod. But the world, mind, is, was and will be
writing its own wrunes for ever, man, on all matters that fall

under the ban of our infrarational senses fore the last milch-
camel, the heartvein throbbing between his eyebrowns, has still to
moor before the tomb of his cousin charmian where his date is
tethered by the palm that's hers. But the horn, the drinking, the
day of dread are not now. A bone, a pebble, a ramskin; chip them,
chap them, cut them up allways; leave them to terracook in the
muttheringpot: and Gutenmorg with his cromagnom charter,
tintingfast and great primer must once for omniboss step rub-
rickredd out of the wordpress else is there no virtue more in al-
cohoran. For that (the rapt one warns) is what papyr is meed
of, made of, hides and hints and misses in prints. Till ye finally
(though not yet endlike) meet with the acquaintance of Mister
Typus, Mistress Tope and all the little typtopies. Fillstup. So you
need hardly spell me how every word will be bound over to carry
three score and ten toptypsical readings throughout the book of
Doublends Jined (may his forehead be darkened with mud who
would sunder!) till Daleth, mahomahouma, who oped it closeth
thereof the. Dor.
    Cry not yet! There's many a smile to Nondum, with sytty 
maids per man, sir, and the park's so dark by kindlelight. But
look what you have in your handself! The movibles are scrawl-
ing in motions, marching, all of them ago, in pitpat and zingzang
for every busy eerie whig's a bit of a torytale to tell. One's upon
a thyme and two's behind their lettice leap and three's among the
strubbely beds. And the chicks picked their teeths and the domb-
key he begay began. You can ask your ass if he believes it. And
so cuddy me only wallops have heels. That one of a wife with
folty barnets. For then was the age when hoops ran high. Of a
noarch and a chopwife; of a pomme full grave and a fammy of
levity; or of golden youths that wanted gelding; or of what the
mischievmiss made a man do. Malmarriedad he was reverso-
gassed by the frisque of her frasques and her prytty pyrrhique.
Maye faye, she's la gaye this snaky woman! From that trippiery
toe expectungpelick! Veil, volantine, valentine eyes. She's the
very besch Winnie blows Nay on good. Flou inn, flow ann.
Hohore! So it's sure it was her not we! But lay it easy, gentle

mien, we are in rearing of a norewhig. So weenybeeny-
veenyteeny. Comsy see! Hetwis if ee newt. Lissom! lissom!
I am doing it. Hark, the corne entreats! And the larpnotes
    It was of a night, late, lang time agone, in an auldstane eld,
when Adam was delvin and his madameen spinning watersilts,
when mulk mountynotty man was everybully and the first leal
ribberrobber that ever had her ainway everybuddy to his love-
saking eyes and everybilly lived alove with everybiddy else, and
Jarl van Hoother had his burnt head high up in his lamphouse,
laying cold hands on himself. And his two little jiminies, cousins
of ourn, Tristopher and Hilary, were kickaheeling their dummy
on the oil cloth flure of his homerigh, castle and earthenhouse.
And, be dermot, who come to the keep of his inn only the niece-
of-his-in-law, the prankquean. And the prankquean pulled a rosy
one and made her wit foreninst the dour. And she lit up and fire-
land was ablaze. And spoke she to the dour in her petty perusi-
enne: Mark the Wans, why do I am alook alike a poss of porter-
pease? And that was how the skirtmisshes began. But the dour
handworded her grace in dootch nossow: Shut! So her grace
o'malice kidsnapped up the jiminy Tristopher and into the shan-
dy westerness she rain, rain, rain. And Jarl van Hoother war-
lessed after her with soft dovesgall: Stop deef stop come back to
my earin stop. But she swaradid to him: Unlikelihud. And there
was a brannewail that same sabboath night of falling angles some-
where in Erio. And the prankquean went for her forty years'
walk in Tourlemonde and she washed the blessings of the love-
spots off the jiminy with soap sulliver suddles and she had her
four owlers masters for to tauch him his tickles and she convor-
ted him to the onesure allgood and he became a luderman. So then
she started to rain and to rain and, be redtom, she was back again
at Jarl van Hoother's in a brace of samers and the jiminy with
her in her pinafrond, lace at night, at another time. And where
did she come but to the bar of his bristolry. And Jarl von Hoo-
ther had his baretholobruised heels drowned in his cellarmalt,
shaking warm hands with himself and the jimminy Hilary and

the dummy in their first infancy were below on the tearsheet,
wringing and coughing, like brodar and histher. And the prank-
quean nipped a paly one and lit up again and redcocks flew flack-
ering from the hillcombs. And she made her witter before the
wicked, saying: Mark the Twy, why do I am alook alike two poss
of porterpease? And: Shut! says the wicked, handwording her
madesty. So her madesty aforethought set down a jiminy and
took up a jiminy and all the lilipath ways to Woeman's Land she
rain, rain, rain. And Jarl von Hoother bleethered atter her with
a loud finegale: Stop domb stop come back with my earring stop.
But the prankquean swaradid: Am liking it. And there was a wild
old grannewwail that laurency night of starshootings somewhere
in Erio. And the prankquean went for her forty years' walk in
Turnlemeem and she punched the curses of cromcruwell with
the nail of a top into the jiminy and she had her four larksical
monitrix to touch him his tears and she provorted him to the
onecertain allsecure and he became a tristian. So then she started
raining, raining, and in a pair of changers, be dom ter, she was
back again at Jarl von Hoother's and the Larryhill with her under
her abromette. And why would she halt at all if not by the ward
of his mansionhome of another nice lace for the third charm?
And Jarl von Hoother had his hurricane hips up to his pantry-
box, ruminating in his holdfour stomachs (Dare! O dare!), and
the jiminy Toughertrees and the dummy were belove on the
watercloth, kissing and spitting, and roguing and poghuing, like
knavepaltry and naivebride and in their second infancy. And the
prankquean picked a blank and lit out and the valleys lay twink-
ling. And she made her wittest in front of the arkway of trihump,
asking: Mark the Tris, why do I am alook alike three poss of por-
ter pease? But that was how the skirtmishes endupped. For like
the campbells acoming with a fork lance of lightning, Jarl von
Hoother Boanerges himself, the old terror of the dames, came
hip hop handihap out through the pikeopened arkway of his
three shuttoned castles, in his broadginger hat and his civic chol-
lar and his allabuff hemmed and his bullbraggin soxangloves
and his ladbroke breeks and his cattegut bandolair and his fur-

framed panuncular cumbottes like a rudd yellan gruebleen or-
angeman in his violet indigonation, to the whole longth of the
strongth of his bowman's bill. And he clopped his rude hand to
his eacy hitch and he ordurd and his thick spch spck for her to
shut up shop, dappy. And the duppy shot the shutter clup (Per-
rumathunaradidillifaititillibumullunukkunun!) And they all drank
free. For one man in his armour was a fat match always for any
girls under shurts. And that was the first peace of illiterative
porthery in all the flamend floody flatuous world. How kirssy the
tiler made a sweet unclose to the Narwhealian captol. Saw fore
shalt thou sea. Betoun ye and be. The prankquean was to hold
her dummyship and the jimminies was to keep the peacewave
and van Hoother was to git the wind up. Thus the hearsomeness
of the burger felicitates the whole of the polis.
    O foenix culprit! Ex nickylow malo comes mickelmassed bo-
num. Hill, rill, ones in company, billeted, less be proud of. Breast
high and bestride! Only for that these will not breathe upon
Norronesen or Irenean the secrest of their soorcelossness. Quar-
ry silex, Homfrie Noanswa! Undy gentian festyknees, Livia No-
answa? Wolkencap is on him, frowned; audiurient, he would
evesdrip, were it mous at hand, were it dinn of bottles in the far
ear. Murk, his vales are darkling. With lipth she lithpeth to him
all to time of thuch on thuch and thow on thow. She he she ho
she ha to la. Hairfluke, if he could bad twig her! Impalpabunt,
he abhears. The soundwaves are his buffeteers; they trompe him
with their trompes; the wave of roary and the wave of hooshed
and the wave of hawhawhawrd and the wave of neverheedthem-
horseluggarsandlisteltomine. Landloughed by his neaghboormis-
tress and perpetrified in his offsprung, sabes and suckers, the
moaning pipers could tell him to his faceback, the louthly one
whose loab we are devorers of, how butt for his hold halibutt, or
her to her pudor puff, the lipalip one whose libe we drink at, how
biff for her tiddywink of a windfall, our breed and washer givers,
there would not be a holey spier on the town nor a vestal flout-
ing in the dock, nay to make plein avowels, nor a yew nor an eye

to play cash cash in Novo Nilbud by swamplight nor a' toole o'
tall o' toll and noddy hint to the convaynience.
    He dug in and dug out by the skill of his tilth for himself and
all belonging to him and he sweated his crew beneath his auspice
for the living and he urned his dread, that dragon volant, and he
made louse for us and delivered us to boll weevils amain, that
mighty liberator, Unfru-Chikda-Uru-Wukru and begad he did,
our ancestor most worshipful, till he thought of a better one in
his windower's house with that blushmantle upon him from ears-
end to earsend. And would again could whispring grassies wake
him and may again when the fiery bird disembers. And will
again if so be sooth by elder to his youngers shall be said. Have
you whines for my wedding, did you bring bride and bedding,
will you whoop for my deading is a? Wake? Usgueadbaugham!
    Anam muck an dhoul! Did ye drink me doornail?
    Now be aisy, good Mr Finnimore, sir. And take your laysure 
like a god on pension and don't be walking abroad. Sure you'd
only lose yourself in Healiopolis now the way your roads in
Kapelavaster are that winding there after the calvary, the North
Umbrian and the Fivs Barrow and Waddlings Raid and the
Bower Moore and wet your feet maybe with the foggy dew's
abroad. Meeting some sick old bankrupt or the Cottericks' donkey
with his shoe hanging, clankatachankata, or a slut snoring with an
impure infant on a bench. 'Twould turn you against life, so
'twould. And the weather's that mean too. To part from Devlin
is hard as Nugent knew, to leave the clean tanglesome one lushier
than its neighbour enfranchisable fields but let your ghost have
no grievance. You're better off, sir, where you are, primesigned
in the full of your dress, bloodeagle waistcoat and all, remember-
ing your shapes and sizes on the pillow of your babycurls under
your sycamore by the keld water where the Tory's clay will scare
the varmints and have all you want, pouch, gloves, flask, bricket,
kerchief, ring and amberulla, the whole treasure of the pyre, in the
land of souls with Homin and Broin Baroke and pole ole Lonan
and Nobucketnozzler and the Guinnghis Khan. And we'll be
coming here, the ombre players, to rake your gravel and bringing

you presents, won't we, fenians? And it isn't our spittle we'll stint
you of, is it, druids? Not shabbty little imagettes, pennydirts and
dodgemyeyes you buy in the soottee stores. But offerings of the
field. Mieliodories, that Doctor Faherty, the madison man,
taught to gooden you. Poppypap's a passport out. And honey is
the holiest thing ever was, hive, comb and earwax, the food for
glory, (mind you keep the pot or your nectar cup may yield too
light!) and some goat's milk, sir, like the maid used to bring you.
Your fame is spreading like Basilico's ointment since the Fintan
Lalors piped you overborder and there's whole households be-
yond the Bothnians and they calling names after you. The men-
here's always talking of you sitting around on the pig's cheeks
under the sacred rooftree, over the bowls of memory where every
hollow holds a hallow, with a pledge till the drengs, in the Salmon
House. And admiring to our supershillelagh where the palmsweat
on high is the mark of your manument. All the toethpicks ever
Eirenesians chewed on are chips chepped from that battery
block. If you were bowed and soild and letdown itself from the
oner of the load it was that paddyplanters might pack up plenty and
when you were undone in every point fore the laps of goddesses
you showed our labourlasses how to free was easy. The game old
Gunne, they do be saying, (skull!) that was a planter for you, a
spicer of them all. Begog but he was, the G.O.G! He's dudd-
andgunne now and we're apter finding the sores of his sedeq
but peace to his great limbs, the buddhoch, with the last league
long rest of him, while the millioncandled eye of Tuskar sweeps
the Moylean Main! There was never a warlord in Great Erinnes
and Brettland, no, nor in all Pike County like you, they say. No,
nor a king nor an ardking, bung king, sung king or hung king.
That you could fell an elmstree twelve urchins couldn't ring
round and hoist high the stone that Liam failed. Who but a Mac-
cullaghmore the reise of our fortunes and the faunayman at the
funeral to compass our cause? If you was hogglebully itself and
most frifty like you was taken waters still what all where was
your like to lay the cable or who was the batter could better
Your Grace? Mick Mac Magnus MacCawley can take you off to

the pure perfection and Leatherbags Reynolds tries your shuffle
and cut. But as Hopkins and Hopkins puts it, you were the pale
eggynaggy and a kis to tilly up. We calls him the journeyall
Buggaloffs since he went Jerusalemfaring in Arssia Manor. You
had a gamier cock than Pete, Jake or Martin and your archgoose
of geese stubbled for All Angels' Day. So may the priest of seven
worms and scalding tayboil, Papa Vestray, come never anear you
as your hair grows wheater beside the Liffey that's in Heaven!
Hep, hep, hurrah there! Hero! Seven times thereto we salute
you! The whole bag of kits, falconplumes and jackboots incloted,
is where you flung them that time. Your heart is in the system
of the Shewolf and your crested head is in the tropic of Copri-
capron. Your feet are in the cloister of Virgo. Your olala is in the
region of sahuls. And that's ashore as you were born. Your shuck
tick's swell. And that there texas is tow linen. The loamsome
roam to Laffayette is ended. Drop in your tracks, babe! Be not
unrested! The headboddylwatcher of the chempel of Isid,
Totumcalmum, saith: I know thee, metherjar, I know thee, sal-
vation boat. For we have performed upon thee, thou abrama-
nation, who comest ever without being invoked, whose coming
is unknown, all the things which the company of the precentors
and of the grammarians of Christpatrick's ordered concerning
thee in the matter of the work of thy tombing. Howe of the ship-
men, steep wall!
    Everything's going on the same or so it appeals to all of us,
in the old holmsted here. Coughings all over the sanctuary, bad
scrant to me aunt Florenza. The horn for breakfast, one o'gong
for lunch and dinnerchime. As popular as when Belly the First
was keng and his members met in the Diet of Man. The same
shop slop in the window. Jacob's lettercrackers and Dr Tipple's
Vi-Cocoa and the Eswuards' desippated soup beside Mother Sea-
gull's syrup. Meat took a drop when Reilly-Parsons failed. Coal's
short but we've plenty of bog in the yard. And barley's up again,
begrained to it. The lads is attending school nessans regular, sir,
spelling beesknees with hathatansy and turning out tables by
mudapplication. Allfor the books and never pegging smashers

after Tom Bowe Glassarse or Timmy the Tosser. 'Tisraely the
truth! No isn't it, roman pathoricks? You were the doublejoynted
janitor the morning they were delivered and you'll be a grandfer
yet entirely when the ritehand seizes what the lovearm knows.
Kevin's just a doat with his cherub cheek, chalking oghres on
walls, and his little lamp and schoolbelt and bag of knicks, playing
postman's knock round the diggings and if the seep were milk
you could lieve his olde by his ide but, laus sake, the devil does
be in that knirps of a Jerry sometimes, the tarandtan plaidboy,
making encostive inkum out of the last of his lavings and writing
a blue streak over his bourseday shirt. Hetty Jane's a child of
Mary. She'll be coming (for they're sure to choose her) in her
white of gold with a tourch of ivy to rekindle the flame on Felix
Day. But Essie Shanahan has let down her skirts. You remember
Essie in our Luna's Convent? They called her Holly Merry her
lips were so ruddyberry and Pia de Purebelle when the redminers
riots was on about her. Were I a clerk designate to the Williams-
woodsmenufactors I'd poster those pouters on every jamb in the
town. She's making her rep at Lanner's twicenightly. With the
tabarine tamtammers of the whirligigmagees. Beats that cachucha
flat. 'Twould dilate your heart to go.
    Aisy now, you decent man, with your knees and lie quiet and
repose your honour's lordship! Hold him here, Ezekiel Irons, and
may God strengthen you! It's our warm spirits, boys, he's spoor-
ing. Dimitrius O'Flagonan, cork that cure for the Clancartys! You
swamped enough since Portobello to float the Pomeroy. Fetch
neahere, Pat Koy! And fetch nouyou, Pam Yates! Be nayther
angst of Wramawitch! Here's lumbos. Where misties swaddlum,
where misches lodge none, where mystries pour kind on, O
sleepy! So be yet!
    I've an eye on queer Behan and old Kate and the butter, trust me.
She'll do no jugglywuggly with her war souvenir postcards to
help to build me murial, tippers! I'll trip your traps! Assure a
sure there! And we put on your clock again, sir, for you. Did or
didn't we, sharestutterers? So you won't be up a stump entirely.
Nor shed your remnants. The sternwheel's crawling strong. I

seen your missus in the hall. Like the queenoveire. Arrah, it's
herself that's fine, too, don't be talking! Shirksends? You storyan
Harry chap longa me Harry chap storyan grass woman plelthy
good trout. Shakeshands. Dibble a hayfork's wrong with her only
her lex's salig. Boald Tib does be yawning and smirking cat's
hours on the Pollockses' woolly round tabouretcushion watch-
ing her sewing a dream together, the tailor's daughter, stitch to
her last. Or while waiting for winter to fire the enchantement,
decoying more nesters to fall down the flue. It's allavalonche that
blows nopussy food. If you only were there to explain the mean-
ing, best of men, and talk to her nice of guldenselver. The lips
would moisten once again. As when you drove with her to Fin-
drinny Fair. What with reins here and ribbons there all your
hands were employed so she never knew was she on land or at
sea or swooped through the blue like Airwinger's bride. She
was flirtsome then and she's fluttersome yet. She can second a
song and adores a scandal when the last post's gone by. Fond of
a concertina and pairs passing when she's had her forty winks
for supper after kanekannan and abbely dimpling and is in her
merlin chair assotted, reading her Evening World. To see is
it smarts, full lengths or swaggers. News, news, all the news.
Death, a leopard, kills fellah in Fez. Angry scenes at Stormount.
Stilla Star with her lucky in goingaways. Opportunity fair with
the China floods and we hear these rosy rumours. Ding Tams he
noise about all same Harry chap. She's seeking her way, a chickle
a chuckle, in and out of their serial story, Les Loves of Selskar
et Pervenche, freely adapted to The Novvergin's Viv. There'll
be bluebells blowing in salty sepulchres the night she signs her
final tear. Zee End. But that's a world of ways away. Till track
laws time. No silver ash or switches for that one! While flattering
candles flare. Anna Stacey's how are you! Worther waist in the
noblest, says Adams and Sons, the wouldpay actionneers. Her
hair's as brown as ever it was. And wivvy and wavy. Repose you
now! Finn no more!
    For, be that samesake sibsubstitute of a hooky salmon, there's
already a big rody ram lad at random on the premises of his

haunt of the hungred bordles, as it is told me. Shop Illicit,
flourishing like a lordmajor or a buaboabaybohm, litting flop
a deadlop (aloose!) to lee but lifting a bennbranch a yardalong
(Ivoeh!) the breezy side (for showm!), the height of Brew-
ster's chimpney and as broad below as Phineas Barnum; humph-
ing his share of the showthers is senken on him he's such a
grandfallar, with a pocked wife in pickle that's a flyfire and three
lice nittle clinkers, two twilling bugs and one midgit pucelle.
And aither he cursed and recursed and was everseen doing what
your fourfootlers saw or he was never done seeing what you cool-
pigeons know, weep the clouds aboon for smiledown witnesses,
and that'll do now about the fairyhees and the frailyshees.
Though Eset fibble it to the zephiroth and Artsa zoom it round
her heavens for ever. Creator he has created for his creatured
ones a creation. White monothoid? Red theatrocrat? And all the
pinkprophets cohalething? Very much so! But however 'twas
'tis sure for one thing, what sherif Toragh voucherfors and
Mapqiq makes put out, that the man, Humme the Cheapner,
Esc, overseen as we thought him, yet a worthy of the naym,
came at this timecoloured place where we live in our paroqial
fermament one tide on another, with a bumrush in a hull of a
wherry, the twin turbane dhow, The Bey for Dybbling, this
archipelago's first visiting schooner, with a wicklowpattern
waxenwench at her prow for a figurehead, the deadsea dugong
updipdripping from his depths, and has been repreaching him-
self like a fishmummer these siktyten years ever since, his shebi
by his shide, adi and aid, growing hoarish under his turban and
changing cane sugar into sethulose starch (Tuttut's cess to him!)
as also that, batin the bulkihood he bloats about when innebbi-
ated, our old offender was humile, commune and ensectuous
from his nature, which you may gauge after the bynames was
put under him, in lashons of languages, (honnein suit and
praisers be!) and, totalisating him, even hamissim of himashim
that he, sober serious, he is ee and no counter he who will be
ultimendly respunchable for the hubbub caused in Eden-




riverrun - the course which a river shapes and follows through the landscape + The Letter: Reverend (letter start) + (Egyptian hieroglyphic) = 'rn' or 'ren' - name + Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan: "In Xanadu did Kubla Khan / A stately pleasure-dome decree: / Where Alph, the sacred river, ran / Through caverns measureless to man / Down to a sunless sea." (poem was composed one night after Coleridge experienced an opium influenced dream. Upon waking, he set about writing lines of poetry that came to him from the dream until he was interrupted. The poem could not be completed according to its original 200–300 line plan as the interruption caused him to forget the lines: "though he still retained some vague and dim recollection of the general purport of the vision, yet, with the exception of some eight or ten scattered lines and images, all the rest had passed away like the images on the surface of a stream into which a stone had been cast, but, alas! without the after restoration of the latter").

'Church of the Immaculate Conception', also known as Adam and Eve's, is located on Merchants Quay, Dublin (Franciscans secretly said Mass in the Adam and Eve Tavern, where the popular name of the present church comes from) + "Old as they were, her aunts also did their share. Julia, though she was quite grey, was still the leading soprano in Adam and Eve's, and Kate, being too feeble to go about much, gave music lessons to beginners on the old square piano in the back room." (The Dead); Miss Kate and Miss Julia, based on Joyce's grand aunts, the Misses Flynn who, as their great-nephew put it, 'trilled and warbled in a Dublin church up to the age of seventy'. This was the ancient Franciscan church on the south quays popularly known as Adam and Eve's (from Biography by Peter Costello).  


swerve - an abrupt change of direction, an erratic deflection from an intended course


bend - curve 


bay - a body of water partially enclosed by land but with a wide mouth, affording access to the sea + Dublin Bay.


commodious - roomy and comfortable + Commodus - Roman Emperor from 180 to 192. The son of Marcus Aurelius, he is often considered to have been one of the worst Roman Emperors, and his reign brought to a close the era of the 'five good emperors'. He had a twin brother, Antoninus, who died when he was about four years old, and a sister Lucilla who was implicated in plots to overthrow him.


vicus (l) - village, hamlet; row of houses, quarter of a city + Giambattista Vico + vicious circle - situation in which a cause produces a result that itself produces the original cause → "The world of objects and solidity is a way of making our passage on earth convenient. It is only a description that was created to help us. Each of us, or rather our reason, forgets that the description is only a description, and thus we entrap the totality of ourselves in a vicious circle from which we rarely emerge in our lifetime." (Carlos Castaneda: Tales of Power)


recirculation - a renewed or fresh circulation


Howth - promontory and peninsula on the northern side of Dublin bay


environs - surroundings, outskirts + FDV (First Draft Version): brings us to Howth Castle & Environs!


Wsir (Osiris): - first sign, 'throne', usually used for writing the consonant st, mainly in the word 'place', is the sound ws. The 'eye', above, is the sound ir. Third sign denotes 'god' and is not pronounced. Legend of Wsir with its members scattered all over the Egypt (and first page of FW) is alegory of dismembered totality of the self. For instance, Pharaohs of the first Egyptian dynasties, who were initiated in that mystery, were capable of being at two places in the same 'time'; could it be that Menes and Hor-Aha (I dynasty) were the two bodies of the same king? In that context, diorite statue of Khafre (IV dynasty) is statue of king with 'two faces' and not, as popularly accepted, depiction of 'God Horus who protects the king'.


Tristram - Tristan of Lyonnesse, hero of medieval romance, nephew of Mark of Cornwall, lover of Isolde of Ireland + Sir Tristrem - metrical romance by Thomas the Rhymer from 13. c. + Howth Castle is the ancestral home of the St Lawrence family founded by Sir Amory Tristram, one of Ireland's Norman conquerors [Joyce: 'Sir Amory Tristram 1st earl of Howth changed his name to Saint Lawrence, in Brittany (North Armorica)'] + REFERENCE.

violer - a player of the viol, in early use esp. one attached to the household of the king, a noble, etc. + viola d'amore - a sweet-toned tenor viol (Italian, literally 'viol of love') + 'viola in all moods and senses' (Joyce's letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver).

d'amore (it) - of love + d'amores (Portuguese) - of loves + FDV (First Draft Version): Sir Tristram, viola d'amores, had not encore arrived passencore rearrived on a merry isthmus from North Armorica to wielder fight his peninsular war, nor stones sham rocks by the Oconee exaggerated theirselves in exaggerated themselse to Laurens county, Ga, doubling all the time, nor a voice redffire from afire answered bellowsed mishe mishe chishe to tufftuff thouartpatrick thouartpeatrick

A long sea implies an uniform and steady motion of long and extensive waves; on the contrary, a short sea is when they run irregularly, broken, and interrupted, so as frequently to burst over a vessel's side or quarter.

pas encore (fr) - not yet + 'passencore = pas encore and ricorsi storici of Vico' (Joyce's letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver) + The Slavic antithesis is a stylistic device used in Serbian epic poetry: "Oh, dear God! A great Wonder! / Is it thunder, is it the earth quaking? / Is it the sea which clashes 'gainst the coastland? / is it the vilas fighting over Popine? / It isn't thunder, nor is the ground shaking, / nor is the sea clashing against the coast, / nor are the vilas fighting over Popine; / It is the cannons, fired at Zadar."

rearrive - to arrive again + FDV (First Draft Version): had not encore arrived passencore rearrived

Armorica - name of the north-western part of Gaul, now called Bretagne or Brittany + North America.

scraggy - rough, irregular or broken in outline or contour + scrag (Slang) - neck + FDV: on a merry isthmus

isthmus - a narrow portion of land, enclosed on each side by water, and connecting two larger bodies of land; a neck of land + isthmos (gr) - neck + 'Isthmus of Sutton a peck of land between Howth head and the plain' (Joyce's letter to HSW) + happy christmas.

minor - small

wielder - a ruler, governer; one who uses or acts skilfully + wieder (ger) - again + 'wielderfight = wiederfechten = refight' (Joyce's letter to HSW).

Arthur Wellesley (of Dublin) fought in the Peninsular war & Tristan et Iseult, passim (Joyce's letter to HSW) + Peninsular War - military conflict between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. In August 1808, British forces landed in Portugal under the command of Lieutenant-General Sir Arthur Wellesley, the future Duke of Wellington + penis + isolate + FDV: to wielder fight his peninsular war

top sawyer - a worker at a sawpit who stands above the timber; one who holds a superior position, a first-rate hand at something + Topsawyer's Rock - a rock formation on the Oconee river in Georgia, United States + Joyce's note, Scribbledehobble, Circe section: 'Peter Sawyer' + Tom Soyer

rocks (Slang) - testicles + FDV: nor stones sham rocks by the Oconee exaggerated theirselves in exaggerated themselse to Laurens county, Ga, doubling all the time,

Oconee - river in Georgia. The city of Dublin in Laurens County, Georgia, USA, was built on the banks of Oconee because the Middle Georgia piedmont reminded Irish settlers of terrain in their native country + ochone - exclamation of regret or grief.

exaggerate - to heap up + 'exaggerare = to mound up' (Joyce's letter to HSW).

themselves + 'themselse = another Dublin 5000 inhabitants' (Joyce's letter to HSW).

gorgio - designation given by gipsies to one who is not a gipsy (from Gipsy gorgio: a Gentile, a person who is not a Gypsy, one who lives in a house and not in a tent) + (notebook 1922-23): 'gorgios (Gentiles)' → Daily Mail 28 Dec 1922, 6/5: 'Gipsies in Winter': 'gipsies of the true caste complained that the "giorgios" or "Gentiles" persisted in classing all kinds of tramps and beggars of the high road as "gipsies".' + Giorgio Joyce (1905-1976) - James Joyce's son + gorge (French) - throat + REFERENCE

Dublin (Geo) (Joyce's note, Scribbledehobble, Circe) → Dublin, Georgia - town, Laurens County, Georgia, US, on Oconee River. Joyce explained to HSW that it was founded by a Dubliner named Peter Sawyer (actually it was Jonathan Sawyer), and that its motto was "Doubling all the time" + "As you know, Carlitos," don Genaro said with the air of an orator warming up, "the double begins in dreaming." He gave me a long look and smiled. His eyes swept from my face to my notebook and pencil. "The double is a dream," he said, scratched his arms and then stood up. (Carlos Castaneda: Tales of Power)  


mumper - beggar, a begging impositor; halfbred gipsy (slang) + (notebook 1922-23): 'mumper roadfolk who shelter' → Daily Mail 28 Dec 1922, 6/5: 'Gipsies in Winter': 'the Romanichal, the true-bred gipsy, scorns the "mumpers" or road-folk who seek cover at night under house-roof' + number + Dublin: The Emerald City by Scott Thompson p. 7: "During the first decade of the 20th century, Dublin was the third fastest growing city in Georgia. Dublin grew so fast that boosters named it "The only town in Georgia, that's doublin all the time."


afire - flaming, on fire + a voice from afar.


bellows - to blow (with bellows) + bellow - to call, yell + 'bellowed = the response of the peatfire of faith to the windy words of the apostle' (Joyce's letter to HSW) + Joyce's note, Penelope: 'with bellows blows ashes in fire' + FDV: nor a voice redffire from afire answered bellowsed mishe mishe chishe to tufftuff thouartpatrick thouartpeatrick.

Mishe = I am (Irish) i.e. Christian (Joyce's letter to HSW) + mische (ger) - mix + Moshe (Hebrew) - Moses + Exodus 3:2: 'the bush burned with fire... God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I.'


mish, mi¹ (Serbian, Russian) - mouse + Maurice [mouse] Behan [Bear, Typhon], man servant, slaying a dragon ("Over mantelpiece picture of Michael, lance, slaying Satan, dragon with smoke") + Typhon is Black Dragon [Black Snake], constellation of Great Bear; Draco is Red Dragon [Red Snake], constellation of Orion.

Tauf = baptize (German) (Joyce's letter to HSW) + Butt/Taff (Muladhara/Sahasrara) + Paul + "mishe mishe to tauftauf" is reminiscent of a walky-talky message, in which the operator identifies himself as well as the receiever so as to clarify the intention of a transmission in a crowded channel; it as though Issy and HCE are communicating with one another via the chimney flue.


In Greek petros, "Peter", is a masculine form of petra, which means "rock"; Jesus says: "Thou art Peter (petros), and upon this rock (petra) I will build my church → 'Thou art Peter and upon this rock etc (a pun in the original Aramaic)' & 'Lat: Tu es Petrus et super hane petram' (Joyce's letter to HSW) + "There's the tenant," he said as casually as if he had just spotted an old friend. (Carlos Castaneda: The Art Of Dreaming) → WOMAN IN THE CHURCH

venison - any beast of chase or other wild animal killed by hunting + very soon + 'The venison purveyor Jacob got the blessing meant for Esau' (Joyce's letter to HSW).

scad - a dollar + cad + cadet - younger son (as Jacob was) + kidskin (which Jacob used to disguise himself) + FDV: Not yet though venisoon after had a kidson kidscadet buttended an a bland old isaac not yet & all's fair in vanessy, had twin were sosie sesthers played siege to wroth with twone Jonathan jonathan.

buttend - to use the butt end (e.g. of a gun) + butt (Colloquial) - buttock + Butt/Taff + 'Parnell ousted Isaac Butt from leadership' (Joyce's letter to HSW).

bland - suave, dull, uninteresting + blind

Isaac - Isaac ben Abraham (known as Isaac the blind) + Joyce's note, Scribbledehobble, Circe: 'Isaac Butt' + Isaac Bickerstaff - pseudonym used by Jonathan Swift + REFERENCE


Thackery: Vanity Fair + all is fair in love and war (proverb) + Ecclesiastes 1.2: "Vanity of vanities, says the Preacher, all is vanity" + Vanessa - Jonathan Swift's name for Hester Vanhomrigh, one of his two mistresses + FDV: not yet & all's fair in vanessy,


sosie - double, twin esp. an identical twin + Joyce's note, Scribbledehobble, Circe section: 'Sosie Sizters' + saucy sisters + 'Sosie = double' (Joyce's letter to HSW) + FDV: had twin were sosie sesthers played siege to wroth with twone Jonathan jonathan.


sisters + Esther Van Homrigh (Vanessa) was the daughter of Bartholomew Van Homrigh (former Lord Mayor of Dublin), who had a love affair with Jonathan Swift and, when she found that 'The Reverend' was also playing with Esther Johnson (Stella), wrote to the latter to try to put her away from Swift who, in reaction, left Vanessa + 'Miss Vanhomrigh and Miss Johnson had the same christian name' (Joyce's letter to HSW).


wroth - to manifest anger, to become angry + "And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell." (Genesis 4:6) + Roth, Samuel - piratically published some of "Work in Progress" in Two Worlds (New York, 1925-26), and in 1926-27 published more than half of Ulysses


twenty nine (a number associated with Issy, the 'leap-year girl') + Joyce's note, Scribbledehobble, Circe: 'Swift, Isaac' → a two-in-one Jonathan Swift, "nathandjoe," and his amours with two girls, Esther Johnson (Stella) and Esther Van Homrigh (Vanessa) + nat (Dutch) - wet + FDV: played siege to wroth with twone Jonathan jonathan.


rot - to decompose + rota (l) - wheel + FDV: Not Rot a peck of pa's malt had Shem and Son Hem or Sen Jhem or Sen brewed by arclight & bad luck worse end bloody end rory end to the regginbrew regginbrow was to be seen on ringsun ringsome the waterface.   


peck - a liquid measure of two gallons; a considerable quantity or number, a 'quantity'


shen (Hebrew) - tooth + that Jim and John + that Shem and Shaun + FDV: had Shem and Son Hem or Sen Jhem or Sen brewed by arclight 


malt - barley or other grain prepared for brewing or distilling


brew - to concoct, to convert (barley, malt, or other substance) into a fermented liquor


arclight = arclamp - a lamp in which the light is produced by an electric arc.


rory - dewy, gaudy in colour; Joyce glosses the word (Letters, I, 248) thus: "rory = Irish = red"/ "rory = Latin, roridus = dewy"/ "At the rainbow's end are dew and the colour red: bloody end to the lie in Anglo-Irish = no lie." + FDV: & bad luck worse end bloody end rory end to the regginbrew regginbrow


regina (l) - a queen + Regen (ger) - rain + Joyce's note, Scribbledehobble, Circe: 'Guiness (Noah), rainbow' + Regenbogen (ger) - rainbow → 'regginbrow = German regenbogen + rainbow; At the rainbow's end are dew and the colour red: bloody end to the lie in Anglo-Irish = no lie; When all vegetation is covered by the flood there are no eyebrows on the face of the Waterworld' (Joyce's letter to HSW).

ringsum (ger) - all around + 'ringsome = German ringsum, around' (Joyce's letter to HSW) + FDV: regginbrew regginbrow was to be seen on ringsun ringsome the waterface.

aqua (l) - water + Genesis 1:2: 'And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters' + (Osiris' body was torn up into fourteen parts) + Genesis 9:12-17: "And God said, This [is] the token of the covenant which I make between me and you and every living creature that [is] with you, for perpetual generations: I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covenant between me and the earth. And it shall come to pass, when I bring a cloud over the earth, that the bow shall be seen in the cloud. And I will remember my covenant, which [is] between me and you and every living creature of all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh. And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that [is] upon the earth. And God said unto Noah, This [is] the token of the covenant, which I have established between me and all flesh that [is] upon the earth."

FDV: The story tale of the fall is retailed early in bed and later in life throughout most christian minstrelsy. The great fall of the wall at once entailed at such short notice the fall of Finnigan, the solid man and that the humpty hill hillhead himself promptly prumptly sends an inquiring unquiring one well to the west in quest of his tumptytumtoes.

gaireachtach (garokhtokh) (gael) - boisterous + gargarahat, karak (Hindustani) - thunder + Joyce's note, Scribbledehobble, Circe: 'clap, Finnegan'.

"Joyce asked me 'Aren't there 4 terrible things in Japan, "Kaminari" being one of them?' I counted for him: 'Jishin (earthquake), kaminari (thunder), kaji (fire), oyaji (paternity).' & he laughed." (Takaoki Katta, "15 juillet, 1926.")

ukkonen (Finnish) - thunder

brontę (gr) - thunder

Donner (ger) = tonnerre (French) - thunder

tuono (Italian) - thunder

thunner (Dialect) - thunder

trovăo (Portuguese) - thunder

Varuna - Hindu creator and storm god 

åska (Swedish) - thunder.

torden (Danish) - thunder

tornach (tornokh) (gael) - thunder

Wallstreet - New York stock exchange (Wall Street Crash of 1929, but this sentence already appears in Transition #1, published in 1927) + strait - difficulty, crisis.

Parr, Thomas, "Old Parr" (1483-1635), lived in the reigns of ten princes, got a girl with child when over a hundred + parr - a young salmon before it becomes a smolt.

retell - to tell again + re- - 'again, 'anew' + tale - to discourse, talk, gossip.

minstrelsy - the singing and playing of a minstrel + Christy Minstrels - black face troop which came from America to London in 1857. Moore and Burgess were their rivals. 

oeuf (French) - egg → (eggshell is being broken, as Anna Livia makes breakfast for Earwicker, which is sequel of Ulysses where Bloom demanded breakfast in bad from Molly at the end of the novel. Earwicker, who is waking, identifies himself with egg, experiences fall, and instead of triumph, that act ends with disaster. Anna Livia and Earwicker will solve this conundrum only in sequel of FW, after the 'the' at the end; that sequel is scattered all over FW as parts of broken shell which finished in midden heap, itself a FW, where they are to be found by hen Biddy) + 'Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall, Humpty Dumpty had a great fall' + FDV: The great fall of the wall

entail - to bring on by way of necessary consequence

at short notice - with little time for action or preparation

pfui - an exclamation of contempt or disgust + chute (fr) - fall + "that fatal midden or chip factory or comicalbottomed copsjute (dump for short) afterwards changed into the orangery when in the course of deeper demolition unexpectedly one bushman's holiday its limon threw up a few spontaneous fragments of orangepeel," [110.25-29] + FDV: at once entailed at such short notice the fall of Finnigan,

Tim Finnegan - the Dublin hod-carrier who fell drunk from his ladder and apparently died in the popular Irish-American street ballad from the 1850s Finnegan's Wake. At his wake, a bottle of whiskey broke on his coffin and he "came back to life". Much of the text of the ballad is echoed in the first chapter of FW.

Erse - Irish + Erseman - a man who is Erse by birth or descent + else.

solid - acting together as a single undiversified whole; having high moral qualities; entirely of a single color throughout

humpty - humped, hump-backed + Humpty Dumpty - A short, dumpy, hump-shouldered person. In the well-known nursery rime or riddle commonly explained as signifying an egg (in reference to its shape); thence allusively used of persons or things which when once overthrown or shattered cannot be restored. (In the nursery rime or riddle there are numerous variations of the last two lines, e.g. 'Not all the king's horses and all the king's men Could [can] set [put] Humpty Dumpty up again [in his place again, together again]'.)

promptly + "...bed is almost entirely obscure to the formerly solid ("erst solid"), once upright ("once wallstrait") Irishman ("erse... man") who is laid to rest in it ("laid to rust") and who, no longer either solid or upright, seems to have sustained very serious fall ("The Fall," "the great fall," "the pftjschute [Fr. chute, "fall"]). Perhaps only a minute ago our rubbled hero could have identified his head and feet with as much proud precision as any wakeful rationalist, and in several languages too. Now he hasn't vaguest awareness of their location, of their relation either to each other or to himself, or quite fully of their existence; the paragraph resolves as a muddily blurred "humptyhihllhead" sends sensory inquiries outward in space in quest of the toes to which it is presumably attached." (John Bishop: Joyce's Book of the Dark).

inquiring - that inquires, inquisitive + FDV: the solid man and that the humpty hill hillhead himself promptly prumptly sends an inquiring unquiring one well to the west in quest of his tumptytumtoes.

quest - search + Dr. Heinrich Schliemann: 'I found in the Museum at St. Petersburg one of the oldest papyrus rolls in existence. It was written in the reign of Pharaoh Sent [Pharaoh Sendji (Sened) name appears in the Abydos kings list, the Saqqara Kings List, the Turin list], of the Second Dynasty, or 4,571 years B. C. It contains a description of how the Pharaoh sent out an expedition 'to the West' in search of traces of the 'Land of Atlantis,' whence '3,350 years ago the ancestors of the Egyptians arrived carrying with themselves all the wisdoms of their native lands.' The expedition returned after five years with the report that they had found neither people nor objects which could give them a clue as to the vanished land.'

Khenti-Amentiu means 'Foremost of the Westerners' or 'Chief or the Westerners', where 'Westerners' refers to the dead. As early as the Old Kingdom, Khenti-Amentiu is associated with Wesir (Osiris).

turnpike - a barrier placed across a road to stop passage till the toll is paid + turn up one's toes - to die + pike - medieval weapon consisting of a spearhead attached to a long pole or pikestaff + TURNPIKE - The Dublin turnpike system was introduced in the reign of George II. An 1821 map shows 10 Dublin turnpikes, almost all located on the North Circular Road and South Cicrcular Road at the crossing of main roads. The turnpike in Chapelizod was just East of the Phoenix Tavern (where the Mullingar House now stands) at the curve of the Dublin road to the bridge. It is described on the 1st page of Le Fanu's House by the Churchyard. The Dublin-Mullingar road was a turnpike road until 1853. 

palac (Serbian) - toe + HCE's five toes: up, turn, pike, point, place + FDV: Two facts have come down to us Their resting The upturnpikepoint for place is at the knock out in the park where there have always been oranges on laid on the green always & ever ever & evermore since the Devlin Devlins first loved liffey livy.

cnoc (knuk) (gael) - hill + Castleknock, in a cemetery west of Phoenix Park. Castleknock Hill and Windmill Hill (now Mount Hybla) are identified with Finn MacCool's (and HCE's) two feet + knock out - a knock-out blow.

rust - decompose + lay to rest - to put in the last resting-place, to bury + rust (Dutch) - rest + FDV: where there have always been oranges on laid on the green always & ever ever & evermore since the Devlin Devlins first loved liffey livy.

Liffey - river which flows through the centre of Dublin + ALP.

FDV: What clashes of wills & wits were not here & there abouts! What chance cuddleys, what castles aired & ventilated, what biddymetolives sinduced by what egosetabsolvers tegotetabsolvers, what true feeling for hay hair with false voice of haycup jiccup, what rorycrucians rosycrucians byelected by rival contested of simily emilies! But And O here how has sprawled upon the dust the father of fornications fornicationers fornicationists but O, my shining stars & body, how has finespanned in high heaven the skysign of soft advertisement. Was Wasis? Isot! Ere we were sure? The oaks of old maythey rest rust in peat. Elms leap where ashes lay. Till nevernever may our pharce be phoenished!

gen (gegen) (ger) - against + will against won't.

Ostrogoth - an East Goth; a name given to the division of the Teutonic race of the Goths which towards the end of the 5th c. conquered Italy, and in 493, under Theodoric, established a kingdom which continued till 555.

gag - to strangle, choke + In Egyptian mythology, the Ogdoad were eight deities worshipped in Khmun (Greek: Hermopolis) during what is called the Old Kingdom, the third through sixth dynasties, dated between 2686 to 2134 BC. The eight deities were arranged in four female-male pairs, the females were associated with snakes and the males were associated with frogs: Naunet and Nu, Amaunet and Amun, Kauket and Kuk, Hauhet and Huh. Apart from their gender, there was little to distinguish the female goddess from the male god in a pair; indeed, the names of the females are merely the female forms of the male name and vice versa. Essentially, each pair represents the female and male aspect of one of four concepts, namely the primordial waters (Naunet and Nu), air or invisibility (Amunet and Amun), darkness (Kauket and Kuk), and eternity or infinite space (Hauhet and Huh). Together the four concepts represent the primal, fundamental state of the beginning, they are what always was. In the myth, however, their interaction ultimately proved to be unbalanced, resulting in the arising of a new entity. When the entity opened, it revealed Ra, the fiery sun, inside. After a long interval of rest, Ra, together with the other deities, created all other things.

Visigoth - a West-Goth; A member of that branch of the Gothic race which entered Roman territory towards the end of the fourth century and subsequently established a kingdom in Spain, overthrown by the Moors in 711 + At the battle of Catalaunian Fields, A.D. 451, Attila and the Ostrogoths were beaten by Aetius and the Visigoths.

The God Dionysus, patron of the Drama, is dissatisfied with the condition of the Art of Tragedy at Athens, and resolves to descend to Hades in order to bring back again to earth one of the old tragedians--Euripides, he thinks. Dressing himself up, lion's skin and club complete, as Heracles, who has performed the same perilous journey before, and accompanied by his slave Xanthias (a sort of classical Sancho Panza) with the baggage, he starts on the fearful expedition. Coming to the shores of Acheron, he is ferried over in Charon's boat--Xanthias has to walk round--the First Chorus of Marsh Frogs (from which the play takes its title) greeting him with prolonged croakings. Their chant —Brekekekéx-koáx-koáx (Greek: Βρεκεκεκέξ κοάξ κοάξ)— is constantly repeated, and Dionysus chants with them until he gets bored. A second chorus composed of spirits of Dionysian Mystics soon appear. (synopsis of Aristophanes' The Frogs)

ulalu - a wailing cry, a lamentation (from Irish: uileliúgh)

Badelaire - a type of sword with one back and one edge large and curving towards the tip like the scimitar of the Turks (Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais) + Baudelaire - French poet. 

partisan - supporter, adherent + Partisane or pertuisane, a strong pike with a straight iron head and two edges (Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais).

math - mathematics + mathê (gr) - learning, education + master - to get the better of, in any contest or struggle; to overcome or defeat + Master McGrath (1866-1871) - a famous greyhound in the sport of hare coursing.

Joyce's Rabelais list contains 'malchus' (a curved sword similar to a cutlass), 'migraine' (a fire grenade, from Provençal migrano: pomegranate (fruit)), 'verdun' (a long and narrow sword, properly sword of Verdun, a town ever renowned for its manufacturing of steel blades) + The Life of Gargantua and Pantagruel by Franqois Rabelais is an
esoteric work, a novel in cant. The good cure of Meudon reveals himself in it as a great initiate, as well as a first-class cabalist (Fulcanelli).

micragne (Italian Colloquial) - penuries, poverties + Malachi Mulligan.

Verdun - a city in northeast France, once the centre of a Europe-wide thriving trade selling young boys to be enslaved eunuchs to the Islamic emirates of Iberia. Battle of Verdun was the longest and second bloodiest battle of World War I, fought in 1916 between the French and the Germans.

catapelt = catapult - to hurl as from a catapult, to discharge a catapult [Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.91: 'catapulte' (French 'catapult')].

Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.90: 'Camisade... "An attack on the enemy before dawn, or at another time during the night, by armed men dressed in white shirts or similar covering to recognise themselves"' + Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.91: 'Baliste' (French 'Ballista') + cannibalism.

white boy - a favored person, pet; agrarian association formed in 1761. in Ireland (against collection of tithes by landlords) + white boys in hoods (Ku Klux Klan).

hoddie - a hooded gull + Hode (ger) - testicle + Howth Head + REFERENCE


assieger (fr) - to besiege + Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.71: 'Aze gaye, zagaie... nom de lance' (French 'Aze gaye, zagaie... a name of a spear'); referring to the assegai, an African spear.


boomerang storms + boom (Dutch) = strom (Czech) - tree + Strom (ger) - stream, current.


sod - Ireland; one who practices or commits sodomy


brood - offspring


fear, fir (Irish) - man, men + by my fear.


Saint Lawrence [003.04] + sang (French) - blood + sans gloire (French) - without glory.


salve (l) - hail + ave (l) - hail.

appeal - to call one to defend himself (as by wager of battle); to challenge


larm - alarm + Larm (ger) - noise + larme (French) - tear.


appalling - frightful, horrifying


kill (Anglo-Irish) - church + kill.


toll - payment, tax, duty + toll (ger) - mad + at all, at all (Anglo-Irish phrase) - "taken together," "collectively," "altogether" + (bells pealing).


chance - that occurs or is by chance; happening to be such; casual, incidental + chance-medley (Legalese) - manslaughter by misadventure. 

cuddle - fondle + cudgel - a short thick stick used as a weapon; a club.


cashel - the ancient circular wall found in Scotland and Ireland enclosing group of ecclesiastical buildings; stone fort or building + ka¹alj (Serbian) = kashyel (Russian) - cough + FDV: What chance cuddleys, what castles aired & ventilated,


air - to expose to the open or fresh air, so as to remove foul or damp air; to ventilate + castles in the air (phrase).


ventilate - to shoot (someone or something) with a gun, usu. to kill. Also of a bullet: to make a hole in (something) + (evacuated).


bid-me-to-live (Joyce's note, Scribbledehobble, Circe) → from Herrick's poem "Bid me to live, and I will live / Thy Protestant to be; / Or bid me love, and I will give / A loving heart to thee." (quoted Ulysses, 645) The FW sentence is about Protestants sinfully seduced by Catholics, who believe in absolution + bi- (l) = di- (gr) - two- (*IJ*) + Biddy Doran - the Earwickers' hen + It is the fight between Biddy O'Brien and Maggy O'Connor that sets off the riot at Tim Finnegan's wake, during which a splash of whisky revives his dead body.


seduced - enticed into sexual activity + induced to sin.


ego te absolve (Joyce's note, Scribbledehobble, Circe section) → ego te absolvo (l): "I absolve you" (from the confessional rite of the Catholic Church) hence, Tegogetabsolvers = Catholics (contrasted with bidimetoloves, or Protestants) + FDV (First draft version): what biddymetolives sinduced by what egosetabsolvers tegotetabsolvers, + three t's (*VYC*).

there's hair (Joyce's note, Circe) → there's hair! - there's a girl with a lot of hair! (catch-phrase of the early 20th century) + "so sure as thair's a tail on a commet," [177.25-26] → there's hair = commet tail (destruction of Atlantis).

strong + hay, straw + FDV: what true feeling for hay hair with false voice & of haycup jiccup, what rorycrucians rosycrucians byelected by rival contested of simily emilies!

hiccup + Jacob + Genesis 27:22: 'And Jacob went near unto Isaac his father; and he felt him, and said, The voice is Jacob's voice, but the hands are the hands of Esau' (Esau's hairy arms and Jacob's voice).

sprowl = sprawl - recline, lounge + O hear, hear how hath Howth prowled (sprawled).

met (Dutch) - with + mid - amid + FDV: But And O here how has sprawled upon the dust the father of fornications fornicationers fornicationists

dusk + dust.

fornication - sin, adultery + Vignette (blurred by the the at the end of FW): Nut, the goddess of the night sky, and her brother Geb, the god of the earth, were originally thought to be in a constant state of love making. Ra (Atum, in fact) grew angry with his grandchildren, and commanded their father Shu to separate the two lovers. The god of the air took his place, and trampled on the ithyphallic Geb, and lifted Nut high into the air. Nut was found to be pregnant, and was then cursed by Ra - she would never be able to bear her children on any month of the 360 day year. Thoth managed to win a game against Khonsu, god of the moon, and used some of the light of the moon to create five extra days (making the year 365 days). During those days Nut gave birth to her five children - Isis, Osiris, Nephthys, Set and Horus the Elder (not to be confused with Horus, the child of Isis and Osiris).

hath - arhaic present 3d. sing of have + FDV: but O, my shining stars & body, how has finespanned in high heaven the skysign of soft advertisement.

finespun - elaborated to flimsiness, excessively subtle or refined + fane - a flag, banner; a temple + span - spread + Isaiah 48:13: 'my right hand hath spanned the heavens'.

skysign - electric display sign on top of a building + Joyce's notes, Scribbledehobble, Exiles section: 'say it in gems / Is loves sky signs of buildings in TMH street / jewels in teeth'.

Was ("power, dominion") - symbol of power or dominion, and associated with the gods (such as Set or Anubis) as well as with the pharaoh. They appear as long, straight staffs, with a stylized animal head on top and a forked end + was ist? (ger) - what's the matter? + First words sung by Tristan in Wagner's Tristan und Isolde: 'Was ist? Isolde?' (German 'What's wrong? Isolde?').

sewer - a waste pipe that carries away sewage or surface water; someone who sews + sever (Serbian) - North + FDV: Was Wasis? Isot! Ere we were sure?

ald - old + FDV: The oaks of old maythey rest rust in peat.

peat - partially carbonized vegetable matter saturated with water, used as a fuel when dried + lie in peace.

ashes - remains of what is burned + Ask and Embla (Ashe and Elm) - Adam and Eve of Norse myth. Ask is 'ashes', Embla is 'elm' + Joyce's note, Circe: 'elm, stone, Parr' + FDV: Elms leap where ashes lay.

fall + phallus + In Theban Coptic, Re, the Sun God, is referred to as 'PH' + Rise and Fall - the cycle of history proposed by Vico. If an individual or society falls, it will rise again in order to fall once more.

farce - a dramatic work (usually short) which has for its sole object to excite laughter, something as ridiculous as a theatrical farce; meat stuffing (obs.) + phare (French) - lighthouse + Pharos - lighthouse at Alexandria.

nunce = nonce + for the nonce - for the particular purpose; for the time being + In Ancient Egyptian Heliopolitan theology, 'Nun' is the dark & inert stuff dominating what exists before creation. This founding concept of Egyptian thought, is conceived as an endlessly vast expanse of water, an unlimited ocean. In FW is represented by Porter.

set down - described in books, recognized + Set (swtH, stH, stsh) - "he of the South", brother and murderer of Osiris.

secular - worldly, temporal, profane + FDV: Till nevernever may our pharce be phoenished!


hoenix - a mythical bird, of gorgeous plumage, fabled to be the only one of its kind, and to live five or six hundred years in the Arabian desert, after which it burnt itself to ashes on a funeral pile of aromatic twigs ignited by the sun and fanned by its own wings, but only to emerge from its ashes with renewed youth, to live through another cycle of years + Phoenicians - an enterprising maritime trading people that spread across the Mediterranean from 1550 BC to 300 BC, famed in Classical Greece and Rome as 'traders in purple', and for their spread of the alphabet (or abjad), from which all major modern phonetic alphabets are derived. + finish

Bygmester Solness (The Master Builder) - drama by Henrik Ibsen, in which Halvard Solness rises from 'death' by climbing (at the bidding of a girl) a tower he has erected. He falls from the tower, blasted by the god he has rivaled and defied. The girl hears harps in the air + bug-master (Earwicker).

stuttering - that stutters, stammering + (masturbation) + 'The Stuttering Hand' sounds like the name of a public house.

freeman - one not a slave or vassal + Freimaurer (ger) - freemason (used secret sign language).

Maurer (ger) - mason, freemason + FDV: Bygmister Finnegan of the Stuttering Hand, builder, lived on in the broadest way imaginable imaginoble imarginable in his [rushlit] toofarback for messuages and during mighty odd years this man of Hod Cement & ____ made piled buildung upon super buildung on pon the banks of for the livers by the Soandso Soangso.

broadway - a wide open road or highway, as opposed to a narrow lane or byway. From the former practice of treating it as a compound, it has often come to be the proper name of a street, as the Broadway in New York + Finnegan's Wake (song): "Tim Finnegan lived in Walkin Street''.

imaginable - capable of being imagined; conceivable + FDV: lived on in the broadest way imaginable imaginoble imarginable

rushlight - a candle made of the pith of various rushes dipped in grease

farback (Dublin Slang) - house with two back rooms

messuage - a dwelling-house with its outbuildings and curtilage and the adjacent land assigned to its use + messages

Joshua - old testament patriarch + Joshua, Judges, Numbers, Leviticus, Deutoronomy, Genesis, Exodus, Pentateuch + James Joyce.

Helvetic - Helvetian (pertaining to the ancient Helvetii), Swiss + helveticus (l) - Swiss + Among Egyptian pesedjets, the most important was the Great Pesedjet, also called the Ennead of Heliopolis, after its centre of worship. Heliopolis (Egyptian: Aunu, "place of pillars") was dedicated to the worship of the god Atum and thrived from the Old Kingdom until its decline unter the Ptolemaic rulers + Leviticus - third book of the Hebrew Bible, and the third of five books of the Torah (or Pentateuch).

Deuteronomy (literally "things" or "words") - fifth book of the Hebrew Bible, and the fifth of five books of the Jewish Torah/Pentateuch

yeasty - cons. of yeast; turbulent, ebullient, full of vitality + yesterday

sternly - with sternness of temper, aspect, utterance, etc.; severely, harshly + Sterne (ger) - stars + Swift/Sterne [two lines below]

tete (fr) - head + Swift: A Tale of a Tub.

Watsche (ger) - slap in the face + watch + wash the features of his face.

stook - to arrange in shocks + took + stuck.

Moses - Jewish lawgiver, prophet, leader from bondage. He supposedly wrote Pentateuch (first five books of Old Testament).

evaporate - to convert or turn into vapour + Moses split the waters of the Red Sea.

Jews + Genesis - the first in order of the books of the Old Testament, containing the account of the creation of the world + Guinness.

exodus - a mass departure

Pentateuchos - Five Volumes (first 5 books of bible) + Punch and Judy - traditional English puppet show + Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais II.300: 'Proper names (to refer to the male member): Jean Chouart... Jean Jeudi' + penchant for juice - alcoholic.

"a gentleman Irish mighty odd" (song Finnegan's Wake) + eighty-odd years - 81-89 years.

hod - an open receptacle for carrying mortar, and sometimes bricks or stones, to supply builders at work; also the quantity carried in it, a hodful + Deutoronomy 33:1: 'man of God' (Moses).

edifice - building

toper - one who topes or drinks a great deal; a hard drinker

thorp - vilage, hamlet + tower's top [.18] 

pile - to heap up

building + Bildung (ger) - education.

supra (l) - above, beyond + FDV: and during mighty odd years this man of Hod Cement & ____ made piled buildung upon super buildung

pon - upon + FDV: on pon the banks of for the livers by the Soandso Soangso.  

liver - one that lives, resident, a well to do person + rivers.

so and so - an unnamed person, an indefinite phrase (= such a thing, person, number,' etc.) used in place of a more lengthy statement, or as a substitute for an expression or name not exactly remembered or not requiring to be explicitly stated + Hwang-ho river, China (a.k.a. the Yellow river).

addle - to muddle, spoil; to become rotten, as an egg (addling is causing fertilised eggs to lose viability, by killing the developing embryo within through shaking, piercing, freezing or oiling, without breaking the shell) + and

liddle = little + Alice P. Liddell - friend of Lewis Carroll and model for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland + FDV: He addle iddle wife wyfie and he annie Annie hugged the liddle crathur wither Wither tear tare in hares hayre in honds tuck up your pardner part-in-her.

wifie - little wife: used as a term of endearment for a wife

anny (Anglo-Irish) = eanaigh (Irish) - fenny, marshy

ugged - horrid, loathsome + hugged little creature (i.e. penis).

craythur - creature + Finnegan's Wake (song): "Now Tim [Finnegan] had a sort o' the tipplin' way, / With the love of the liquor he was born, / An' to help him on with his work each day, / He'd a drop of the craythur every morn.

wither - to lose freshness, vigor, or vitality + with her hair in hands + Joyce's note: 'withe of straw'.

hond - hand (obs.) + hond (Dutch) - dog + Isolde of the Fair Hair and Isolde of the White Hands.

tuck up - the action or an act of tucking someone up in bed + In the Heliopolitan creation myth, the solar god Atum masturbates to produce Tefnut and Shu. "Atem is he who masturbated in Iunu (On, Heliopolis). He took his phallus in his grasp that he might create orgasm by means of it, and so were born the twins Shu and Tefnut" (Pyramid Text 1248-49). In some versions of this myth, Atum also swallows his semen, and spits it out to form the twins, or else the spitting of his saliva forms the act of procreation. Both of these versions contain a play on words, the tef sound which forms the first syllable of the name Tefnut also constitutes a word meaning 'to spit' or 'to expectorate'. The Coffin Texts contain references to Shu being sneezed out by Atum from his nose, and Tefnut being spat out like saliva. The Bremner-Rind Papyrus and the Memphite Theology describe Atum masturbating into his mouth, before spitting out his semen to form the twins.

part - Theatr. a rôle + (penis) + FDV: wither Wither tear tare in hares hayre in honds tuck up your pardner part-in-her.

in her + inhere (obs) - to stick in + Finnegan's Wake (song): "Whack fol the dah now dance to yer partner around the flure yer trotters shake / Wasn't it the truth I told you? Lots of fun at Finnegan's Wake".

ofttime - frequently, often + FDV: Though oftwhile balbulous [He would see by the light of the liquor his roundup tower to rise on itself [(joy grant it joygrantit!)], with a skierscape of an eyeful hoyth entirely and larrons of toolers o' toolers clittering up on it & tumblers a' buckets clottering down.]

bibulous - addicted to drinking or tippling + bulbous - having the shape of or resembling a bulb, bloated + balbulus (l) - somewhat stuttering + Balbus - a Roman said to have built a wall, probably in some Latin primer (James Joyce: A Portrait I: 'Balbus was building a wall').

mithra - a persian god of light + mitre - a sacerdotal head-dress.

goodly - large, considerable

trowel - a tool consisting of a flat (or, less commonly, rounded) plate of metal or wood, of various shapes, attached to a short handle; used by masons, bricklayers, plasterers, and others for spreading, moulding, or smoothing mortar, cement, and the like + (penis).

grasp - a gripping or fast hold; the grip of the hand

overalls - trousers of strong material + (condom).

particularly + habitually + habitaculum (l) - dwelling place + habits (Archaic) - clothes, attire. 

fond - to entertain a fond or foolish affection for + fancied.

Harun al-Rashid - Caliph of Baghdad in 'The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night'

Childeric I, II and III - three Frankish Merovingian kings. Childeric III was the last Merovingian king of France + H. C. E. Childers - celebrated 19th Century British politician and statesman. Towards the end of his ministerial career he was noted for his girth, and so acquired the nickname "Here Comes Everybody".

Egbert (d.837) - West Saxon king

calculate + (notebook 1924): 'Caligula gathers shell on shore' → Fleming: Boulogne-sur-Mer 43: 'Caligula... determined at length, as Suetonius humorously observes, "to make war in earnest; he drew up his army on the shore of the ocean... and... commanded them to gather up sea shells... calling them 'the spoils of the ocean'."

multiplicable - capable of being multiplied

altitude - height above the ground, or, strictly, above the level of the sea; height in the air + in one's altitudes (Slang) - drunk.

multitude - a great quantity of something (obs.), (pl.) great numbers, 'crowds' + malt - grain that is kiln-dried after having been germinated by soaking in water, used especially in brewing and distilling.

seesaw - to move up and down, alternate + FDV: He would see by the light of the liquor his roundup tower to rise on itself

nightlight - the faint light which is perceptible during the night, a light which burns or shines during the night

liquor - alcohol

wherein - in what, where + "With the love of the liquor he was born," (song Finnegans Wake).

roundhead - round-headed (of things which assume a rounded form towards the top or end)

staple = steeple (obs. rare.) - a tall tower; a building of great altitude in proportion to its length and breadth (obs.) + Round Table.

undress - to strip of ornamentation + (notebook 1923): 'undressed masonry' Flood: Ireland, Its Saints and Scholars 116: 'The earliest buildings were made without cement, and with undressed masonry'.

upstand - to rise to a standing position + (erection) + Thomas Moore: Let Erin Remember the Days of Old (song): 'On Lough Neagh's bank, as the fisherman strays, / When the clear cold eve's declining / He sees the round towers of other days / In the wave beneath him shining'.

gigantic + FDV: [(joy grant it joygrantit!)]

wallwort - any of several plants that grow on or in walls + waal = well + wellworthy - worthy in a high degree + WOOLWORTH BUILDING - In Lower Manhattan; one of the first skyscrapers and for many years the world's tallest building.  

skyscraper - a high building of many stories

eyeful - visually attractive + awful + Joyce's note, Circe: 'To and to, Eiffel,' → Anita Loos: Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, chapter 4: 'when a girl looks at the Eyefull Tower she really knows she is looking at something'  James Joyce: Letters I.246: letter 08/11/26 to Harriet Shaw Weaver: (of Weaver's "order" for the contents of chapter I.1) 'I set to work at once on your esteemed order... and so hard indeed that I almost stupefied myself and stopped, reclining on a sofa and reading Gentlemen Prefer Blondes for three whole days'.

height - the quality of being high + hoys (gr) - earth + Howth + FDV: a skierscape of an eyeful hoyth entirely

originate - to take its origin or rise, to spring + erigo (l) - to erect + The Encyclopædia Britannica vol. IX, 'Erigena, Johannes Scotus', 744a: 'The infinite essence of God, which may indeed be described as nihilum (nothing) is that from which all is created, from which all proceeds or emanates'.

next to nothing - hardly anything + Jacques Mercanton, Les heures de James Joyce, p. 40: "I made [Ulysses] out of next to nothing. Work in Progress [i.e. Finnegans Wake] I am making out of nothing" (Richard Ellmann, James Joyce, 543n.)

caeli (l) - heavens + celestial - heavenly + escalating.

Himalaya + Himmel (ger) - sky.

toploftical - very superior in air or in attitude

burning bush - an object described by the Book of Exodus as being located on Mount Horeb; according to the narrative, the bush was on fire, but was not consumed by the flames, hence the name. In the narrative, the burning bush is the location at which Moses was appointed by Yahweh to lead the Israelites out of Egypt and into Canaan + A pyramidion is the uppermost piece or capstone of an Egyptian pyramid. They were called benbenet in the Ancient Egyptian language, which associated the pyramid as a whole with the sacred benben stone. A pyramidion was "covered in gold leaf to reflect the rays of the sun".

abob - to astonish, confound + atop - on the top of, above + bob - a knot or bunch of hair; a small roundish or knob-like body + (light at top of the Great Pyramid).

bauble - a child's plaything or toy, something foolish; a showy cerimonal object with no real value + Tower of Babel was a tower built by a united humanity to reach the heavens. God, observing the unity of humanity in the construction, resolves to destroy the tower and confuse the previously uniform language of humanity, thereby preventing any such future efforts; therefore the city was called Babel (babal, Heb. "confound"). 

larrom - a tumultuous noise, uproar + larron (French) - a thief (Jacob, the thief of Esau’s birthright) + Joyce's note, Circe: 'Lawrence O'Toole, Thomas a Beckett' →  "Sts. Thomas Becket and Lawrence O'Toole, the antagonistic clergy who experienced different treatment during the reign of King Henry (Becket being murdered in Canterbury while O'Toole was being made Bishop of Dublin by the conquering Anglo-Normans). Their careers make them prototypes of the antagonistic brothers in the Wake" (Benstock, Bernard / Joyce-again's wake: an analysis of Finnegans wake)

tooler - a broad chisel used by stone-masons for random tooling + A bucket to carry building material and a tool to work with it, these are the first necessities of the mason + Thom's Directory of Ireland/Dublin (1905): lists Richard Toole, James Beckett and William Beckett as Dublin builders.

clitter - to make frictional or rattling sound + clittering (Anglo-Irish) - the noise of hurrying feet (from Irish: cliotar) + clit - a female sexual organ homologous to the penis.

tomble = tumble - an act of tumbling, a fall, downfall + il en tombe à seaux (French phrase) - it's raining in buckets + FDV: and larrons of toolers o' toolers clittering up on it & tumblers a' buckets clottering down.

clotter - to run together in clots, to coagulate

FDV: The first was he to bare arms and the name. His creast [in vert with ancillars:] a hegoat, horrid, horned. His shield, fessed, helio [with archers strung,] of the second. Haitch is for Husbandman planting handling his hoe. Hohohoho Mister Finn you're going to be Mr Mister Finn again. Comeday morning morn when and your you're feelin ho oh, you're Vine! senday end evening eve you' re foulin, and, ah, Vinegar. Hahahaha Mister Finn Fine Funn you're going to be fined again.  

arms = heraldic arms - heraldic insignia or devices, borne originally on the shields of fully armed knights or barons, to distinguish them in battle (hence properly called armorial bearings), which subsequently became hereditary, and are the property of their families.

wassail - a carousal; riotous festivity, revelling; a salutation used when drinking to someone's health, the liquor thus drunk + uasal (Irish) - Mr, gentleman + veseli (Serbian) - merry, frolicsome.

boose, laugh + boos (Dutch) - angry, evil, malicious + Buslaev, Vasilii - hero of the Novgorod epic cycle, Russian buslai, a "fallen man" or "drunkard", Vasily derives from Greek basileus: "king" + buadth (bue) (gael) - victory + laoch (leokh) (gael) - warrior.

reisen - obs. of raise + Riesen (ger) - giant + Riesengebirge - the Sudetic Mountains (lit. "Giants' Mountains") which divide Bohemia and Moravia from Saxony.

crest - a figure (originally borne by a knight on his helmet) placed on a wreath, coronet or chapeau and borne above the shield and helmet in a coat of arms; the apex or 'cone' of a helmet; hence a helmet or head piece + Joyce's note, Circe: 'crcacnt [crossed out in pencil] crest, faigh-go-baile, automobile suds for me,' + COAT OF ARMS

heraldry - heraldic title or rank, a collection of heraldic devices + Hure (ger) - whore + cuckoldry + Harold or Humphrey Chimpden Earwicker.


vert - green

ancillary - serving to aid of assist + ancilla (l) - maid servant, female slave ancillae (l) - handmaidens, maidservants (two female supporters on the Dublin coat of arms) + antlers (cuckoldry).

troublance - the action of troubling, disturbance + troublant (fr) - perturbing, disturbing.

argent - the silver of a coat of arms; the silver or white colour in armorial bearings

hegoat - male goat + heoak - an Australian tree + oak tree (on the O'Reilly of East Breffny coat of arms [100.11]).

poursuivant - a follower, a junior heraldic officer attendant on the heralds + pursuing.

horrid - terrible + horrid horn (Anglo-Irish) - fool.

horned - having, bearing, or wearing an appendage, ornament, etc., called a horn; having horn-like projections or excrescenses; cuckolded (obs)

scutcheon = escutcheon - the shield or shield-shaped surface on which a coat of arms is depicted; also in wider sense, the shield with the armorial bearings.

fesse - an ordinary (conventional figure used on shields) formed by two horizontal lines drawn across the middle of the field, and usually containing between them one third of the escutcheon.

archer - one who shoots with bow and arrows, a bowman

strung - in a state of tension + (archers stringing their bows).

helio - heliotrope; a shade of purple like that of the flowers of the heliotrope + hêlios (gr) - the sun.

of the second - a heraldic term referring to the second named colour on a coat of arms

hootch = hooch - alcoholic liquor esp. when inferior or obtained illicitly (from Hoochinoo, an Alaskan Indian village who produced such spirits) [Joyce's note: 'hootch'] + In most dialects of English, the name for the letter "H" is spelt 'aitch'. Spelling 'haitch' is usually considered to be h-adding and hence nonstandard. However it is standard in Hiberno-English.

husbandman - one that plows or cultivates land, farmer

hoe - an agricultural and gardening tool, consisting of a thin iron blade fixed transversely at the end of a long handle + FDV: Haitch is for Husbandman planting handling his hoe.

Finn - the name used by the Teut. nations for an individual of a people in North-Eastern Europe and Scandinavia + fionn (Irish) - fair, white + FDV: Hohohoho Mister Finn you're going to be Mr Mister Finn again.

someday - at some time in future + comedy (tragedy is three lines below) + Monday morn + FDV: Comeday morning morn when and your you're feelin ho oh, you're Vine!

Sunday + FDV: senday end evening eve you' re foulin, and, ah, Vinegar.  

fine - to purify from extraneous or impure matter, to clarify, refine + FDV: Hahahaha Mister Finn Fine Funn you're going to be fined again.  

agent - a deputy, emissary, any natural force acting upon matter; one who acts for another + agent (Dutch) - policeman + Was denn eigentlich (ger) - What then really.

wine vinegar (Joyce's note, Circe)

bring about - to cause to take place, effect, accomplish

tragôdia (gr) - tragedy (from Greek tragos: he-goat)

Donnerstag (ger) - Thursday (literally 'Thunder's day')

municipal - relating or belonging to or characteristic of a municipality

cubby house - a little house built by children in play + Joyce's note: 'cubehouse' Mohammed consecrated the Kaaba (named for its resemblance to a die or cube), former a heathen temple. The chief sanctuary of Islam, aka the "Ancient House," it contains the sacred Black Stone which was white when it fell from heaven, but turmed black from the sins of those who have touched it. [Holland: The Story of Mohammed 22: (of Meccah) 'In the midst of the city stands a very ancient temple... The Kaabah, or Cube House, as this temple is called, is regarded by the Mohammedans as the most sacred place on earth'.] 

earwitness - a person who can testify to something heard by himself

ARAFAT - Granite hill 15 miles South-East of Mecca, Saudi Arabia + Joyce's note: 'Mt Arafat thunderous' Holland 52 (REFERENCE): 'In his early days as a shepherd Mohammed had lived much with nature; he had seen the pale dawn touch the grim summits of Mount Hira and Mount Arafat, had heard the thunder roll through the sounding passes of the hills.'

shabby - discreditably inferior in quality, making a poor appearance + Sheba - Saba, an ancient kingdom in the south of the Arabian peninsula + Joyce's note: 'Sheb (rock)' → Holland: The Story of Mohammed 58: 'The mountains on the eastern side of Meccah rise very steeply, like cliffs, quite close to the town, and between their spurs are long narrow ravines called Shebs. The word Sheb means, in Arabic, a rock.'

chorus + Horus + Gerausch (ger) - noise + Joyce's note: 'Choraysh' (the entry is preceded by a cancelled 'K') → Holland: The Story of Mohammed 91: 'There were many exiles from Meccah, who had fled from the persecutions of the Kuraysh' (the ruling tribe at Meccah, to which Mohammed also belonged).

unqualified + calif - the title given in Muslim countries to the chief civil and religious ruler, as successor of Muhammad + Joyce's note: 'Khalif (successor)' → Holland: The Story of Mohammed 57: 'Like Abu Bakr, Omar became one of the Prophet's chief advisers; in after years they both succeeded him as head of Islam, or Khalif, a word which means Successor'

Muslim muezzins + muezzin - in Muslim countries, a public crier who proclaims the regular hours of prayer from the minaret or the roof of a mosque + Islamic missiles are the stones Muslim pilgrims throw in the ceremony of Pelting the Devil at Mecca to commemorate Abraham's driving away of Satan when he was tempted to spare Isaac life.

blackguardize - to reduce to the condition of a blackguard

whitestone - memorial of a fortunate event (among the ancients) + Joyce's note: 'inblack stone' → Holland: The Story of Mohammed 22: (of the Kaabah in Meccah) 'At the southeast corner of the building, near the only door, is inserted a mysterious Black Stone, which has been held in reverence by countless generations. A legend tells that it once fell from heaven, and was originally white, until the sins of the world changed it to its present colour'.

hurtle - to propel violently, catapult + turtle - to turn over.

stay - to remain in order to wait, to prop, sustain + stay us - let us stay.

wherefore - on account of or because of which; for which reason

righteousness - justice, uprightness, rectitude + Joyce's note: 'Islam (strife for righteousness)' → Holland: The Story of Mohammed 45: 'He did not pretend that the religion he taught was something new, but called it the faith of Abraham, and the particular name he gave it was Islam, which signifies "striving after righteousness".'

sustainer - one who or that which upholds, supports, or keeps in being; one who provides another with the necessaries of life + Joyce's note: 'O Sustainer' → Holland:  The Story of Mohammed 99: (addressing Allah, in a parable about the strength of charity) '''O our Sustainer," said the angels, "is there anything in Thy creation stronger than wind?'''

toothpick [Mohammed used toothpicks (Ayesha handed him one as he lay dying)] + Joyce's note: 'what time thou risest and in the night and at the fading of the stars' → Holland:  The Story of Mohammed 93: 'Mohammed enjoined his followers to pray five times a day. 1. Before sunrise. 2. When the sun has begun to decline. 3. In the afternoon. 4. A little after sunset. 5. At night fall... but many... pray at other time as well. For it is written, "Celebrate the praises of thy Lord what time thou risest, and in the night, and at the fading of the stars".'

lump - to sit down heavily + slump down upon.

featherbed - a bed stuffed with feathers + Koran, Sura 8: 'ownership of leather beds'.

nod is as good as a wink - sign is all that is necessary + a nod is as good as a wink to a blind horse - a fanciful assertion, often abbreviated (a nod is as good as a wink) that the slightest hint is enough to convey one's meaning in the case.

nadir - point directly opposite the zenith + beer + neighbour + Joyce's note: 'Prayer is better than sleep' Holland: The Story of Mohammed 94: (of Bilal, the first muezzin) 'Before the early morning prayer he added, "Prayer is better than sleep"' + nabi (Arabic) - prophet .

absinthe - a bitter, green liqueur containing extract of wormwood + absent + zenith - the point in the heavens directly above the observer and diametrically opposite to the nadir.

otherways - otherwise

weswas (Arabic) - whisperer (an epithet of the devil) + we sway / he sways.

provost - the head of certain university colleges and public schools

scoff - to speak derisively, mock, jeer + prophet's coffin (that of Mohammed is ever-suspended) + Joyce's note: 'coffin between M & S' ('M & S' not clear).

Bedouin - an Arab of the desert + Joyce's note: 'bedouin' → Holland: The Story of Mohammed 31: 'It was the custom in Meccah to give young children into the care of Bedouin women, thus sending them away from the hot and dusty city into the pure air of the desert'.

jebel - a hill in northern Africa, a hill or mountain + jebel (Arabic) - mount + Jebel Akhdar‎ (meaning The Green Mountain), is part of the Al Hajar Mountains range in Oman, which extends about 300 km northwest to southeast, between 50–100 km inland from the Gulf of Oman coast + between the devil and the deep sea - between two comparable evils.

Egyptian + gypsies were once thought to be of Egyptian origin + {Stellar Egyptian tradition ("Sb" in hieroglyphs meaning 'star') passed on to ancient Sabaean Kingdom of Arabian peninsula (in what is today Yemen) in the early 1st millennium BC}

crop - to cut off or remove the 'crop' or head of (a plant ,tree,etc.) + Joyce's note: 'al Kaswa (the cropeared camel)' → Holland: The Story of Mohammed 84: 'Mohammed and the guide rode a camel called "Al-Kaswa," or the Crop-eared'.

crunch - an act, or the action, of crunching; to crush or grind under foot, wheels, etc., with the accompanying noise

bracken - a fern + "That Joyce intends to take advantage of the multiplicity of destinations is signalled as early as 5.23, as the bird Isis ("Cropherb the crunchbracken") with a gift of "seek on site" (5.25) seeks the site "bedoueen the jebel and the jpysian sea" (5.23). Looking "Otherways wesways" (5.22) to the west, it may be Jebel she is seeking, which Budge writes is "near the site" of ancient Phoenician Byblos (Osiris, I, 4). At this level Isis was searching in an eastwest direction until she passed the western jebel, the mountains, finally recovering Osiris' body, across the sea. However, "Otherways wesways" can also signal another Wes-way, a move from Bahr-el-Jebel, the "mountain river" as the upper Nile is known, down to Wes or Wesi, the ancient name of Thebes ("Thebes", EB, XXVI, 739). In this case, Isis searches the length of the Nile, from the upper reaches of the stream down to the Delta and the sea." (Mark L. Troy)  

camel shall decide (Joyce's note) Holland 90: As Mohammed entered Medinah, he was beset on all sides by the invitations of the Faithful, pressing him to alight and enter their houses… But Mohammed, perhaps fearing to create jealousies by favouring one more than another, said: "The camel shall decide…"

Friday mosque (Joyce's note) → Holland: The Story of Mohammed 90: 'the procession halted, and Mohammed led the prayers and preached to the assembled people. On the spot where this happened in now a mosque, which is known as the "Friday Mosque." Friday was chosen, later on, as the day specially set apart for the service of God, like the Christian Sunday'.

on site - on a particular site + second sight - a gift of prophetic vision.

occasionally + Holland 84: Mohammed and the guide rode a camel called "Al-Kaswa," or the Crop-eared… Al-Kaswa came to be famous in the history of Islam, and carried the prophet in several of his battles.

helper - one who helps or assists; spec. a groom's assistant in a stable + Joyce's note: 'ansar helper' Holland 91: There were many exiles from Meccah, who had fled from the persecutions of the Kuraysh; they were known as the Muhajirin or Refugees, while the citizen of Medinah, who were converts, were called Ansars, or Helpers.

dreamy - given to dreaming or fantasy; delightful, beautiful (colloq.) + dromedary camel.

heed - to have a care, pay attention, take notice + heehaw - a donkey's bray (the Ass who accompanies the Four Old Men in FW). 

have + {Camel's (or the Ass's) answer to the original question (What then brought about that tragedy) that is, what caused Tim Finnegan to fall from his ladder, and what caused the Temple to fall, and what caused the Tower of Babel to collapse}

missfire - to make a mistake, to fail; Of a gun or its charge: To fail to be discharged or exploded.

mought - might

collapse + collosus + lapsus (l) - slip, mistake (According to Freud's early psychoanalytic theory, a lapsus represents a missed deed that hides an unconscious desire).

premises + back passage - the rectum.

extend - to widen the range, scope, area of application of (a law, operation, dominion, state of things, etc.) + extant - (esp. of a document) Still in existence; surviving.

'The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night' (Joyce's personal library contained a set of Sir Richard Burton's translation in 17 volumes)

told - narrated + all told - in total.

sore - painful, grievous + sure

abe - be + FDV: And, as sure as Eve Abe ate little bit Ivvy's red apples, wan warning Finn felt tippling full.

Walhalla = Valhalla - In Old Northern mythology, the hall assigned to those who have died in battle, in which they feast with Odin + {various noises of morning rush-hour in Paris (where Joyce wrote FW) and Dublin (where the novel is set), as though the window or curtain (in Joyce's apartment in Paris and in HCE's bedroom in Dublin) is opened at this point, allowing the street noises to "invade" the narrative}

Rolls-Royce - a Rolls-Royce motor car, any product considered to be of the highest quality + ROLLRIGHT STONES - Ancient stone circle on the border of Oxfordshire and Warwickshire, England.

CARHAIX - town in Brittany (Joyce was there in summer 1924). In Bedier's Tristan and Isolde, Tristan dies there after raising the siege of the castle and marrying Iseult of the White Hands. The region to the West abounds in standing stones (menhirs), like Stonehenge + carraig (korig) (gael) - rock, stone + hack - hackney coach, taxi cab.

Engen (ger) - narrow + Stonehenge

(notebook 1924): 'kistvaen' kistvaen - tomb or burial chamber formed from flat stone slabs in a box-like shape. If set completely underground, it may be covered by a tumulus. The word is derived from the Welsh cist (chest) and maen (stone).

Tristram Tree - Mr Senn found in The Castles of Ireland, by C. L. Adams (London, 1904): "Near the garden stands the old elm known as 'The Tristram Tree' which has been carefully propped and preserved... on account of the tradition as long as this tree lives there will be an heir to the noble house which was founded by Sir Armoricus Tristram." Joyce said: "...the oldest tree in the island is the elm tree in the demesne of Howth Castle and Environs" (Letters, III, 309) + Tristram used the name Tramtris when in Ireland.  

Fargo, William (1818-81) - American pioneer expressman, as in Wells Fargo + fag a'bealach (fago byalokh) (gael) - clear the way (name for a useless person; motto of the Dublin Fusiliers).

autokineton (gr) - self moving + autokinêton (Modern Greek) - self-moving (thing), automobile.

hippos (gr) - horse + hobby-horses 

fleet of motorcars (notebook 1922-23) + fleet - a number of motor cars, trucks, buses, etc owned by the same company + Fleet Street - a street in London (location of many of London's daily newspapers).

THURN AND TAXIS - Former German state; the counts of Thurn and Taxis had a monopoly as German Imperial postmasters from 16th into the 19th centuries [(notebook 1924): 'Turn & Taxis' → Gallois: La Poste et les Moyens de Communication 91: 'the transition of the German postal organisation under the control of the princes of the famous family of Thurn und Taxis')] + turning taxis. 

megapod + megaphones + Phogg, Phineas - hero of Verne's Around the World in Eighty Days

wardmote - a meeting of the citizens of a ward; esp. in the City of London, a meeting of the liverymen of a ward under the presidency of the alderman + moat - trench.

basilica - an early christian church [Joyce's note: 'basilica'] + basilikos (gr) - royal + kerk (Dutch) - church.

Areopagus (gr, "hill of Ares") - seat of the highest judicial tribunal of ancient Athens and the spot where St Paul preached + pagoda - an far eastern temple + aeroplanes.

hoyse (obs) - hose + hoys (Slang) - shoplifter + house + horse + noise.

brool (Archaic) - a murmur

peeler - a nickname given to members of the Irish constabulary; a strip-tease artist, a stripper + The Peeler and the Goat (song) - a satirical ballad by Darby Ryan; it was written in 1830 to ridicule over-officious officers of the Royal Irish Constabulary (nicknamed "Peelers" after Robert Peel, who had created the Metropolitan Police the previous year) who had "arrested" a goat for roistering in the main street of Bansha, County Tipperary, and butting an officer.

Mecklenburg - region in northern Germany + Mecklenburg Street, Dublin (in Nighttown) - Formerly known as Great Martin's Lane, in 1765 it was renamed Mecklenburgh Street; in 1887 the name of one section of the street was changed to Tyrone Street (a vain attempt to rid the street of its unsavoury reputation); finally Tyrone Street became Railway Street; Bella Cohen's brothel, in which much of Circe (Ulysses, Chapter 15) is set, was No. 82 Tyrone Street.

bite one's ear (Slang) - to borrow money

Marlborough - provincial district in New Zealand + merlin - a European species of falcon + MARLBOROUGH BARRACKS - an army barracks in Dublin, between Blackhouse Avenue and the Phoenix Park Zoo + Merlin was entombed alive in a rock by Morgana La Faye ("rockbound" FW 007.01).

burrock - an aparatus made of wickerwork for catching fish + burro (Spanish) - ass, donkey.

pore - to gaze, study or think long or earnestly + forecourt - the court or enclosed space in front of a building, the first or outer court + The Four Courts, Dublin + Marquis of Powerscourt (FW 386.18) - Mark the Evangelist or Mark Lyons, one of the Four Old Men (×).

bore - a hole made by boring, a perforation; a fit of ennui or sulks, a dull time

the more = the rather, the more so (because, etc.) + bothar mor (boher mor) (gael) - highway, main road + John Barrymore - American actor (i.e. John the Evangelist, Johnny MacDougal, one of the Four Old Men (×), who lives in the west)

blight - decay, disease + blight-black - i.e. as black as a potato infected with potato blight, which caused the repeated failure of the potato crop during the Great Famine + night black

stack - a large pile of hay, grain, straw, or the like, usually of a nearly conical form, but sometimes rectangular or oblong, contracted at the top to a point or ridge, and sometimes covered with thatch.+ walking-stick.

twelve penny - 1 shilling + The Twelve Pins - group of mountains, Joyces' Country, Co. Galway.

omnibus - a four-wheeled public vehicle for carrying passengers, with the inside seats extending along the sides, and the entrance at the rear, and with or without seats on the roof + nubi basse (Italian) - low clouds.

sleigh - to travel or ride in a sleigh + sliding

seventy-first (a street in New York)

Derry = Londonderry - borough in northern Ireland + dirigibles - airships, balloons.

snoop - to go around in a sly or a prying manner + stopping

Tom the Tailor - Peeping Tom, the tailor who supposedly peeped at Lady Godiva as she rode naked through Coventry

strumpet - a whore + Horace: Odes III.29.12 (l) - 'Fumum et opes strepitumque Romae' (Latin 'The smoke and the grandeur and the noise of Rome').

ville - a town or village + A slang term for London is "Romeville".

indigenous - native + Sick and Indigent Roomkeepers' Society - a charitable society founded in 1790 to assist destitute Dubliners.

Turm (ger) - tower + (notebook 1924): 'durum & durum non faciunt murum' durum et durum non faciunt murum (l) - stern measures do not build a protective wall (literally 'hard and hard do not make a wall').

uproar - a serious tumult, commotion, or outbreak of disorder among the people or a body of persons; loud outcry or vociferation + roor - roar (obs.) + Aufruhr (ger) - commotion, revolt.

Aufruf (ger) - summons, appeal + roofs.

reef - one of the horizontal portions of a sail which may be successively rolled or folded up in order to diminish the extent of canvas exposed to the wind + Ring-a-ring o'roses (children's game): 'One for me, and one for you, and one for little Moses'.

butt - stump, tail end + BUTT BRIDGE - Aka Swivel Bridge. The last (and East-most) bridge as the Liffey flows except for the Loop Line Railway bridge. Erected 1879; named for the 19th-century politician Isaac Butt + but

suit - agree with, adapt

tony - fool, simpleton; fashionable, stylish + Suetonius - historian and biographer of twelve Caesars + {but tony sits under the bridge (i.e. is homeless)}

wan - sickly pale + one morning.

Phil the Fluter's Ball - Percy French song → REFERENCE + Philip, Phil, Pip - the name means "horse lover".

tippling - the drinking of intoxicating drink, habitual indulgence in liquor + Finnegan's Wake 2 (song): 'One morning Tim was rather full, / His head felt heavy which made him shake, / He fell from the ladder and broke his skull, / So they carried him home his corpse to wake'.

howd - a lurching rocking movement + hoved (Danish) - head + FDV: His howth howd filled heavy, his hodd hoddit did shake. There was a wall in course of erection.

hodet (Norwegian) - the head

stotter - to stumble, stagger + FDV: He fell stottered from the latter. Damb!  

latter - last mentioned (i.e. the wall which was in the course of erection) + ladder + {ALP's letter}

damb - damn

dud - any useless or ineffective person; a bomb that fails to go off; a dishonoured cheque + FDV: He was dead dudd. Dump Dumb! For all the world to see.  

dumb - silent, voiceless + dump (the kitchen midden, or rubbish tip, in HCE's backyard).

mastaba - an Egyptian tomb + toom - empty + masturbation + (notebook 1924): '(mastaba)' Perry: The Origin of Magic and Religion 34: 'the tombs used in the first dynasties by the royal family... were called mastabas' + Atum - the first god, having created himself, sitting on a mound (benben), or identified with the mound itself + (an onomatopoeic word representing the sound of Tim Finnegan's fall) + {Finnegan tumbles from the ladder through time and space into an ancient Egyptian mastaba-tomb}

mon - man + Amen or Ammon or Ammun, etc. ("the hidden one") - according to Budge, he began as chief god of Thebes, was later identified with Ra, later assumed all the attributes of the old gods of Egypt.

lute - a stringed instrument formerly much in use + 'Needles and pins, blankets and shins, when a man is married his sorrow begins' (song). 

all along - all through the course of  

shiz or ¹iz (Serbian) - craze + schizō (Greek) - I split, I cleave, I separate → Issy's split personality; Adaline Glasheen recognizes Issy in "Shize? I should shee"; presumably the following remark (spoken by Biddy O'Brien in the ballad Finnegan's Wake) is to be attributed to Issy.

shee - she + shee (Anglo-Irish) - fairy + sidhe (shi) (gael) - tomb, tumulus + shee (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - see + FDV: Size! I should say!

Finn MacCumhaill (MacCool) - legendary Irish king + FDV: MacCool, Macool, macool, why did ye die!

orra - odd; idle, worthless + arrah (Anglo-Irish) - but, now, really.

why did you die? - how do you do? + Finnegan's Wake (song): "Arrah, Tim avourneen, why did you die?" + "ii" usually denotes Issy (her 'eyes').


of (Dublin Colloquial) - on (when referring to days of the week)


trying - difficult, annoying


sighed + did sigh.


Miss Hooligan's Christmas Cake (song) - a 19th Century broadside ballad from Scotland → REFERENCE + Finnegan's Wake (song) + FDV: Sore They sighed at Finn Funnigan's wake chrismiss chrissormiss cake wake.

hooligan - a cruel and brutal fellow + holy ones + "The Twelve" are called Sullivans (night hours) and Doyles (day hours) and they are simply numerals on fob-watch (559.15, 'ticker') beside HCE's bed. Burial chamber of the tomb of Pharaoh Tuthmosis III (ca. 1426 BCE), has on the walls Amduat - The Book of The Hidden Chamber or the Twelve Hours of the Night. By placing these texts near their sarcophagus, ancient Egyptian kings identified Re's night-boat with their own death & forthcoming renewal. The text told them how to rise on the "barque of millions of years", rejuvenated just before dawn. The Books of the Underworld are a "strip-like" literary genre, telling the story of the regeneration of the subtle bodies and the illumination of consciousness. The Amduat depicts the healthy, completed ante-rational mind, open and aware of the interdependence between all complementarities and enjoying a "closure" in terms of a practical iconography of regeneration. 

prostrate - to lay flat on the ground

consternation - dismay, shock

duodecimal - rel. to twelfth parts or to the number twelve; proceeding by twelves (examples include the hours on a clock, the signs of the zodiac, the months of the calendar, the inches in a foot, the pitches in the Western musical scale, the word "dozen", etc; the duodecimal system was common in ancient societies due to its divisibility by 2, 3, 4, and 6) + dismally - gloomily, dolorously (etymology of the word "dismal" = "dies mali" = "evil or unlucky days," two days of each month determined to be bad by methods supposedly deriving from ancient Egyptian astrology; this meaning held sway for hundreds of years before the word acquired its modern sense).

profusive - lavish (adj.)

plethora - overabundance

ululate - to utter a howl or wail

plumb - the weight attached to a mason's plumb-line, to secure its perpendicularit + plumber - a workman who installs and repairs piping and fittings to do with water supply, sanitation, and drainage.

grume = groom - a man servant + FDV: There was plumbs and grooms grumes and sheriffs and zitherers citherers & raiders and cittamen too.

sherif - a high officer

cither - An anglicized form of cithara, applied to the ancient instrument, as well as its later modifications + zitherer - player of the zither, a stringed instrument consisting of a wooden frame and flat soundbox with 29-42 strings, placed on a table or on the knees. 

raider - one who raids, a marauder (tomb raiders?) + writers.

cinema men + "There was plums and prunes and cherries/ And citron and raisins and cinnamon too" (song Miss Hooligan's Christmas Cake) + The Ancient Egyptian offering formula, generally referred to as the htp-dỉ-nsw, was written in ancient Egypt as an offering for the deceased: "...that he may give a voice-offering of bread, beer, oxen, birds, alabaster, clothing, and every good and pure thing upon which a god lives..." 

utmost - that is of the greatest or highest degree, extreme + Phil the Fluther's Ball (song): "Then all joined in wid the utmost joviality".

joviality - hearty mirth, humour, or good-fellowship; jollity + show - an appearance which makes a strong impression on the beholder + FDV: And they all chimed in with the shoutmost shoviality. 'Twas he was the dacent gaylabouring youth!

agog - eager, enthusiastic + gogmagog - a giant, a man of immense stature and strength + Gog and Magog - represent the nations that are deceived by Satan (Revelations, 20). In legends of Alexander, Gog and Magog are enemies he sealed behind a great wall in the Caucasus. In The Faerie Queene, Gogmagog is the chief giant of Albion. In British legend, Gog and Magog are sole survivors of a race of giants, the offspring of demons and the 33 infamous daughters of the Emperor Diocletian, who murdered their husbands; they were taken as prisoners to London by Brute (the legendary ancestor ofthe Britons), where they were made to do duty as porters at the royal palace.

round ("O") - the siglum Joyce used in his notes for The Twelve + round of drinks.

grog - an alcoholic beverage made with water and rum + groggy - drunk, dazed. 

han (Danish) - he + hun (Danish) - she + hanandhun = "he and she" + Han and Huns - the Chinese Han Dynasty and their enemies the Huns.

continuation & celebration & extermination - Latinisms, associated with The Twelve (O)

kinkin - a small barrel, a keg + cinn (kin) (gael) - heads wail, lament + (stuttering).

chorus + Kincora - birthplace and royal seat of Brian Ború, High King of Ireland.

can-can - a high-kicking French dance

keen - to utter the keen, or Irish lamentation for the dead; to wail or lament bitterly

bell - to bellow, roar, make a loud noise

Brian O'Linn - Irish ballad hero, first to wear clothes, a man who always sees the bright side of a difficult situation + Priam - last king of Troy + Priomh Ollamh (priv uluv) (gael) - Chief Poet (highest rank in ancient Irish bardic system) + olim (l) - once + {one of four comments by *X*}

dacent - decent

day labor - labor done or paid for by the day + gay - given to social entainment, pleasure-loving + Barnaby Finegan (song): 'I'm a decent gay laboring youth' (a similar version entitled song Mr. Finagan has: 'I'm a dacent laboring youth').

sharpen - grind to sharpness + FDV: His A scone as for his pillow Sharphen his pillowscone tap up his bier.

pillar stone - a pillar shaped monument or memorila stone + scone - a large round cake; the head (Austral. slang.) + Scone - a place in Scotland. The Stone of Scone was supposedly the Lia Fáil, or Stone of Destiny, a monolith taken from Tara which roared its approbation when the true High King of Ireland was crowned.

tap - a peg or stopper on a cask

bier - the movable stand on which a corpse, whether in coffin or not, is placed before burial + Bier (German= bier (Dutch) - beer + top up his beer - fill his glass of beer up to the top.

whorl - spiral, convolution + where in this world? + FDV: Arrah where in this world would you hear such a din again?

sich = such

din - commotion, clamor, hubbub + such a thing + Barnaby Finegan (song): 'I married but once in my life, / But I'll never commit such a sin again'.

brow - [= the second element in highbrow, low-brow, etc.] colloq. Level of intellectual attainment or interest + de profundis (l) - "from the depths": Opening of Ps. 130, traditionally said at wakes + Oscar Wilde: De Profundis - a long letter or apology written by the Irish writer while he was in jail.

dusty - covered with dust + adaste fideles (l) - "be present, faithful ones," i.e. "Come all ye faithful" + FDV: The owl whole hangsigns & the thirsty thirstey therstey fidelios!

Fidelio - the name of Beethoven's only opera. Fidelio is the masculine name adopted by Leonore when she disguises herself as a young man to save her imprisoned husband. In the song Finnegan's Wake, Tim Finnegan is saved from death when whiskey is splashed on him; this occurs as the result of a fight originating between two women, Biddy O'Brien and Maggy O'Connor, both of whom claim to be Tim's significant other. Thus, Tim is saved by his infidelity, without which there would have been no fight, no spilled whiskey, and no resurrection.

braw - fine, splendid, pleasant + bradan (bradan) (gael) - salmon + brow down: i.e., face down + FDV: They laid him low lax along his last broadon his bed.

pocalips - apocalypse (obs.) + Apocalypse - the last book of the Bible, dealing with the end of the world, contrasted with Guenesis in the following line + bocal - a glass bottle or jar with a short wide neck + Finnegan's Wake (song): "with a gallon of whiskey at his feet".

finis - end, coclusion + fionn-uisce (Irish) - clear water (Pronunciation 'finishki') + The first four lines are from the song Finnegan's Wake and the fifth from Phil the Fluther's Ball: They wrapped him up in a nice clean sheet / And laid him out across the bed, / With a gallon of whiskey at his feet / And a barrel of porter at his head. / With the toot of the flute and the twiddle of the fiddle, O. 

barrow - wheelbarrow + Finnegan's Wake (song): "and a barrel of porter at his head".

Guiness - the proprietary name of a brand of stout manufactured by the firm of Guinness; a bottle or glass of this + Genesis - the first book of the Bible, dealing with the creation of the world (contrasted with a 'bockalips' in the previous line).

over + FDV: With abuckalyps abucketlips of finisky at his feet & a barrowload of guinesis guenesis guennesis at his head.

tee - prepare, arrange + tea + Phil the Fluther's Ball (song): "To the toot of the flute and the twiddle of the fiddle, O".

teetotal - absolute, complete; total abstinence from alcoholic drinks + FDV: To Tee the total tootal of the fluid & the twaddle of the fuddled, O.

twaddle - senseless, silly or trifling talk

fuddled - intoxicated

hurrah - hooray!

gleve - a lance or spear; a solder armed with gleve; a sword + glava (Serbian) - head ("His glav toside him" [FW.10.35-36]) + 'There is but one God' (Islam).

old + whole + {HCE turns over in bed, revealing his face to the "audience" for the first time; the Moon or owl globe rises above the horizon or wheels in view, it is night}

tautology - a needless repetition of an idea, a logical statement that is trivially true + (stuttering) + FDV: Hurrah, there is but one globe for the owlglobe wheels anew which is testamount to the same thing as who shall see.

flounder - to behave awkwardly, stumble helplessly + flat on one's back - ill in bed, in a helpless situation + 'As flat as a flounder' (proverb) [flounder is a kind of flatfish] + FDV: He, a being so on the flat flounder of his bulk, with far far away back, let wee peep at Hom, plate Ш.  

bulk - mass, extent

overgrown - abnormally or excessively grown

Babel (Tower of) + Dublin + baby + (notebook 1924): '*E* overgrown child' → Martin: Saint Colomban 102: (of vehement reproaches and threats of excommunication) 'It was by such actions that the Church of Christ educated the barbarians, these overgrown children, in the practice of the Gospel'.

wee - small, tiny; to urinate (Colloquial) + let us.

hom - them, themselves + Ш - Joyce said of this sign that it means HCE interred in the landscape, and also that it is a Chinese letter-word, meaning 'mountain' and called 'Chin'.

platter - dinner plate + "After much searching, Isis was able to gather together the pieces of Osiris, and added an artificial phallus. With the aid of words of magical power granted her by Thoth, she unified the parts of her brother husband and roused him. The image of Osiris' literal erection from the dead, effected by Isis in the shape of a bird is a vivid one. It is central to the cycle of Osiris, and important in FW. Mr. Slomczynski has discovered that, within the text of FW, we are referred to a photographic plate depicting the act ("well, see peegee ought he ought, platterplate"). If we observe the aural value of the phrase, and follow the suggestion of "see pg eighty-eight" in Moret's Rois et Dieux d'Egypte (1911, reprinted soon after the opening of Tutankhamen's tomb and popular at that time), we will find a "platterplate", that is a plate of "dished" or fallen Osiris, roused by Isis. This plate is titled "The Wake of Osiris" ("Veillée funèbre d'Osiris-Ounnefer mort")" (Mark L. Troy).

FDV: From Shopalist to Bailiwick Bailywick [or from Ashtun to baronsoath baronoath [or from Long Longthe Buythebanks to Roundthehead [he swim, swam, swum. [[All the way] the his baywinds [choir oboe oboboes] shall wail him [rockbound (HoaHoahoath hoahoahoath! HoaHoahoath hoahoahoath!)] in swimswamswum & all the livvylong night [the delldale dalppled dappling dalppling night, the night of blue hells bluerybells bluerabells] her flutaflute flitafluta flitaflute [in tricky trochees (how O carina! how O carina!)] [shall] wake him [with her kitti issavan essavans & her patterjackmartins [and about all the them inns & ouses.] tilling Tilling a teel of a tub tum, telling a toll of a tears teary turdy Tublin.]]]]] For what we are, and if we are, about to believe. So pass the kish [& pooll the begg].

Seipeal Iosaid (shepel isid') (gael) - Iosada's [Iseult's] chapel; anglic. Chapelizod (a village few miles west of Dublin city) + shopping list.

bailiwick - surrounding territory; an area under the jurisdiction of a bailiff + Baile (bolye) (gael) - Homestead; anglic. Bailey + Bailey Lighthouse on Howth Head, a few miles east of Dublin city.

Ashtown - village near Phoenix Park, north-west of Dublin city

barony - in Ireland, a division of a county + Baron of Howth - A title in the Anglo-Irish Peerage held in the St. Lawrence family which existed from around 1625 to 1801, at which time it was elevated to an earldom. The family seat was ay Howth Castle + FDV: From Shopalist to Bailiwick Bailywick [or from Ashtun to baronsoath baronoath

'By the Banks of My Own Lovely Lee' (song about the River Lee, which flows through the city of Cork) + FDV: [or from Long Longthe Buythebanks to Roundthehead

"his roundhead staple of other days" [FW.004.34] + Howth Head.

hill + foot the bill - to pay the bill.

Ireland's eye - a small uninhabited island off the coast of County Dublin, Ireland, situated directly north of Howth Harbour + glint - a momentary flash of light (often associated with a person's eye).

extensus (l) - stretched out + lies extended.

(sound of horn is heard in the air) + Richard Wagner's opera Der fliegende Holländer (The Flying Dutchman) opens with a horn call representing the Dutchman. This paragraph includes the names of many musical instruments.

fjord - a long, narrow arm of the sea, running up between high banks or cliffs, as on the coast of Norway + fjord (Norwegian) - bay (i.e. Dublin Bay).

fjeld - a barren plateau of Scandinavian uplands + fjell (Norwegian) - mountain (i.e. Hill of Howth).

"bend of bay" [FW 003.02]

oboe - a wooden double-reed wind-instrument, forming the treble to the bassoon + boes (gr) - cries, clamour + FDV: [he swim, swam, swum. [[All the way] the his baywinds [choir oboe oboboes] shall wail him [rockbound (HoaHoahoath hoahoahoath! HoaHoahoath hoahoahoath!)] in swimswamswum

rockbound - surrounded with rocks + In Arthurian legend, Merlin was entombed alive in a rock by Morgana La Faye. In Greek mythology, Prometheus was bound to a rock (his liver was eaten by a vulture during the day, but grew back at night).

(sound of wind and waves) → in FW brackets are not only 'contact' with reality, but also elements of internal dialogue or, better still, moments of stopping that "steady monologuy of the interiors" [FW.119.32-33.] → "I've told you that the internal dialogue is what grounds us," don Juan said. "The world is such and such, or so and so, only because we talk to ourselves about its being such and such or so and so." ... "Whenever the dialogue stops, the world collapses and extraordinary facets of ourselves surface; as though they had been kept heavily guarded by our words." (Carlos Castaneda: Tales of Power)

lifelong - lasting or continuing for a lifetime + all the livelong day - all day long.

telltale - betraying, revealing, informing + dell = dale - valley.

dapple - to variegate with rounded spots or cloudy patches of different colour or shade + FDV: & all the livvylong night [the delldale dalppled dappling dalppling night, the night of blue hells bluerybells bluerabells]

bluebell - a species of Campanula (C. rotundifolia) which grows on open downs, hills, and dry places, and flowers in summer and autumn, with a loose panicle of delicate blue bell-shaped flowers on slender peduncles + Plurabelle + blurry bells.

flit - to move about lightly + flitt (obs.) - fleet, fleeting; light + flute - a high-pitched woodwind instrument + FDV: her flutaflute flitafluta flitaflute [in tricky trochees (how O carina! how O carina!)] [shall] wake him  

tricky - manifesting trickery, intricate, ingenious

trochee - a metrical foot of one long plus one short syllable

carina - the two petals forming the base of a papilionaceous corolla + carina (it, fem) - lovely, pretty, nice + o carina! (it) - that's nice!, nice girl! + O carina! O carina! - four trochees.

Issy + FDV: [with her kitti issavan essavans & her patterjackmartins

Vanessa [nathandjoe FW 003.12]

patter - babble, chatter + Peter, Jack, Martin - in Swift's Tale of a Tub, they are the Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran churches. In FW they are also the Three.

houses (inns and public houses) + ins and outs - the small details + in-and-out (Slang) - copulation + FDV: [and about all the them inns & ouses.]

till - to put (money) into a till; to labour, cultivate; to take care + telling.

teel = till + a tale of a tub - an apocryphal tale; a 'cock and bull' story + Swift's A Tale of a Tub.

tum - the sound of plucked string, the sound of a drum; tummy + tum (l) - than + The Egyptian god Atum, was the chief deity of the city Iunu or Annu (Heliopolis), who was worshipped in the primary temple, known as Per-Aat ('Great House') and Per-Atum (written pr-ỉtmw 'Temple [lit. 'House'] of Atum').

teary - tearful, pathetic + Dear Dirty Dublin - Lady Morgan's epithet becomes in FW a paradigm of punning. Before modern paving came in, Dublin's streets were in fact notorious for their grime; something to do with the cobblestones and the soil in which they were laid. 

taub (l) - deaf + FDV: tilling Tilling a teel of a tub tum, telling a toll of a tears teary turdy Tublin.]]]]]

glutton - to feed voraciously or excessively + grace before meat - a short prayer giving thanks to God for one's food, usually including the line, "For what we are about to receive may the Lord make us truly thankful".

gif - if, whether + FDV: For what we are, and if we are, about to believe.

gross - thick, stout, massive, big (obs.)

Grace: 'For what we are about to receive may the Lord make us truly thankful.'

Begg, James - a fishmonger in Kingstown, Dublin + Hen's beg (nabsack) + pull the bell + POOLBEG - Deep anchorage (Irish, "the little hole") in Dublin Bay beyond the Pigeonhouse. The Poolbeg lighthouse is at the end of the South Wall. Before the lighthouse, a Poolbeg lightship marked the anchorage + "O Atum-Khoprer, you became high on the height, you rose up as a bnbn-stone in the Mansion of the Benu in Iunu (Heliopolis)." (Pyramid Texts, utterance 600). 

kish - a large square wicker basket used in Ireland for carrying peat + Kish lightship, Dublin + Joyce's note, Circe: 'Vanessa Pete, Jack & Martin, pass the fish' + FDV: So pass the kish [& pooll the begg].

craw - stomach + So pass the fish for Christ sake, Amen.

"It was then that the Nagual knew that he ought to acquaint me with the wind instead. That was, of course, after he got an omen. He had said, over and over that day, that although he was a sorcerer that had learned to see, if he didn’t get an omen he had no way of knowing which way to go. He had already waited for days for a certain indication about me. But power didn’t want to give it. In desperation, I suppose, he introduced me to his guaje, and I saw Mescalito." (Carlos Castaneda: The Second Ring of Power)

grandpapa - grandfather + grampus - Orca gladiator (whale) + London Bridge Is Falling Down (song).

granny - grandmother + Granny in Dostoyevsky's novel The Gambler, who proceeds to gamble away the family inheritance at roulette + Granuaile or Grace O’Malley.

sweep the board - to win all the prizes (esp. in roulette) + spread the board - to lay the table for a meal + spritz (ger) - spray + bord (Irish) - table.

whase - who is, what is (Archaic) + FDV: So sigh us! Whose Whase on the gyant goint joyiant giant joint joyant joiyorite joint of a dish desh? Finfaw Finnfoefaw the Fush.

joint - piece of meat roasted or for roasting and of a size for slicing into more than one portion + joyant - joyous + giant.

dish + on the point of death.

feefawfum - the first line of doggerel spoken by the giant in the nursery tale of 'Jack the giant killer' upon discovering the presence of Jack: "Fee-fi-fo-fum, I smell the blood of an Englishman. Be he alive or be he dead, I'll grind his bones to make my bread." The giant then tells his wife, "I smell an English man. I am sure I am right this time. Cook him for my supper." + William Shakespeare: King Lear III.4.174: 'Fie, foh, and fum'.

be = by + FDV: What's at his baken head? A loaf of Singpatherick's Singpantry's Keannedy's bread.

baken - baked, as bread or meat + baken meat - pastry + baken (Dutch) - beacon + baked bread + bacon head.

hops - the bitter fruit of the hop, Humulus lupulus, an ingredient used in the brewing of stout + top of his tail.

tail - the part opposite to what is regarded as the head; the refuse or dross remaining from processes such as distilling or milling + top and tail - from head to foot.

Kennedy's Bread, baked in Saint Patrick's Bakery, Dublin. 

hitch - to fasten by something that catches, to connect with a moving vehicle so as to be towed along + FDV: And what's at his hitched to hop in his tail tayl tayle?

Daniel O'Connell - first of the great 19th-century Irish leaders in the British House of Commons + Danu - mother-goddess of Tuatha Dé Danann + O’Connell's Ale, brewed in the Porter Brewery, Dublin (later renamed Phoenix Brewery), which was owned by Daniel O’Connell's son.

dobbelen (Dutch) - to gamble, gambling + FDV: A glass of O'Connell's O'Donnell's Danu U'Dunnell's famous foamous old Dublin oldublin ale olde Dubbelin ayle.

FDV: But Holystone Holeystone, what do I see? In his reins is planted a 1/2d gaff. Not one but legion. The king of the castle is k.o. The almost rubicund salmon of all knowledge is one with the yesterworld of But, lo, as you would quaffoff of his fraudstuff and sink teeth through the that pyth of an earthenborn pan of his flowerwhite body behold of him nowheremore. Finnish.

lo - used to direct attention to the presence or approach of something, Look! See! Behold!

quaff off - to drain (a cup, etc.) in a copious draught or draughts, to drink (liquor) copiously

fraud - deceit + foodstuff + Sigmund Freud.

pyth = pith - inner part or core of something; the soft, spongelike, central cylinder of the stems of most flowering plants ("flowerwhite bodey") + to the pith - thoroughly, to the very core.

bodey (obs.) - body + FDV: and sink teeth through the that pyth of an earthenborn pan of his flowerwhite body behold of him nowheremore. Finnish.

behemoth - great and monstruous beast. Untranslated name of an amphibious animal mentioned in the Book of Job 40:15-24. Behemoth is the primal unconquerable monster of the land, as Leviathan is the primal monster of the waters of the sea; both are emblematic of the mystery of God's creation.

no more - no longer existent; departed, dead, gone + FDV: behold of him nowheremore. Finnish.

(fading photograph) + REFERENCE + FDV: The Only a fadograph of yesterworld's a yesterworld.

yestern - of or pertaining to yesterday + western.

rubicund - ruddy + FDV: Almost rubicund salmon, he ancient of the ages of the Agapemonites, he pales to kay oh, loaf, life & goodredherring schlook, slice & goodridherring

Salmanasar - king of Assyria + Salmo salar - the Linnaean name for the Atlantic salmon (both words being related to the Latin salire, "to leap") + REFERENCE + FDV: The king of the castle is k.o. The almost rubicund salmon of all knowledge is one with the yesterworld of

agapemone - a free love institution + agapemon (gr) - loved one + Agapemones - a 19th Century religious community which practised 'agapes', or 'love-feasts'.

smolt - a young salmon; to make off, go, escape + molten.

woebegonne - exhibiting great woe or sorrow + canned - put up or preserved in a can, tinned + wohlbekannt (ger) - well known.

dead off (Military Slang) - Of meat or food: spoiled + dead on - accurate and to the point.

summen (ger) - to sing; to hum, buzz, ring + someone + salmon.

schluck (ger) - gulp, swallow + neither fish, flesh nor good red herring: (phrase) - neither one thing nor another; not fish (food for the monk), nor flesh (food for lay people), nor red herring (food for the poor).

Schluss (ger) - the end + slice + FDV: he ancient of the ages of the Agapemonites, he pales to kay oh, loaf, life & goodredherring schlook, slice & goodridherring

'good red herring' (Joyce's note, Circe) + red herring - a kipper; a dried, smoked and salted herring, the curing process turning the fish red. To draw a red herring across the path means to try and divert attention from the main question or objective by raising a side issue; in fox-hunting, a red herring drawn acoss the fox's path destroys the scent and leads the dogs astray.

FDV: We may see the brontoichthyan form outlined, aslumbered, even in our nighttime by the side of the troutlet stream that bronto loved and loves. What though she be in flags & or flitters, she rowdyrags or sundayclosies, with a mint of money or never a hapenny haypenny hapenny, yerra, we all love all of little Annie Ruiny, or I we mean to say lobble Nanny Anny Rainy, when under her brella, through piddle & poddle, she ninnygoes nannygoes nancing by. There Yaw!

bronto- - thunder + ichtyal - of, pertaining to, or characteristic of fishes + (notebook 1924): 'brontosauros' + Brontosaurus, Ichthyosaurus (extinct dinosaurs).

outline - to define

nighttime - night

sedge - a name for various coarse grassy, rush-like or flag-like plants growing in wet places + edge + FDV: by the side of the troutlet stream

troutling - a little trout + trattling - that 'trattles'; chattering, gossiping.

Bronto(saurus) + bronton (gr) - thundering + Bronté family.

Hic cubat aedilis apud libertinam parvulam (l) - Here sleeps the magistrate with [chez] the little freedgirl + hic (l) - here + cubo (l) - to lie, to sleep + aedilis (l) - temple, building + apud (l) - near + parvulus (l) - very little + "Here lies the edible man. By the tiny freedwoman."

what if - what is or would be the case if? + FDV: What though she be in flags & or flitters,

flag - an apron; one of various endogenous plants, with a bladed or ensiform leaf, mostly growing in moist places + rags

flitter - fragment, shred + tatters + slippers.

reaking rags + FDV: rowdyrags or sundayclosies, [rowdy (obs. slang) - money] 

choses (fr) - things + Sunday clothes + Ragged Schools (created by Pound, 1818) and Sunday Schools, inspired by Raikes (1736-1811).

mint - coin, money, a vast sum (as of money)

goldmines + mint of money - 'a lot of money'.

pennyweight - a measure of weight, equal to 24 grains, 120 of an ounce Troy, or 1240 of a pound Troy + FDV: with a mint of money or never a hapenny haypenny hapenny,

arrah - an interjection used at the beginning of a clause in an expostulatory or deprecatory sense

anny - fenny, marshy (from Anglo-Irish: eanaigh)

Little Annie Rooney (song) + FDV: yerra, we all love all of little Annie Ruiny,

unda (l) - wave + under her umbrella + FDV: or I we mean to say lobble Nanny Anny Rainy, when under her brella,

piddle - urine, an act of urinating; a trifle, nonsense

med (Danish) - with + amid.

puddle - a small body of standing water

ninny - a simpleton; a fool

nanny = nannygoat - a she-goat + "on Ben Howth rhododendrons a nannygoat" (Ulysses.8.911).

dancing + FDV: through piddle & poddle, she ninnygoes nannygoes nancing by. There Yaw!

Yog-Sothoth → "Nor is it to be thought... that man is either the oldest or the last of earth's masters, or than the common bulk of life and substance walks alone. The Old Ones were, the Old Ones are, and the Old Ones shall be. Not in the spaces we know, but between them, they walk serene and primal, undimensioned and to us unseen. Yog-Sothoth knows the gate. Yog-Sothoth is the gate. Yog-Sothoth is the key and guardian of the gate. Past, present, future, all are one in Yog-Sothoth. He knows where the Old Ones broke through of old, and when they shall break through again..." (H. P. Lovecraft, The Dunwich Horror, citation from Necronomicon)

brontolone (it) - grumbler

slaap - sleep + FDV: Brontolone sleeps & snores in Benn Eder & in Seepeall of Iseut too.

snoore - snore

Ben Edar = Binn Éadair (Irish) - anciently Howth, said to be named for Edar, a Dedanaan chief, buried on the hill + Joyce's notes, Circe: 'Ben Edin, the magazine wall, Walhalten, up lads' + Benben or Ben-ben, in Egyptian mythology, specifically in the Heliopolitan tradition, was the mound that arose from the primordial waters, Nu, and on which the creator god Atum settled. In the Pyramid Texts, e.g. Utterances 587 and 600, Atum himself is at times referred to as "mound". It was said to have turned into a small pyramid, located in Annu, which was the place Atum was said to dwell within. Giza and Heliopolis were connected by the "Sacred Roads of the Gods".

Seipéal Iosaid (Irish) - Chapelizod, a village just outside Dublin + Heliopolis or Iunu, from the transliteration ỉwnw, probably pronounced *Āwanu, and means "(Place of) Pillars".

cranic - of or belonging to a skull, cephalic + FDV: The cranial head of him, castle of his reason, look yonder. Howth?

caster - one who casts, in various senses of the verb

peer - to look narrowly, esp. in order to discern something indistinct or difficult to make out

yond = yonder + yondermost - farthest, most distant.

whoot - a loud inarticulate exclamation, hoot + Howth + who/what?.

feet of clay - a surprising weakness or fault in character esp. in someone or something that is highly approved of + FDV: His lay clay feet, swarded with verdure, stick up where he last fell on em, by the hump of the magazine wall, where our Maggy Maggies seen all couldn't help keep it at all with her sister-in-shawl.

sward - to cover with sward

verdigris - a green or greenish blue substance (basic acetate of copper) that forms on copper domes + verde (it) - green.

stick up - to stand out from a surface; to project

starck = stark (obs.) - rigid, stiff, incapable of movement.

fell on them + fall on one's feet - to be fortunate or successful after being in an uncertain or risky situation + "And it was then that Nyarlathotep came out of Egypt. Who he was, none could tell, but he was of the old native blood and looked like a Pharaoh. The fellahin knelt when they saw him, yet could not say why." (H. P. Lovecraft, Nyarlathotep)

mund - protection; mound, hill + FDV: stick up where he last fell on em, by the hump of the magazine wall,

MAGAZINE FORT, PHOENIX PARK - At the SE corner of the "Fifteen Acres," on St Thomas's Hill in the Park, built on the site of the old Phoenix or Fionn Uisge House in 1801. The buildings of the Magazine are surrounded by a ditch and wall. Even in his madness, Swift quipped: "Behold a proof of Irish sense, / Here Irish wit is seen; / When nothing's left that's worth defence, / They build a magazine" (PICTURE)

The Letter: well Maggy + FDV: where our Maggy Maggies seen all couldn't help keep it at all with her sister-in-shawl.

sister (Issy's reflection) in shawl 

over against - opposite to + FDV: Wile over against this belle alliance beyind the Ill Sixty, bagsides of the fort, bom, tarabom, tarrarabom, are the ambushes the scene of the lying- lyffing-in-wait of the threetimesthree upjack & hackums.  

belles - beautiful girls (Issy and her "sister") + LA BELLE ALLIANCE - Village on the battlefield of Waterloo, South of Mont St Jean. The battle and battlefield of Waterloo are most commonly called on the continent "La Belle Alliance." Wellington and Blucher met there as the battle drew to a close + Bell, Currer, Ellis, Acton - pen names of the Brontës, who dominate this paragraph.

behind + beyond.

Hill 60 - In WW I, an important feature of the Ypres salient, SE of Ypres. Changed hands many times in 1st (Oct-Nov' 14) and 2nd (Apr' 15) Battles of Ypres (not 3rd).

hollowed hill 

back side - the back, the back premises, back yard (the outhouse in HCE's backyard) + bagside (Danish) - back, rear.

bom - the sound caused by the discharge of a gun, less deep and sonorous than a 'boom'. Also, the sound of a heavy object falling + (a drumbeat of military band).

lurk - prowl + look - to guard oneself, beware.

Ombos - ancient seat of Set + ambushers (*VYC*) + FDV: are the ambushes the scene of the lying- lyffing-in-wait of the threetimesthree upjack & hackums.

Liffey river + "To give reality to the dream-haunters is to give birth to the dark influx of forces that are ever waiting to gain access to the human life-wave. Those gliphotic entities are known as the Liers-in-wait." (Kenneth Grant: Outside the Circles of Time)

"Up guards and at 'em!" - Wellington's order in the last charge at Waterloo + Sigmund Freud, Wit and Its Relation to the Unconscious: "Is this the place where Wellington said ‘Up, guards, and at them?’ ... Yes, this is the place. But he never said those words." + As I Went Up the Brandy Hill (song): 'Up Jock'.

hokum - a device found to elicit display of mirth, something worthless or untrue + hack - to cut to pieces with a sword + FDV: of the threetimesthree upjack & hackums.

Jimmy (James Joyce) + Wait Till the Clouds Roll By, Jenny (song) - a broadside ballad published in 1884: "Jenny, my own true loved one, / I'm going far from thee, / Out on the bounding billows, / Out on the dark blue sea. / How I will miss you, my darling, / There when the storm is raging high, / Jenny, my own true loved one, / Wait till the clouds roll by."

proud - desirous of copulation; a bitch at heat, or desirous of a dog + Proud, Nicholas - secretary of the Dublin Port and Docks Board in the late 19th Century + bird's-eye view - a view of a landscape from above, such as is presented to the eye of a bird.

mounding - heaping, piling + morning Mass + FDV: From here when the clouds roll by, jamey, a clear view is enjoyable of the mound's mounding's mass, now Williamstown national museum, with in a greenish distance the charmful waterloose country and they two quitewhite villagettes who here show herselves so gigglesome mixxt minxt the follyages, the pretties!

WELLINGTON MUSEUM - At Hyde Park Corner, London, the residence of the Duke of Wellington, purchased as a gift to him in 1820 + Joyce's note: 'ark = museum' + Wellington Monument is not a museum but an an obelisk in the Phoenix Park. It is known that a sacred pillar was worshipped at Heliopolis before the Benben (Edwards, p.24). The phallic symbolism of a pillar is of course obvious, and its association to the phallus of Atum seems almost a certainty, for in the Pyramid Texts we read: "Atum is he who once came into being, who masturbated in On (Heliopolis). He took his phallus in his grasp that he might create orgasm by means of it…".


Waterloo + The museum, or museyroom, is the outhouse in the backyard behind HCE's tavern; a WC (water closet) or loo, naturally brings Waterloo to mind, and becomes the place (lieu) in which the battle is fought; the following two-and-a-half pages consist of (1) a tour through the museum; (2) a detailed account of the Battle of Waterloo, (3) a descrption of HCE urinating, defecating and masturbating in his outhouse; (4) a depiction of HCE and ALP making love (or is it HCE and Kate? "Widow Strong, then, as her weaker had turned him to the wall" [FW.79.33-34])

quite - completely, totally, realy

villagette - a little village + FDV: and they two quitewhite villagettes who here show herselves

show off (expose themselves) + {HCE's crime, which he commits in the Phoenix Park, seems to involve both peeping at girls who are urinating in the bushes (and thus exposing themselves to him) as well as exposing himself to them}.

gigglesome - tending to cause giggles

twixt - betwixt (between) + amidst + minxit (l) - she urinated + FDV: so gigglesome mixxt minxt the follyages, the pretties!

foliage - a mass of leaves + folly - In architechture, a folly is an extravagant, useless, or fanciful building ("Behold a proof of Irish sense, / Here Irish wit is seen; / When nothing's left that's worth defence, / They build a magazine") + "Once a man learns to see he finds himself alone in the world with nothing but folly," don Juan said cryptically. (Carlos Castaneda: A Separate Reality)

prettiness - beauty of a slight, diminutive, dainty, or childish kind, without stateliness + pretties - pretty girls.

penetrator - one who penetrates

Paddy - Irishman + Patkins, Paddy - an Irish Tommy Atkins + FDV: Penetrators are admitted in this museumound free, welshe and the militaries one shellink.

shilling + {penetrators, free, Welsh/Irish/English (*VYC*), one shilling}

dismember - to deprive of limbs, to cut off the limbs

Pensioners from Napoleon's 'Vieille Garde' (Old Guard) lived in the 'Hotel des Invalides', the location of Napoleon's mausoleum and tomb (Cambronne commanded a division of the Old Guard at Waterloo).

pousse - to push + poussepousse (fr) - rickshaw (from French pousser: to push) + puss-puss - hypocorism for cat.

pram - perambulator

sate - to saturate + sate (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - seat.

butt - buttocks

passkey - a key to the door of a restricted area, given only to those who are officially allowed access; a master key

supply = supplicate - to petition humbly

janitrix = janitress - a female janitor

kate (Slang) - picklock, skeleton key + Kate - servant in HCE's household + FDV: For her key supply to the janitrix, the Mistresse Kate. Tip.

tip - an item of expert or authoritative information imparted or sought for one's guidance + Ulysses 11.706: "Tipping her tepping... topping her. Tup" (All these t-p "verbs" have in common the (archaic) meaning: to copulate as animals. To "tup" and to "tip" mean to copulate as a ram does. To "top" means to cover as an animal covers, and both "tap" and "tep" are dialect variants of "top". "Tipping" is also a musical term for double-tonguing.) [Don Gifford, Robert J. Seidman: Ulysses anotated] + Tib - Issy's cat, Boald Tib; name of mistress Kathe is also similar with the cat.

FDV: This way to the mewseyroom. Mind your boot hat going in. Now yez yiz are in the Willingdone mewseyroom. This is a Prooshian Prooshious gun gunz. This is a ffrinch. Tip. This is the flag-o'-the-prushian prooshan prooshious. This is a bullet that bing the flag-o'-th prooshian prooshan. This is the ffrinch that fire the bull that bang the flag-o'-the-prooshian. Tip. This the hat of lipoleum. Tip. Lipoleum hat. This is the Willingdone on his white harse. This the big Willingdone, grand & magentic, with his gold tim goltin spurs, [& quarterbrass shoos shoes], this his big wide harse. Tip.

museum - the English word museum comes from the Latin word, and originally is from the Greek mouseion, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, the patron divinities in Greek mythology of the arts + mew - the sound a cat makes + REFERENCE

yiz - you (pl.)

Willingdone, Marquess of - appointed Indian viceroy, 1931, when India was in revolutionary turmoil. He arrested Gandhi, suppressed a "No Rent" campaign, etc., and in my Second Census I confidently stated that he doubles with Wellington, FW 8-10, who also supressed an Indian revolt. But now I have noticed that "Willingdone" occurs in transition I, 1927. Therefore, unless he suppressed an earlier revolt, the marquess is yet another of Joyce's fine coincidences on prophecies or historical insights. (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake). 

Prooshian = Prussian + Created as a kingdom in 1701 from the duchy of Brandenberg, Prussia became the dominant power in the formation of the German Empire in 1871. General Blucher's Prussian army was crucially engaged against the French at the Battle of Waterloo. Russians were not at Waterloo, but they were in the Crimean War; thus the museyroom episode draws the story of How Buckley Shot the Russian General into its orbit; many things that happen in this episode will recur in the Buckley episode.

French + FDV: This is a Prooshian Prooshious gun gunz. This is a ffrinch.

flag - banner; an abusive term applied to a woman

cup and saucer + cap and sorcerer + FDV: This is a ffrinch. Tip. This is the flag-o'-the-prushian prooshan prooshious.

bang - to strike violently with a resounding blow; sexual intercourse + John Byng - British general who commanded a brigade at Waterloo + FDV: This is a bullet that bing the flag-o'-th prooshian prooshan. 

SALO - Town, Lombardy, North Italy, 40 miles North-West of Mantua; site of French defeat by Austrians in Napoleon's siege of Mantua during the French Revolutionary War, 29 Jul 1796 + salus (l) - good health + salute.

Crossguns Bridge, Dublin + Corsican (Napoleon Bonaparte was born on Corsica). 

up with - denoting the rising of a weapon, the hand etc. esp. so as to strike

pike - a weapon consisting of a long wooden shaft with a pointed head of iron or steel + put down one's knife and fork (Slang) - to die + "If only you’d come out with knives and forks" (Eamonn De Valera, criticizing the citizenry of Dublin for not supporting the 1916 Rising).

fork - an implement consisting of a long straight handle, furnished at the end with two or more prongs or tines (used as a weapon) + De Valera, when not a great many people rose in Easter 1916: 'if only the people had come out with knives and forks'.

Napoleon + linoleum - a kind of floor-cloth made by coating canvas with a preparation of oxidized linseed-oil + oleum (l) - oil + At Waterloo Napoleon and Wellington wore bicornes, or two-cornered cocked hats, now known as the Napoleon hat and the Wellington hat respectively. Tricorne is cocked hat with three-corners.

Lipoleumhat (fr) - Diplomate

white horse is generally associated in Ireland with William III of Orange (King Billy) + HCE on the privy in his outhouse, and HCE & ALP (Kate?) engaged in sexual intercourse (both activities are involved in this complicated account of the Battle of Waterloo) + "Physically, HCE is a fat fifty-six year old man in terrible condition, white-haired, red-nosed, toothless, purblind and be-spectacled, once tall and stright, now stooped - he leans on a cane - and gross... Humiliatingly enough, to many his distinguishing feature has come to be his enormous backside, the 'big white harse' which awes the watchers of I/1's Waterloo scene and III/4 bedroom scene alike." (John Gordon: Finnegans Wake: a plot summary).

Copenhagen - the name of the Wellington's horse at Waterloo, which was a chestnut. Napoleon's, Marengo, was white + W. G. Wills' play A Royal Divorce about Napoleon divorcing Josephine and marrying Marie-Louise. James S. Atherton, in The Books at the Wake, p. 162: "... a scene without words. A backcloth showing the scene of Waterloo... In the foreground on a big white horse, rode Napoleon [played by W. W. Kelly], or sometimes - apparently when Mr. Kelly wanted a rest - Wellington. It made no difference to the play who was on the horse as nothing was said, but Joyce makes great play with this interchangeability of the opposed generals."

slaughter - the killing of large numbers of persons in war, battle, etc.; massacre, carnage + Sir Arthur Wellesley, the 1st Duke of Wellington.

magnetic - very attractive or seductive + magenta - a reddish purple dye, or its colour + Battle of Magenta, 1859 (MacMahon's victory).

gold, tin, iron + Battle of Golden Spurs (Guldensporenslag), 1302 + FDV: This the big Willingdone, grand & magentic, with his gold tim goltin spurs, [& quarterbrass shoos shoes], this his big wide harse.

Iron Duke - a nickname of Wellington

QUATRE BRAS - Village South of the battlefield of Waterloo, where Wellington repelled the French under Ney on 16 June 1815, 2 days before the main battle, but then withdrew toward Waterloo.  

magnate - a powerful or wealthy individual + Magna Carta - the Great Charter, the foundation of English constitutional law, agreed in 1215 between King John and his nobles.

garter - a badge of a highest order of English knighthood (Wellington was made a Knight of the Garter in 1813) + gaiter - a heavy cloth or leather covering for the leg extending from the instep to the ankle or knee.

Bangkok - a kind of woven straw for hats

best - best clothes + vest.

goliard (fr) - minstrel, jester + (notebook 1924): 'Goliath'.

golosh - an overshoe designed to protect the shoe in wet weather

Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) between Athens and Sparta and their allies ended in the surrender of Athens and the brief transfer of leadership of Greece to Sparta.  

trews - close-fitting tartan trousers + gaiters + Waterloo.

boyne - a flat shallow tub or bowl + boys + Battle of Boyne, 1690, which has been called "Ireland's Waterloo" + FDV: This is the first boyne hiena (placement of "hiena" doubtful) grouching in the living ditch. This is three lipoleums lipoleum boyne hiena grouching in the living ditch.

grouch - to grumble, complain + crouch - to stoop or bend low with general compression of the body, as in stooping for shelter, in fear, or in submission + Grouchy, Marshal (1766-1847) - marshal of Napoleon's, fought at Waterloo. 

ditch + living death + In Les Miserables, Victor Hugo describes the lane that ran across the Waterloo battlefield from Braine-l'Alleud to Ohain as a sunken ditch, steeply embanked and ravined; in the Chapter entitled The Unexpected, he describes how almost half the 3500 French cuirassiers who charged Mont-Saint-Jean died when they fell into this unforeseen obstacle - a third of Dubois' brigade plunged in and filled the ravine with their corpses, forming a bridge for the followers - this was the beginning of Napoleon's defeat. 

enemy + inimicus (l) - enemy + Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers regiment at Waterloo.

Inglis - English + Sir William Inglis - a famous British officer in the Peninsular Wars + FDV: This is an inglis, this a scotcher, this a welsh walshe [one].

scotcher - one that scotches + the Scotch - (pl.): The inhabitants of Scotland or their immediate descendants in other countries + scotcher grey, scotch grey (Slang) - louse + Royal Scots Greys regiment at Waterloo + If Shaun the angel (inglis) is white, and Shem the devil (davy) is black, then Shem-Shaun is grey.

Davy - a name associated with the Welsh (after Saint David, patron saint of Wales) + David slew Goliath.

morder = murder + Mordred on Modred - King Arthur's nephew/son, who brought down the Round Table and was killed by Arthur + FDV:  [This is the peg beg lipoleum murdering the lipoleum beg. This is the Delian alps sheltershocking the three lipoleums behind a crim crimmealine.]

galgar (golugur) (gael) - noisy argument + Gallagher + Gawilghur was a well-fortified mountain stronghold of the Maratha Empire north of the Deccan Plateau. It was successfully assaulted by an Anglo-Indian force commanded by Arthur Wellesley on the 15 December, 1803 during the Second Anglo-Maratha War.

ARGAUM - Village in North India. Wellington defeated a Mahratta army there 29 Nov 1803, shortly before the attack on Gawilghur fortress + a lawyer's argument.

petty - small + pretty.

naythir - neither + If Shaun is Big Napoleon ('bog lipoleum') and Shem is Little Napoleon ('lipoleum beg'), then Shem-Shaun is the 'Petty Napoleon who is neither big nor small'.

asseyez (fr) - sit down + assez, assez (fr) - enough, enough! + assaye (Middle English) - try + ASSAYE - Village, South India. Wellington defeated far superior Mahratta forces there, 23 Sept 1803. 

tuachail (tukhil) (gael) - astute, prudent + Tuathal (tuhel) (gael) - People-mighty; anglic. Toole + touch-hole (Slang) - vulva.

Tomais (tumash) (gael) - Thomas + Muschi (German Slang) - vulva.

dyke (Slang) - water-closet + Tom, Dick, and Harry.

hairy ring (Slang) - vulva + In Genesis, Esau is hairy (Shem) + HCE’s hairy arse as he sits on the toilet in his outhouse.

Arminius (18 B.C - A.D. 21) - German chief who defeated Varus at Teutonberger Forest + Varus, Publius Quintilius (d. 9 AD.) - Roman general.

Delian - rel. to island of Delos, birthplace of Apollo and Artemis. Delia is another name for goddess Artemis + Julian Alps, North Italy.

mont - mountain

mons (l) - mountain + mons pubis - fatty tissue present in women above the pubic bone + Battle of Mons, 1914.

Injun - Colloq. and U.S. dial. form of Indian + MONT ST JEAN - Village just North of the battlefield of Waterloo, which Napoleon thought the key to Wellington's position.

streamline - a smooth flowing outline, a contour of a body + crinoline - a hooped skirt; a fabric used for hoop-petticoats + Crimean War.

Alp - proper name of the mountain range which separates France and Italy + ALP's skirt.

hoop - hope; to encircle, embrace

shellshock - battle fatigue, especially during World War I. So sheltershock would be to shelter from shellshock or shellshock (the lipoleums) in their shelter.

jinny - demon or spirit; a female proper name, pet form of Jane + (Issy and her reflection).

leghorn (notebook 1922-23) → Leghorn - an English name for Livorno, Italy (seized by Napoleon in 1796) + leghorn - the dried and bleached straw of an Italian variety of wheat; a hat made from this fabric (so called after Livorno from where it was imported) + legions.

feint - to pretense, trick; to make a diversionary attack

handmade - made by hand + handmaid’s book + handbook.

strategy + astrology + strale (it) - arrow.

undies (Colloquial) - women's underwear + on the side of + FDV: This is the jinnies with the legahorns legohorns making their war oversides undersides undisides the Willingdone.

cooing - uttering coos + FDV: This is jinnies cooin her hands. This is jinnies ravin her hair.

ravin - to obtain or seize by violence + raven - of the colour of a raven, glossy black + Issy's good personality is represented by dove, and evil by raven.

Isolde of the White Hands and Isolde of the Fair Hair

git = get + get wind of - to receive information or a hint of, to come to know + get the wind up - to get into a state of alarm or funk + get it up (Slang) - to have an erection.

bander (fr) - to have an erection

memorial - of which the memory is preserved + mormor - murmur + marmor (l) = Marmor (ger) - marble.

telescope + WELLINGTON MONUMENT - The 205-ft granite obelisk erected in 1817 in Phoenix Park. Visible from many parts of Dublin, it has been popularly called the "overgrown milestone." The sides display the names of the Iron Duke's victorious battles, and there are bronze bas-reliefs at the base. 

wonderworker - one who performs wonders or marvellous things; esp. a worker of miracles

abseits (ger) - aside + opposite + FDV: This is the big Willingdone tallowscoop upsides obscides on the jinnies. Tip.

flank - the extreme left or right side of an army or body of men in military formation; the fleshy or muscular part of the side of an animal or a man between the ribs and the hip.

Excalibur - King Arthur's sword + six-cylinder (car).

horsepower + hross (Old Icelandic) - horse + Ross (ger) - steed.

me - my

Waterloo is of course in Belgium + General Blücher + Maurice Behan, Man Servant, *S* + bell chime, which comes to Erwicker's assistance when Cad addresses him + FDV: This is the Belchiam taking a phillipy out of his bottle of Tiltsiter.  

sneak - to move, go, walk, etc., in a stealthy or slinking manner + taking

philippy - love for or kindness to a horse or horses + Philip II of Macedon (reigned 359-336 B.C.) - father of Alexander the Great. For him the city of Philippi was named. When Philip was drunk, he condemned a woman unjustly. She said she would appeal from Philip Drunk to Philip Sober + Battle of Philippi, 42 B.C. + sneaking his filly. 

"This is me Belchum sneaking his phillippy out of his most / toocisive bottle of Tilsiter. This is the libel on the battle / Awful Grimmest Sun'shat Cromwelly, Looted." (The whole line was accidentally skipped by the FW-galley typesetter. It was there in transition (JJA 44:258) and already complete in Joyce's fair copy). Robbert-Jan Henkes, 16 May 2002 + Tilsiter is a Swiss-Prussian cheese, though S's Tilsiter is obviously an alcoholic drink like Pilsener lager.

grimmest - supperl. of grim + Arthur Guinness, Sons and Company, Ltd.

Cromwell, Oliver - English warlord who invaded Ireland in 1649 and ruthlessly suppressed the native Catholics + Aleister Crowley, occultist.

loot - to lurk, lie concealed; to make obeisance, to bow + routed - put to rout, compelled to flee in disorder + limited.

hastings - early fruit of vegetables, early peas + casting - the assigning of parts to suitable actors and actresses + hasting - that hastes, speeding + Battle of Hastings, 1066.

dispatch - to start promptly for a place, get away quickly; a written message sent off promptly or speedily

irrigate - to supply with moisture (pee) + irritate + FDV: This is the jinnies hasting dispatch fontannoy fortannoy the Willingdone.

The Thin Red Line - a nickname given to the 93rd (Sutherland Highlanders) Regiment of British infantry after their dogged defence in the face of overwhelming odds at Balaclava during the Crimean War.

shirt front - that part of man's shirt which covers the chest and is more or less displayed, a dicky

yaw - yawn + you

liberator + Lieber Arthur (ger) - Dear Arthur + FDV: Dear Liffer Leaveher Awthur, Owthur field gates gaze your the tiny frow? They The jinnies think to they cotch the Willingdone.

wir siegen (ger) - we conquer + versiegen (ger) - to dry up.

fieldglass + Wie geht's deiner Frau? (ger) - How's your wife?

frow - woman, wife

hug - to clasp or squeeze tightly in the arms: usually with affection = embrace + hoogachtend (Dutch) - yours faithfully, yours truly.

stop + Napoleon + nap (Slang) - catch veneral disease.


FONTENOY - Village, SW Belgium; scene of battle 11 May 1745, in which Marshal Saxe's French army including the Irish Brigade defeated an Anglo-Allied army under the Duke of Cumberland in the War of the Austrian Succession + fountain + FDV: They The jinnies think to they cotch the Willingdone.

shee - she + he he - a representation of laughter, usually affected or derisive + shee (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - see.

agin - again + courting again + AGINCOURT - Village, North France, where the English under Henry V defeated the French, 25 Oct 1415 + Joyce's note, Circe: 'agin courting, crecy'.

gonn - to begin + gone + Gunn - Michael Gunn, the manager of the Gaiety Theatre in Dublin.

boycrazy - (of a girl) eager to associate with boys + The boy Cotton - a twelve-year old boy who lived unobserved for twelve months (in 1838) in the kitchen quarters of Buckingham Palace + boycott - a punitive ban that forbids relations with other bodies, cooperation with a policy, or the handling of goods.

git - get + get it up (Slang) = bander (French Slang) - to have an erection + get the wind up - to become nervous, apprehensive, agitated.

bode - messenger, herald + bod (bud) (gael) - penis + FDV: This is the Belchiam [, bonnet & busby,] breaking the word to the Willingdone.

bonnet - a cap of mail, a kind of helmet

busby - a tall fur cap, with or without a plume, having a bag hanging out of the top, on the right side

break words with - to exchange words with

secred = secret + sacred.

ball up - to make a mess of, to confuse, muddle

herald - a messenger + Harold - English king who was defeated and killed at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 + FDV: This the Willingdone hurled dispatch dispatchback.  

dispatch - to send off post-haste or with expedition or promptitude (a messenger, message, etc. having an express destination)

display - to exhibit ostentatiously; to show off, make a show of + deployed.

rare - the back part of something, rear

salamander - a woman who (ostensibly) lives chastely in the midst of temptations (obs.), a soldier who exposes himself to fire in battle + SALAMANCA - Spanish province and city; site of Wellington's victory oven France in the Penin War, 22 Jul 1812.

cherry - cherry-coloured, red; a virgin + chère (fr) - dear (Jenny) + FDV: Cherry jinny, damn fairy ann, voutre, Willingdone. Pip Tip.  

victory! + fichtre! (French) (euphemism for 'foutre') - the deuce!; fuck you! + Victor Hugo, the French novelist who included a lengthy discussion of Waterloo in Les Miserables + Christ cursed the fig tree with barrenness (Matthew 21:19) + Joyce's note, Circe: 'banana stuck in her fig'.

Ça ne fait rien (French) - that doesn't matter + George Bernard Shaw, Mrs Warren’s Profession: "The old Iron Duke didnt throw away fifty pounds: not he. He just wrote: ‘Dear Jenny: publish and be damned! Yours affectionately, Wellington'." → Harriette (or Henriette) Wilson (1786-1846) was one of the most sought after courtesans in London. She settled down for a time with the Duke of Argyle, but when he went to Scotland she became the mistress of the Duke of Wellington until she turned 35 (1821). She then retired from the business, moved to Paris, married a Monsieur Dubochet, and settled down to a literary career. Her first work was her Memoirs (1825), in which she named names and provided details of her liaisons. In 1824, before publication, her publisher, Stockdale, sent letters to her former beaux, demanding £200 in exchange for their exclusion from the memoirs; Wellington is alleged to have returned the letter with the words "Write, and be damned!" scrawled on it. In her memoirs, Harriette says that Wellington looked like a ratcatcher! After her memoirs, she wrote and published novels (very bad ones, say her critics). She eventually returned to London, and died in 1846.

vôtre (French) - yours (i.e. yours faithfully) + foutre (French) - to fuck → fuck you! + outré (French) - enraged.

Arthur Wellesley, the victor of Waterloo, became the 1st Duke of Wellington on 11 May 1814.

tic - obsession, fixation + tit for tat - an equivalent given in return.

hee - he + hee-hee - an interjection expressing laughter.

caoutchouc - a tenacious, elastic, gummy substance obtained from the milky sap of several plants of tropical South America, Asia, and Africa. Also called India rubber (because it was first brought from India) + bottes de caoutchouc (fr) - Wellingtons, rubber boots which Irish farmers wear while working in their fields.

weet - to know; wet

tweet - a chirping note, chirp + (creaking of rubber boots).

STAMFORD BRIDGE - Village, East Riding, Yorks, England; site of battle in 1066 in which Harold II defeated his brother and Harold Haardraade of Norway just before the Battle of Hastings.  

foot - to go on foot, walk, run + foutre le camp (French, Slang) - to go, leave + fous le camp! - fuck off! clear off! bugger off! 

camp - the place where an army or body of troops is lodged in tents or other temporary means of shelter + FDV: This is the Belchiam [in his cowashoes] footing the camp to for the jinnies. Tip.

stale (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - steal

store - to dose with (drugs or medicines) (obs.) + store stale stout + steal stale stout.

Rooshian - Russian + FDV: This is Prooshing rooshing balls. This the ffrinch! Tip.  

ball - a missile (from canon, musket, pistol, etc.)

trinch - trench + French

missile - a missile object or weapon + troop - a body of soldiers + Ulysses.15.4606: 'Irish missile troops... Royal Dublin Fusiliers' + tropes (gr) - changes, turns + mistletoe - shrub of central and southeastern Europe; partially parasitic on beeches, chestnuts and oaks; it was sacred to the Celtic Druids.


Futter (ger) - fodder + futter (Slang) - to fuck + cannon-fodder - soldiers regarded merely as material to be expended on the battlefield.

poppy - characterized by popping or exploding (rare.) + A Portrait I: 'There's a tasty bit here we call the pope's nose... He held a piece of fowl up on the prong of the carving fork'.

indulgence - the practice or habit of indulging or giving way to one's inclinations; in the Catholic Church, a papal indulgence is the remission granted by the Church of the temporal punishment due to sins already forgiven by God, thus reducing the amount of time a deceased person's soul must suffer in Purgatory + One hundred days passed between Napoleon's escape from Elba and the battle of Waterloo.


blessés (fr) - wounded


TORRES VEDRAS - Town, West Portugal, noted for 28-mile stretch of fortifications begun in 1809 and extending to the Tagus River, from which Wellington hindered the French march against Lisbon in 1810 + terra (l) - earth + widders (Engliah Dialect) - widows.

bonny - having a pleasing appearence

bawn = boon - advantageous, fortunate, prosperous + bawn (Anglo-Irish) - white, fair, pretty (from Irish : bán).


Blücher (1742-1819) - Prussian marshal who came to Wellington's aid at Waterloo. Bluchers are shoes.  

rowdy - marked by disorderly roughness or noise + ruddy - reddish.

howse - house + FDV: Guns Gunz, harses, this is jinnies in their ____ yalla bawn blootchers blooches, this is the frinches lipoleums in the redditches rody rowdy hoses. Tip!

splinter - fragment + FDV: This is the Willingdone order, fire! Tonerre!


TONNERRE - Town, in North Burgundy, France. Not associated with any historic battle + tonnerre (French) - thunder (also expletive).


bullsear (Anglo-Irish) - a clown (from Irish: ballséir)


plee (Dutch) - privy (Pronunciation 'play')

camelry - troops mounted on camels + cavalry + Battle of Camel, 656, in which Muhammad’s widow Ayesha rode a camel.

footer - one who goes on foot + Battle of Flodden Field, 1513 + Noah's Flood.


sulfairin (sulfirin) (gael) - sulphur + -een (Anglo-Irish) - (diminutive) + smithereens + submarines + Battle of Solferino, 1859 (Napoleon III defeated Franz Josef).


Thermopilae - Scene of battle between the Greeks and the Persians in 480 BC.   


BANNOCKBURN - Town, central Scotland, 2½ miles South-East of Stirling; site of battle 23 June 1314 in which Robert Bruce routed the English under Edward II and took Stirling Castle + FDV: This is the smokings & bannockburns froodenfihls & panicburns.   


ALMEIDA - Town, North-East Portugal, formerly fortress guarding North approach from Spain. Wellington captured it from the French, 10 May 1811 + Almighty God! 


ORTHEZ - Town, South-West France, where in 1814 Wellington defeated the French under Soult + Arthur is to lose (Wellington). 

brum - to murmur, hum + (onomat. of thunder) + Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais II.205: 'Brum, à brum! to recover from a mistake' + FDV: This is the Willingdone, he cry, Brom Bromme Bromme, Cambromme!


General Cambronne was said to have shouted 'merde' when ordered to retreat at the Battle of Waterloo (he then held out in isolation until the battle was lost).


Donnerwetter (ger) - thunderweather + Unwetter (ger) - storm (the Battle of Waterloo was delayed due to torrential rain in the early morning).


Gott strafe England! (ger) - "May God punish England!", a World War I slogan of the German army  

rin - run + rinnen (ger) - to flow + FDV: This is rinny jinny jinnies her away runaway [down dowan a bunkershill bunkersheels] cry: Dunderwetter Underwetter. Goat strap strip Finnland Finnlambs!  


AUSTERLITZ - Town, Czech, scene of battle 12 Dec 1805, in which Napoleon defeated Russians and Austrians + lists - medieval jousting-ground, field of combat. In Arthurian romances, to oust an enemy from the lists, or dive him out of the lists meant to defeat him in single combat.


BUNKER HILL - Hill, Charlestown area, Boston, Mass, US. American Revolutionary battle, 17 June 1775, known as "Bunker Hill," was actually on the adjacent Breed's Hill. The Royal Irish Regiment was part of British force. No one is sure whether Israel Putnam actually said, "Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes." + down at heel - in poor or decayed circumstances; having the heels of one's shoes trodden down.

nip - to move rapidly or nimbly

nippy - marked by tendency to nip; brisk, quick

trip - the action of moving lightly and quickly

airy - light in movement or manner + Tipperary (song): 'It's a long long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there' (World War I marching song).


silver plate - used as a jocular representation of Fr. s'il vous plaît (please)

crape - a thin transparent gauze-like fabric + cool crape (Slang) - a shroud + catching the drops (or grapes).

canister - a small case or box, usually of metal, for holding tea, coffee, shot, etc.


pour le pays (fr) - for the country + pour la paix (fr) - for the peace + (for the money).


Otto von Bismarck (1815 – 1898) - European statesman of the 19th century. As Minister-President of Prussia from 1862 to 1890, he engineered the Unification of Germany. When the German Empire was declared in 1871, he served as its first Chancellor + Biss (ger) - bite. 

marathon - Applied to long-distance races or competitions calling for endurance.


The Girl I Left Behind Me (song)

brandish - to wave or flourish (something, esp. a weapon) as a threat or in anger + branlish (fr) - masturbate + se branler (French Slang) - to masturbate + FDV: This is the Willingdone he branlish his tallowscoop on the rinning jinnies rinnyaway.


Marmor (ger) - marble + memorial.

sophy - a wise man, sage + sauve-qui-peut (fr) - save himself who can (probably the cry of the fleeing French at Waterloo) + key (Slang) - penis + po - chamberpot.

divorsion - divorce + diversion + William Gorman Wills: A Royal Divorce (a play about Napoleon's divorce from Josephine; the play was actually written by an unknown author, and only slightly modified by Wills).


gamba (it) - leg + bariste (it) - barmaids.


pòrca (it) - sow, she-pig + Della Porta, Giovanni Battista (1538 - 1615) - Italian natural philosopher (wrote about the telescope) and playwright. His works include I'Due Fratelli rivali ('The Two Rival Brothers').


TALAVERA DE LA REINA - Town, cenral Spain, 65 miles South-West of Madrid. Site of one of Wellington's great victories against the French, commanded by King Joseph Bonaparte, 27-28 July 1809 + da vere femmine (it) - just like women.


VIMEIRO - Village, Western Portugal, 32 miles North-West of Lisbon; site of victory of Wellington over the French, 21 Aug 1808 + fur immer (ger) - for ever + deliver us from errors.


petty - small, of small importance, minor, inferior + prettiest.


tofee - a sweet-meat made from sugar or treacle, butter, and sometimes a little flour, boiled together + 'Taffy was a Welshman, Taffy was a Thief' (nursery rhyme) + Toughertrees - the reverted Tristopher (Shem) in the Tale of Jarl van Hoother (FW 022.24).

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE - originally named Cabo Tormentoso (Cape of Storms) by Bartholomeu Diaz, 1488. The ship of the Flying Dutchman was usually sighted in the latitudes of the Cabo Tormentoso + FDV: This is the gay first lipoleum boy that spy the Willingdone Williamstown on his white harse. Tip.


stonewall - Used as an epithet for one who seeks to confound by dogged resistance. Chiefly applied to Thomas Jonathan ('Stonewall') Jackson (1824-63), Confederate general during the American Civil War.


maxie (Slang) - big mistake + foxy.


matrimony - a husband + FDV: The Willingdone is an old many mantrment mantrument montrument mantrumon mantrumoney montrumeny lipoleum is nice old young bustellen.   


hung (Slang) - (of a male) having large genitals + young

busheller - one who repairs garments for tailors + bachelors


American humorist Finley Peter Dunne is creator of Irish-American bartender Mr Dooley and Mr Hennessy; among his works are Mr Dooley in Peace and War + fhionn (Irish) - fair (Pronunciation 'hin'; *V*) + Ó Fhionnghusa (Irish) - descendant of Fionnghus ('fair choice').


hyena + Battle of Jena-Auerstedt, 1806 (Napoleon's victory over the Prussians). 

alout - to stoop, to bow down + aloud + FDV: This is lipoleum lipeleum hennessy hinnessy that spy the Willingdone on his big white harse. This is the three little lopoleums. Tip. This is the hinnessy that spy laughing spying the Willingdone, this is the lipsyg dooley that get the funk from the hinnessy.


Leipzig, Battle of - Napoleon's defeat by the Prussians and their allies in 1813 + syg (Danish) - sick.


dubh (Irish) - dark (Pronunciation 'dhoo'; *C*) + Ó Dubhlaoich (Irish) - descendant of Dubhlaoch ('black warrior').


Krieg (ger) - war


Funk (ger) - spark, radio + funk (Middle English) - spark.


Hindoo - an Aryan of Northern India (Hindustan) + an fhionndubh siomar sin (un hindu shimer shin) (gael) - that fair-dark trefoil (or, shamrock) + fhionndubh (Irish) - fair-dark (Pronunciation 'hindhoo'; *Y*).


Samar Singh (Hindustani) - typical name for a soldier (literally 'lion in battle') + siomar sin (Irish) - trefoil, shamrock + Shem/Shaun + FDV: This is the hindoo Shim Shin with his tubabine between the dooleyboy hiena & the hinnessy. Tip.  


waxy (Slang) - angry + foxy.


G.E. Pickett - American Confederate general + picked up.


threefold - having three parts + FDV: This is the Willingdone, he laugh that his & pick up from the field bluttlefield bluttlefilth bluddlefilth a flag hat-o'-the-ffrinch lipoleums.


bloody filth + battlefield.


Ranji ("Jam Sahib") - Rajput cricketer, played for England, made over 3,000 runs + raging.


pumpship (Slang) - urinate + FDV: This the hindoo getting mad ranjymad for a bombshell bombshoot.


hank - to fasten with a hank + hanging + FDV: This is the Willingdone hang the half of a flag hat o' the lipoleum on at the tail at on the backend of his big white wide white harse.  


culpa (l) - fault + Copenhagen.


waggle - to move (anything held or fixed at one end) to and fro with short quick motions, or with a rapid undulation; esp. to shake (any movable part of the body)


tail (Slang) - buttocks; penis + crupper - the buttocks of a horse + telescope + FDV: This the harse of the Willingdone wangling his tailiscrupp tailoscrupp [& the half o'hat] to the hindoo seeboy.

insult + Iseult + insulto (l) - I jump + Soult, Nicolas Jean de Dieu, Duke of Dalmatia (1769-1851) - French marshal who fought Wellington in the peninsula and at Waterloo. 


sepoy - a native of India serving in the british army


Ney, Marshal - one of Napoleon's marshals, fought at Waterloo + (onomat.)


red rag to a bull - Said of something which deliberately provokes or infuriates.


MAHRATTA WAR - The Mahratta Confederation, which replaced the Mogul Empire, was the main force opposing Britain colonialization in India throughout the 18th cent. In the decisive Mahratta War of 1803-1805, Wellington won victories at Assaye and elsewhere + mad as a hatter - completely mad.  


Up guards and at 'em! - Wellington's order in the last charge at Waterloo + FDV: This is the hindoo hattermad madrashattaras, upjump & pumpt pumpim [, like as [he cry to the Willingdone. [Ap] Bukkarru Pukkarru! [Pukka] Yurep!]]  


ABOUKIR (ABUKIR) - Bay and village, 13 miles North-East of Alexandria, Egypt. In A Bay was fought the "Battle of the Nile" (1798) in which Nelson defeated the French fleet. Later, Napoleon defeated Turks (1799) and Sir Ralph Abercromby defeated French (1801) there.  


BARNSTAPLE - Market town and seaport, South-West England; one of the most ancient royal boroughs. The allusion is also to Thackeray, Lectures on the English Humorists, "If Swift was Irish, then a man born in a stable is a horse." Wellington (whose birthplace in Ireland is still a matter of dispute) is also supposed to have denied his Irishness on the grounds that "a man is not a horse because he was born in a stable" + The Letter: born gentleman.  

tinder - to become inflamed, glow, burn + tenders his matchbox + tinderbox (to light bomb).


cursing + Corsican (Napoleon).


shimmer - a shimmering light or glow; a subdued tremulous light + shimmering shine.


BUSACO - Sierra de Busaco, Portugal, site of battle, 27 Sept 1810, in which Wellington repulsed a French attack + bazooka - an anti-tank weapon invented in 1918.  


usted (sp) - you (formal)


FDV: This the hindoo he shaking [warm] hands with hinself shoot the hat of lipoleums off the tail & blow the whole of the half hat of o' lipoleum off the end of the tale of the back backend back of the big wide harse. Tip. This way the mewseyroom mewseyruin. Mind your boots going out.


do for - to ruin, damage or injure fatally; to act for or in behalf of + Lord Dufferin - famous 19th century British diplomat, including Viceroy of India.


bullseye - the center of a target, a shot that hits a bull's eye


"—What a time you were! she said." (Molly Bloom in Ulysses) + (long time).


phew - a vocal gesture expressing impatience, disgust, discomfort, or weariness + FDV: Phew!


cooling + killing + FDV: How warming 'twas to have been in there! But how keling is the airabouts here! Such reasonable weather too.  


Jack-o'-lantern is typically a carved pumpkin. It is associated chiefly with the holiday Halloween, and was named after the phenomenon of strange light flickering over peat bogs, called ignis fatuus or jack-o'-lantern + lamp of Aladdin.


Howth + candlelit house + kind of little house.


windy - window; a tall story; a piece of boasting or exaggeration + 29 (i.e. the 28 days of February plus one leap day) windows.


'Down in yonder green field / Down a down hey down hey down / There lies a knight slain 'neath his shield' (song The Three Ravens).


Nummer (ger) = nummer (Dutch) - number

quaint - of things: Skilfully made, so as to have a good appearance, ingeniously or cunningly designed or contrived + 29




vagrant - one who wanders or roams about; wandering, straying, roving + WAGRAM - Village, Austria, 12 miles North-East of Vienna. Napoleon defeated the Austrian army there on 5-6 July 1809.

piltdown - the name of a village in Sussex, England (Piltdown Man, alleged missing link in human evolution, now known to be a forgery) + (notebook 1924): 'Piltdown man (Sussex)' + '150,000 Piltdown (Sussex)' + pillars.


knolly - full or abounding in knolls or hillocks


spy - to catch sight of, to discover + Spy, Man of - prehistoric fossils were found in the Belgian cave of Spy + fifty-four = LIV in Roman numerals - ALP or Anna LIVia Plurabelle. 

gnarly - covered with protuberances; distorted, twisted + 'it’s the early bird that gets the worm' (proverb) + - Ancient Egyptian sign used for small and evil things alike + Biddy Doran, the hen that inhabits the yard behind HCE's tavern, here clearly associated with ALP.


ygathering - 'gathering together' (in archaic English the prefix y- represented a preposition meaning 'with' or 'together')


pree - to try what (a thing) is like esp. by tasting


helf- (ger) - help


pelf - to spoil, rob + FDV: The wind is so westerly sowesterly around the downs & on every blasted knolly-oak - rock stuck high there's a the same gnarlybird gathering up one little true little free little poor little fine little slick little civil little late little nice little swell little a runlittle dolittle preelittle porelittle wipelittle pickalittle kickalittle eatlittle waitlittle dinelittle pinelittle kenlittle livealittle aleavenalittle leavenalittle pilfalittle gnarlybird.  


veritable tableland + (The Kosovo Maiden or Maiden of the Blackbird Field, 1919: In it, a young beauty searches the battlefield for her betrothed husband and helps wounded Serbian warriors with water, wine and bread after the Battle of Kosovo).

bleak - barren, dismal + blackbird - a well-known European song-bird, a species of thrush + Battle of the Blackbird Fields - better known as the Battle of Kosovo. An 1389 battle between Christian Serbia and the Ottoman Empire.

Rothschild - one who resembles a member of the Rothschild family in being exceptionally rich; a millionaire + wroth - angry, filled with wrath + seven sheaths - the seven sheaths that clothe the essence of the soul according to occultists (physical, astral, mental, buddhic, nirvanic, anupadakic, and adic).


uproar - loud confused noise from many sources + L'empereur (fr) - The emperor + "When we emerge to pursue our oversight of the battlefield we find that the Emperor lies dead; the survivors have flown south like the Wild Geese after the Jacobite defeat." (McHugh, Roland: The sigla of Finnegans wake)


glav, glave, glaive (gael, archaic) - sword + glava (Serbian) - head → It's the predominant version of legend about Battle of Kosovo but not a settled historical fact that Lazar was actually beheaded as a prisoner. He may have simply died in battle, or of wounds taken sustained in the fight (REFERENCE).


beside + to-side (archaic) - one side.


skud (Danish) - a gun-shot + skjold (Danish) - shield + skut (Serbian) - lappet; skirt + Several horses were shot from under General Ney at Waterloo.


flap - to beat the wings, of a bird: To make way by flapping the wings.


kraai (Dutch) - crow + kraak (Dutch) - crash, crack + croaking.


debacle - a sudden breaking up or downfall; a confused rush or rout + the battle.


quarter - boundary or limit towards one of the cardinal points + kvarter (Danish) - district.




treisbous (gr) - three oxen + tribes + three boos (contrasted with three cheers).


niver - never + river. 


thon - the one yonder, that + Thonar or Thon - god worshipped in England and on the Continent, maybe a form of Thor because his name is that of the Teutonic word for "thunder".


nixie - a female water elf


crack of doom - the blast of the Last Trump on Judgment Day + FDV: She never comes out when Thon's there or on show shower or when Thon's a on flash with Thon's the tindergiris or when Thon's blowing thonders on Thon's gaelaboys gaelieboys down the gaels of Thon.


Nebo - Babybonian god whose name means "proclaimer," son of Merodach, introduced writing and general wisdom to the people + nubo (l) - to cover, to veil, to marry + nubes (l) - cloud.


nebla (Rhaeto-Romanic) - fog + nebula (l) - mist, vapor, fog.


liv (Danish) - life + not on your life - by no means, not on any account.


FDV: [Her is be too moochy afeerd [I do veer. [Now she comes, a peacefugle, picking here, pecking there - - -] Pussypussy plunderbussy plunderpussy, it all goes into her nabsack & she borrowed burrowed the coach coacher's lamp to see. Cartridges & ratlin buttins & nappy boots & flags flasks of all nations & clavicurds & scampulars & piles of pennies & [moonlit] brooches with [bloodstaned] breeks in em & maps & keys & the last sigh that came from the heart & the first sin the sun saw.


mooch - to pretend poverty, sneak, steal + muchly - much, exceedingly.

afreet - a powerful jinn or demon (in Arabian and Muslim mythology) + afraid


dead in the world + 'A bliss in proof, and proved, a very woe' (in Shakespeare's sonnet 129, of illicit sex).


In the English folktale Jack and the Beanstalk, when the giant smells Jack, he declares: "Fee-fi-fo-fum, I smell the blood of an Englishman. Be he alive or be he dead, I'll grind his bones to make my bread." The giant then tells his wife, "I smell an English man. I am sure I am right this time. Cook him for my supper" + fè (Rhaeto-Romanic) - faith + fö (Rhaeto-Romanic) - fire + fom (Rhaeto-Romanic) - hunger + William Shakespeare: King Lear III.4.174: 'Fie, foh, and fum'.


jist - just


hope - to expect with desire, or to desire with expectation; to look forward to


boys will be boys - an expression of resignation towards childish ways + let bygones be bygones (phrase).


Dear, and it goes on to... (The Letter)

peaceful + fugle - leader; a soldier who stands before a company at drill as an example + fugl (Danish) - bird.


paradise bird = bird-of-paradise + Most versions of the myth of Osiris relate that Isis took the form of a bird when she sought Osiris, and that she was accompanied by their shadowy sister, also a bird + Thomas Moore: Lalla Rookh: Paradise and the Peri.

peri - in Persian Mythology, one of a race of superhuman beings, originally represented as of evil or malevolent character, but subsequently as good genii, fairies, or angels, endowed with grace and beauty + very - possessing the true character of the person or thing named + perí (Czech) - feather + peri (Hebrew) - fruit.


godmother - a female sponsor considered in relation to her god-child + peri potmon (gr) - concerning fate, about death + Fairy Godmother (in pantomime Cinderella) + 'Mother of Pots' - epithet of Osiris's grave, so called from the broken pot fragments littering the area, the remnants of ancient offerings.


Pringle, Sin John (1707-82) - according to Mr Knuth, a Scottish doctor, author of Observations on the Diseases of the Army in Camp and Garrison. His biographer was Andrew Kippis + pinglopiki (Esperanto) - pinprick + pik (Dutch) - penis; peck.


i land (Danish) - on land + i skip (Danish) - on board ship + kip (Dutch) - hen + landscape


peewee - a lapwing, the thin wailing cry of this bird; applied to a small child; spec. A small marble.


powwow - the working of cures; 'medicine'


beag (Irish) - small. So 'beggybaggy' ~ small bag.


piggyback + bag on her back.


flick - any sudden movement, a jerk


flask - a bottle, usually of glass, of spheroidal or bulbous shape, with a long narrow neck


fleck - to flutter about, to jerk, to move with quick vibrations + fling - to throw, cast, toss, hurl.


pixilated - mentally somewhat unbalanced, confused, inchanted, bewitched; drunk; + pixillation - a method of animating human figures or animals by using, for example, stop-frame camera techniques.


pack - a package, parcel, esp. one of considerable size or weight + pax (l) - peace.


euhemerema (gr) - success, good luck + marama (Serbian) - kerchief + rainbows (pact of peace, Genesis 9:16). 


peck - Of birds: To take (food) with the beak.


plunder - robbery, pillage + blunderbuss - a short handgun with a wide bore.


armistice - a cessation from arms; a short truce + (notebook 1922-23): 'armitise'.


tonight + too nigh - too near.


milito (l) - to be a soldier + milito (Esperanto) - war + paco (Esperanto) - peace + pucas, or more properly, puca¹ (Serbian) - (you) shoot.


tomorrow + to mourn.


merry Christmas + In the rest of the paragraph, there may be references to Santa Claus, reversing gender and behaviour, in the image of a woman going around and collecting "spoiled goods" in a "nabsack".


minutia - very small in size, extent, amount, or degree + (notebook 1922-23): 'minutiae' + munition.




truce - a suspension of hostilities for a specified period between armies at war, peace


childer - children


nebo (Serbian) - sky  → "You sing the ancient downfall of the Serbs. / "Which Kingdom is it that you long for most? / That's the question that the falcon asked the Tsar. / If you choose the earth, he said then saddle horses, / Tighten girths- have your knights put on / Their swords and make a dawn attack against / The Turks: your enemy will be destroyed. / But if you choose the skies then build a church- / O not of stone but out of silk and velvet- / Gather up your forces, take the bread and wine, / For all shall perish, perish utterly, / And you, O Tsar, shall perish with them." (Epic poem: The Downfall of the Kingdom of Serbia)  + 'Come unto me' Jesus says of the little children (Mark 10:14, Matt 19:14, Luke 18:16).


susurro (l) - I whisper + s-s-sing (stutter).


celebrate + Sally - one of the repressed personalities of Christine Beauchamp, the subject of a celebrated case of multiple personalities studied by the Boston neurologist Morton Prince in The Dissociation of a Personality.  

burrow - to construct by burrowing, to excavate + borrowed


coacher - the driver of a coach + FDV: Pussypussy plunderbussy plunderpussy, it all goes into her nabsack & she borrowed burrowed the coach coacher's lamp to see.


headlights - two powerful lamps carried on the front of a motor vehicle


pry - to look esp. to look closely or curiously


aroon (Anglo-Irish) - beloved (from Irish a rún) + Siul, siul, siul a run, Siul go socair Agus siul go ciuin (shul shul shul/arun/shul go sukir/ogus shul gu kyun) (gael) - Go, go, go my dear, Go securely And go calmly (Irish song).


knapsack - a bag or case of stout canvas or leather, worn by soldiers, strapped to the back and used for carrying necessaries; any similar receptacle used by travellers for carrying light articles + nab - to seize, snatch.


cartridge - the case in which the exact charge of powder for fire-arms is made up + FDV: Cartridges & ratlin buttins  

ratlins'(notebook 1923) → O. Henry: The Four Million 168: 'From the Cabby's Seat': 'Like a sailor shinning up the ratlins during a squall Jerry mounted to his professional seat' + ratlins (Nautical) - a series of small ropes fastened across a sailing ship's shrouds like the rungs of a ladder, used for climbing the rigging + rattling buttons.

nappy - having a nap, shaggy, fuzzy + nap - a special surface given to cloth of various kinds by artificial raising of the short fibres, with subsequent cutting and smoothing.


spattee - Formerly, an outer stocking or legging worn by women for protection against wet and cold + FDV: & nappy boots


flask - a bottle, usually of glass, of spheroidal or bulbous shape, with a long narrow neck, applied esp. to the bottles of this form, protected by a covering of wicker-work or plaited grass, etc. in which wines and olive oil are exported from Italy + FDV: & flags flasks of all nations

clavichord - a musical instrument with strings and keys + claviculer - a key keeper, turnkey + clavicula (l) - small key + FDV: & clavicurds & scampulars


scapular - a short cloak covering the shoulders; prescribed by the Rule of St. Benedict to be worn by monks when engaged in manual labour + ampulla - a small two-handled flask + clavicles and scapulas (bones).


woodpile - a pile of wood (as firewood) + FDV: & piles of pennies


hapenny - half penny + In 1724, copper coinage for Ireland was produced by William Wood, a swindle; Swift wrote tirades against 'Wood's halfpence' in The Drapier's Letters.


moonlet - a little moon + FDV: & [moonlit] brooches with [bloodstaned] breeks in em

brooch - an ornamental fastening, consisting of a safety pin, with the clasping part fashioned into a ring, boss, shield, or other device of precious metal or other material, artistically wrought, set with jewels, etc.

bloodstone - a green variety of jasper or quartz, with small spots of red jasper looking like drops of blood, supposed in former times to have the power of staunching bleeding, when worn as amulets + stane - stone + bloodstained.


breeks - breeches + break - something abruptly breaking the line, or level; an irregularity, roughness, knot, etc.


boaston = boston - a card game + BOSTON - Seaport city, capital of Mass, US, home of the former Boston Evening Transcript + Boston nightletters.


chaussettes (fr) - socks + Massachusetts - US state of which Boston is the capital + shoe sets - Boston was once a major shoe manufacturing centre.

nickel - a hard silvery-white lustrous mineral + knick knack - a light dainty article of furniture, dress or food; a trinket + Nick - Old Nick, the Devil.


nack - a toy, a plaything, a knickknack


foder (Portuguese) - to fuck + fodder + Father Michael - a curate or hermit who seduces ALP (FW 111.13-35) or is seduced by her (FW 203.17 - 204.05); he is based on Michael Bodkin (Nora Barnacle's dead lover, who provided the model for Michael Furey in The Dead) and a curate in Galway who supposedly abused Nora Barnacle when she was sixteen - he was model for Father Flynn (The Sisters). Conjugation of the last with the first story of Dubliners creates Father Michael; two sisters and two aunts combined (Joyce's four great aunts) are the legs of the horse i.e. Four Old Men.


cate - an article of food, choice food, delicacy; cat + poor Father Michael & lovely present of cakes (The Letter) + ugly parson of Kate's.


howitzer - a short piece of ordnance, usually of light weight, specially designed for the horizontal firing of shells with small charges, and adapted for use in a mountainous country + how are you (The Letter).


midge - a popular name loosely applied to many small gnat-like insects; an artificial fly for fishing; a diminutive person


magget = maggot + well Maggy/Majesty (The Letter)


il (fr) - he + ill, well + hills and wells.


ell - a measuring rod + elle (fr) - she + l's → a lone a last a loved a long.


loff - laugh; loaf; love; + lots of toffees.


toff - a person of superior social status and often fashionable [Werner: Barnum 87: (Barnum) 'believed that when in London he must do as the toffs did'] + lots of love (an expression commonly found at the end of a letter).


pleura (gr) - rib + pleur (fr) - tear + Plurabelle. 


boek (Dutch) - book + lied (Dutch) - song + Buckley + 'the'.


sin (Serbian) - son + Bédier: Le Roman de Tristan et Iseut 3: (Tristan's mother immediately after giving birth to him, while mourning for her recently-slain husband): '"Son, she said to him, I have long wished to see you; and I see the fairest thing that ever a woman bore... And as you came into the world through sadness, your name shall be Tristan." When she had said these words, she kissed him, and, as soon as she had kissed him, she died' + FDV: & the last sigh that came from the heart & the first sin the sun saw.


cearc (kark) (gael) - hen, chicken + ceart (kart) (gael) - correct.


criss-cross: the lines of ALP's letter run both horizontally and vertically across the page (FW 114.02-07); this reflects a common practice of Irish peasants in the 19th Century, which was designed to save paper. The criss-crossing of the lines also reflects the flagpatch quilt on HCE and ALP's bed (FW 559.13) + XXXX - four crosskisses at the end of a letter (The Letter)


unto life's end (The Letter) + typographical error for "undo lives' end"? or ' sign as a hat on tail of big white horse (instead of being on head - last joke of HCE)?


slain - p. p. od slay; smut in grain + slán (Irish) - farewell, goodbye (literally: 'safe') + stain (The Letter) + slainte (slant'i) (gael) - Health! → Nut the sky and Geb the earth, separated by their father Shu, the air, had to resort to special measures to start a family, namely and to wit: passing semen mouth to mouth in a kiss. < color="#FFFFFF">Nut produced four children (Osiris, Isis, Seth and Nephthys) or, in some versions, five (fifth child was Horus the Elder).

beautiful + (notebook 1924): 'booty & beauty' → Gwynn: The History of Ireland 9: 'The rulers of Ireland, whose wars with one another for land and for booty are described in the romances, were Gaelic by blood'.

true to - consistent with, exactly agreeing with + true to life.

strongly + streng verboden (Dutch) - strictly forbidden + In Irish mythology Sreng (often misinterpreted as Streng) was a champion of the Fir Bolg or Men of Bolg. In the first Battle of Magh Tuiredh he faced Nuada, king of the Tuatha Dé Danann, and with one great blow he cut off half his shield and severed Nuada's arm at the shoulder.
Although nearing defeat, Sreng and the three hundred surviving Fir Bolg vowed to fight to the last man. The Tuatha Dé Danann invaders, however, considered them so noble that they offered them one fifth of Ireland. They agreed, and stood down from the conflict. The Fir Bolg chose Connacht, where men traced their descent from Sreng until the 17th century.

historic present (tense) - grammarians' term for Latin historians' use of present tense to vivify narrative of past actions + FDV: She brings us her We know all men by these her presents from the goneaway past how there'll be eggs for the brekkers come to mourning. For where there's a there's wherever the gale find seek guess find [the] gall & wherethen whenthere's a hind seek hunt seek the hun.]]

post prophesy - to prophesy after the event

to will make (grammar) - future infinitive

lordy - exp. of surprise or astonishment + heir - inheritor + Lord Mayors.

lady's maid - a woman servant whose special duty it is to attend to the toilet of a lady + Lady Mayoresses.

a nice or pretty kettle of fish - an awkward state of things, a 'muddle'

debt - the state of owing money (this paragraph abounds with financial terms) + In the midst of life we are in death (from the 'Order for the Burial of the Dead').

laff - laugh

plore - to weep, wail

mirth + birth control.

naperon - apron

sabots (fr) - wooden shoes + Sabeans.

aria - a connected succession of musical sounds in expressive rhythmical arrangement + airs

sair - sore + sa sær (Danish) - so odd + Sarah - Biblical character, the wife of the patriarch Abraham, and the mother of Isaac ("I saack"). Sally is diminutive for Sarah, but Sally is also the name of Christine Beauchamp's repressed personality, as explored by the Boston neurologist in The Dissociation of a Personality, a key text for FW.

solly - solely; strange, marvellous, wonderful + sorry

sage (ger) - (I) say, tell + Isaac [and Sarah, mother of Isaac (in previous line)]

Grick - Greek + pricks may rise (erection), and Troysirs (trousers) fall.

Trojan - an inhabitant or native of Troy

two sides to every story

byway - a secondary or little known aspect or field + highways and byways.

improvidence - unforeseeing + highly improbable.

lifework - the entire or principal work of one's lifetime + life worth living + life worth leaving: i.e. dying, committing suicide.

cell - a small apartment, room, or dwelling

città (Italian) - city

cit - townsman, an inhabitant of a city + sitters to sit in.

wimman - woman + old woman's story - a foolish story.

run away with - to carry off (something)

min - mind, memory, intention + min (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - men + min (Dutch) - love; wet nurse.

smooth - using specious or attractive language; plausible, bland, flattering, (usually with implication of insincerity or selfish designs)

butteler - butler (a servant who has charge of the wine-cellar and dispenses the liquor) + butt - arse, behind + behind (one's) back - after one has left (a company), in one's absence + talk behind the butler's back - to spread rumours.

Long Tom - a long gun, especially one carried amidships on a swivelling carriage + While London Sleeps (song).

ye - you

tin - money, cash + anything.

harridan - a sharp-tongued, scolding or bullying old woman + married Ann.

mercenary - working merely for the sake of monetary or other reward, actuated by considerations of self-interest

fat of the land - richest or most nourishing part of the land, the choicest produce (of the earth) + the lie of the land - the state of affairs.

liquidation - the action or process of ascertaining and apportioning the amounts of a debt, the clearing off or settling (of a debt)

flood + Flut (ger) - flood + flute! (fr) - expletive.

nare - were not; never





glabrous - free from hair, down, or the like; having a smooth skin or surface + glaub- (ger) - believe + Joyce's glaucoma.


place + face + phase.


Herr (ger) - mister, gentleman + Schuft (ger) - rogue, scoundrel + Herrschaft (ger) - mastery.


welter - the rolling, tossing, or tumbling (of the sea or waves) + Whatarwelter, Herrschuft - plays about with German Der Herr schuf die Welt ("The Lord created the world"), with Schuft, "rascal"; Weltherrschaft is "domination of the world." See Letters, I, 248. (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake) 


loan - to grant the loan of, to lend + Push the Business On (children's game): 'I hired a horse and borrowed a gig, / And all the world shall have a jig; / And I'll do all 'at ever I can / To push the business on.


vesta - a kind of wax match + Vesta - Roman goddess of the hearth, celebrated with an eternal flame. Hence the word 'vesta', meaning "match", and vestal virgins, who tended the eternal flame + (introducing images of a woman tending a fire with a bellows).


hire - to procure the temporary use of (any thing) for stipulated payment


sarch - search


cockle - a kind of stove for heating apartments; common edible European bivalve mollusk having a rounded shell with radiating ribs + warm the cockles of one's heart - to rejoice, delight.


turfman - a devotee of horse racings, one who study fine grasses, their care and uses + turf - a slab or block of peat dug for use as fuel.


piff - an imitation of various sounds = piff paff


puff - to blow short blasts (with mouth or bellows) upon (a fire) to make it burn up (obs.) + {woman tending a fire with a bellows that create "puffs" of air; compare this with FW 003.09-10: "nor avoice from afire bellowsed mishe mishe to tauftauf thuartpeatrick"}


poff - puff (obs.) + 'tauftauf' interjection which recurs throughout the book (from German taufen: to baptise).

humpty - hunch backed + (Humpty Dumpty reappears, as the dreamer contemplates the eggs he (she?) will have for breakfast; he himself becomes an egg-shaped being doomed to fall. Humpty Dumpty who, prior to Lewis Carroll, was merely a four-line poem referring to a cannon in the English Civil War, comes back in the dream again and again as the dreamer becomes obsessively stuck on this four-line nonsense poem.)


shall + egg shell or Humpty Dumpty's shell (which breaks when he falls from his wall).

frump - a mocking speech or action; a dowdy, ill-dressed woman + plenty (forty) times + (impotence).


awkward - lacking dexterity or skill in performing their part; clumsy in action, bungling + as often again.


Kafoozalum - a Scottish dance sometimes known as London Bridge + Jerusalem - Holy City of Jews, Christians and Muslims.


remonstrancer - one who makes reproof, complaint (to some authority), raise an objection, urges strong reasons against a course of action + The Grand Remonstrance - a document produced by Parliament in 1641 giving account of royal mismanagement and recommending radical reforms + romancer - a writer of romances or romantic fiction.


brekker - breakfast (slang) + FDV: She brings us her We know all men by these her presents from the goneaway past how there'll be eggs for the brekkers come to mourning.


sunny side up - egg fried on one side only + (notebook 1924): 'eggs with sunny side up' → Freeman's Journal 8 Feb 1924, 8/4: 'By the Way': 'poached eggs, or, as we say, 'eggs with the sunny side up''.


where there's (the natural word-order has been reversed due to the proximity of the word 'turnover')


turnover - the action of turning over, in various senses (to agitate or revolve in the mind, go through and examine mentally); English penny; In business: The total amount of money changing hands; loaf of bread shaped somewhat like a boot (Anglo-Irish).


tay - tea + the tea is wet (Anglo-Irish phrase) - the tea is ready (also euphemism for sexual intercourse; there are several sexual references in this passage: cocks, bottoms, butts, hinds, turning over, wetting).


hind - a servant, a married and skilled farm workman; situated behind; posterior, arse


hin - him; hen (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) + FDV: For where there's a there's wherever the gale find seek guess find [the] gall & wherethen whenthere's a hind seek hunt seek the hun.]]


FDV: The best cheapest plan is to tour round east & north & to the review the of two mounds. Pardon. Behold this sound of Irish sense. Really? Here English might be seen. Royally? _____ A sovereign punned to paltry pence. Regally? A silence makes a scene. Behold! / Hush! Caution! Echoland!

behaviourism - a theory and method of psychological investigation based on the study of behaviour + favourite + on the job (Slang) - engaged in sexual intercourse.


bandy - a game, also called bandy-ball, in which a small ball is driven to and fro over the ground, with bent club sticks, by two sides of players + Queen Anne's Bounty - provision for maintenance of the poor clergy. It was created in 1703 out of first fruits and tenths (hence Hen "fruting for firstlings and taking her tithe").


frute - frog, toad + fluting - playing the flute + rooting.


firstling - the first of its kind to be produced, come into being, or appear, the first product or result of anything + first-fruits - the fruits first gathered in a season, payment in the form of first crops of a season to a superior.


tithe - the tenth part of the annual produce of agriculture, etc., being a due or payment (orig. in kind) for the support of the priesthood, religious establishments, etc.


review - the act of looking over something (again), with a view to correction or improvement + rear view, i.e. two buttocks + {This and the following paragraphs may be a description of a military review in the Phoenix Park, attended by the citizenry of Dublin, including HCE and his family; the military band would then be repsonsible for the musical allusions which abound in these paragraphs}


REVUE DES DEUX MONDES (literally French 'Review of the Two Worlds') - A journal of literature, history, art, and science, published in Paris since 1831 + (ALP's breasts or HCE and ALP side-by-side in bed) + FDV: The best cheapest plan is to tour round east & north & to the review the of two mounds. 


say + see nothing (in FW it's always too dark to see anything clearly).


Himmel (ger) - sky, heaven + pimples + nipples + {spots on skin morph into berg (pyramid) system grid operated by sound}


at six and seven - in disorder, confused

hills + Hugel (ger) - hill + buachaill (Irish) - boy.

colline - a small hill + colleen (Anglo-Irish) = cailin (kolin) (gael) - girl.

aroon (Anglo-Irish) - my dear, beloved + sitting around.

breech - to cover or clothe with, or as with, breeches + Saint Brigid and Saint Patrick - patron saints of Ireland + (shitty breeches chamberpot stench).

swish - a hissing sound + mishe/tauf (motif).

satin - a woman's satin dress

taffeta - a crisp plainwoven fabric

tights - a tight fitting breeches

playing - performing a musical composition (music is played by the military band during a Military Review in the Phoenix Park) + PICTURE


STARFORT - Begun but never completed as an extensive fortified enclosure North-East of site of the later Magazine Fort in Phoenix Park, now between the Magazine Fort and the Zoo, on the initiative of the Duke of Wharton; intended as a refuge in the event of a rebellion in Dublin. It was known to Dubliners as "Wharton's Folly" (a name often mistakenly ascribed to the Magazine Fort, which was built years after Wharton's death) + Wharton, Thomas, Marquis of (1648-1715) - author of "Lilliburlero." When he was viceroy, Dublin Castle, O'Mahony says, became "a glorified tavern and brothel," and in the Phoenix Park was built the Star Fort, locally known as "Wharton's Folly." It is my impression that in I,i, Joyce assumes "Wharton's Folly" to be the Magazine, which erection caused Swift to say: "Where nothing's left that's worth defense..." (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake). 


tea party + Tripartite Life of Saint Patrick - a medieval manuscript describing Saint Patrick's life.


planco (Esperanto) - ground + plank - wooden floor or board (the wooden bandstand in the Phoenix Park?)


micky (Dublin Slang) - penis + Micky and Minny Mouse - in Disney's cartoons.


strake - strike; a strip of land, a beam of light, a thick plank forming a ridge along the side of a wooden ship + 'Move up, Mick, make room for Dick' - a Dublin graffito after Collins' death, 1922, referring to Michael Collins and to Richard Mulcahy, his successor + {priests taking turns in the "coffin" in King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid; also erection of Geb and attempt to reach Nut}  


by order - without delay, immediately


Nicholas Proud - secretary of the Dublin Port and Docks Board in Joyce's time


Berg (ger) - hill + Alf Bergan - law clerk to the subsheriff in City Hall on Cork Hill, Dublin (character in 'Ulysses') + violins (Berg, Alban 1885-1935 - Austrian composer. A pupil of Arnold Schönberg, he applied an atonal manner to classical forms in works such as the opera Wozzeck and Violin Concerto).


Cork Hill - a street in Dublin (City Hall is on Cork Hill)


viola d'amore - a stringed instrument, the tenor of the violin family, having six or seven stopped strings and an equal number of sympathetic strings


ARBOUR HILL - Dublin station, runs North of Marlborough (now Collins) Barracks to Stoneybatter.  


gambol - to leap or spring, in dancing or sporting + viola da gamba - a stringed instrument, the bass of the viol family, with approximately the range of the cello.


SUMMERHILL - Street, and the adjoining district, North-East Dublin, which continues Parnell Street to Ballybough Road at the Royal Canal + Cork Hill, Arbour Hill, Summer Hill, Misery Hill, and Constitution Hill, all in Dublin.


violoncello - a four-stringed musical instrument of the violin family, pitched lower than the viola but higher than the double bass + vermicelli - a type of Italian pasta.


contrabass = double bass - the largest bowed stringed instrument in the modern orchestra.


violone - a 16-foot organ stop yielding stringlike tones similar to those of a cello


crowd = crwth (Welsh) - a Welsh fiddle, continuing the musical foliation in this paragraph + chord.


klavir (Serbian) = Klavier (ger) - piano


harmonica - a mouth organ + harmonic - in music, a tone whose frequency is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. 


Olaf the White - became first Norse king of Dublin, ca 852. According to Giraldus Cambrensis, three brothers, Olaf, Ivor, Sitric, built the cities of Dublin, Limerick, Waterford.


left + Olaf Road, Ivar Street, and Sitric Road near Arbour Hill, Dublin.


scrape along - to manage or 'get along' with difficulty


squeeze out - to reduce to, or bring into, a specified condition by pressure, to drain or exhaust in this way


salve - to heal, remedy; make up, smooth over


rabulous - characterized by coarseness or indecency of language, esp. in jesting and invective; coarsely opprobrious or jocular + Romulus and Remus - twins, suckled by a she-wolf, who began to found Rome together. Romulus killed Remus, founded Rome by himself, and became its first king + Rabelais. 


kipper - a name given to the male salmon (or sea trout) during the spawning season; a smoked herring + Phil the Fluther's Ball (song): "Hopping in the middle, like a herrin' on the griddle-O!"


griddle = gridiron (obs.) - a cooking utensil formed of parallel bars of iron or other metal in a frame, usually supported on short legs, and used for broiling flesh or fish over a fire.


"O" = pyramidion - A pyramidion is the uppermost piece or capstone of an Egyptian pyramid in archaeological parlance. They were called benbenet in the Ancient Egyptian language, which associated the pyramid as a whole with the sacred benben stone. A pyramidion was "covered in gold leaf to reflect the rays of the sun".


dormant - sleeping, lying asleep or as asleep + mont (fr) = Berg (ger) - mountain.


hold hard - to pull hard on the reins in order to stop a horse + from Howth Head (head) to the Magazine Fort in Phoenix Park (feet).


Pie Poudre - a court formerly held at a fair for quick treatment of hawkers, etc. + pied de poudre (French) - foot of dust (i.e. clay feet) + poudre (French) - gunpowder (Magazine Fort in the Phoenix Park).


behove - to have use for or need to, to require + Magazine Wall in Phoenix Park on Thomas Hill, "the finest site in all the district, commanding an unrivalled view of Dublin city, the Liffey valley, and the mountains and country to the southward." This splendid natural stage saw the drama of human futility that caused Swift to write: "Behold a proof of Irish sense, / Here Irish wit is seen, / Where nothing's left that's worth defense, / They build a magazine." Swift was the author of Gulliver's Travels, whose image of Gulliver as a sleeping giant on the Lilliputian shore informs this passage.

punned - p. of pun (to beat, to pound; to make puns) + pound + FDV: Royally? _____ A sovereign punned to paltry pence. Regally?


Peter's penny - an annual tax or tribute of a penny from each householder having land of a certain value, paid before the Reformation to the papal see at Rome

fake - an act of 'faking'; a contrivance, 'dodge', trick, invention + feach! (Irish) - look! + (Finnegans) Wake + FDV: A silence makes a scene. Behold! / Hush! Caution! Echoland!  

Dublin + {dreamer (reader) wakes and in silence looks around him; he, in fact, looks at the FW text engraved in the walls around him. But is it real or fake? → "I asked don Juan what exactly the nagual Rosendo did to send his disciples to that world [of inorganic beings]... "The steps are simplicity itself," he said. "He put his disciples inside a very small, closed space, something like a closet. Then he went into dreaming, called a scout from the inorganic beings' realm by voicing his intent to get one, then voiced his intent to offer his disciples to the scout. The scout, naturally, accepted the gift and took them away, at an unguarded moment, when they were making love inside that closet. When the nagual opened the closet, they were no longer there." (Carlos Castaneda: The Art of Dreaming) - An iterpolation: compare this story with pursuit of Tristan and Isolde by king Mark, and Gráinne and Diarmuid by Fionn mac Cumhail}

It has been known for centuries that the King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid has special acoustic properties. A Frenchman who visited the Great Pyramid in 1581 reported that when struck, the granite sarcophagus 'sounded like a bell'. Other travellers used the same phrase, and it became a favourite trick of the local Arab guides to hit the coffer and make it ring. But it wasn't just the sarcophagus. Every transient sound, be it a murmur or a footstep, can make the room resonate in harmony throughout its 34ft length. Experts such as English acoustics engineer John Reid have speculated that the stone was deliberately chosen 'as an experimentation in reverberation enhancement'. His own theory is that it was intended to enrich the chanting of priests interring the dead king. Some scholars go as far as to argue that the sort of vibrations the stones give out can induce an altered state of consciousness, and that the chanting was used in a mind-bending religious initiation ritual. However, the frequencies the chamber responds to most strongly are far below those of the human voice... The planet we live on resonates and vibrates, though at an extremely low frequency that none of us notices. As the American engineer Christopher Dunn has observed, the Pyramid, covering such a large land area, would have acted as an acoustic horn like an old fashioned wind-up gramophone for collecting and replaying what amounts to the heartbeat of the world...

outwash - material carried out from the glacier by melt water + wash out - to obliterate.

engravure - an egraving (identified by John Gordon with a picture of the Battle of Waterloo, with Wellington or Napoleon sitting on a big white horse in front of a battle-scene) + FDV: How charmingly exquisite! It reminds you of the fading engraving engravure that used to be blurring on the blotchwall of his innkempt house. Used they? (I am sure that [tiring] tramp [with the chocolate box [, Miny Mitchel,]] was listening.) I say, the remains of the famous gravemures where used to be blurried the Tollmens of the Incabus. Used he we? (He is only pretending to be sounding his tugging at the box harp from a second tired listener. Fiery Phil Fergus Farrelly) It is well known. Look for himself. See? By the mausoleme mausolime wall. Finnfinn Fimfim Fannfann fimfim. With with a grand funferall. Fumfum fumfum! 

blur - to make blurs in writing; to obscure or sully (what has been fair) by smearing with ink or other colouring liquid

blotch - a large irregular spot or blot of ink, colour, etc. (a blotch of ink on ALP's letter) + back wall.

unkempt = illkempt - neglected, not cared for + ill kept + HCE is the innkeeper and the Mullingar Hotel (now the Mullingar House) is the house. Primary temple of god Atum, in Iunu (Heliopolis) was known by the names Per-Aat (pr-at; "Great House") and Per-Atum (pr-ỉtmw; "Temple [lit. "House"] of Atum"). Text on this picture reads: (‘I)tm nb t3wy nb ‘Iwnw ntr c3 nb t3 dsr: Atum, Lord of the Two Lands, Lord of Iunu, the Great God, Lord of the Sacred Land.

chapel + shoveller - one who walks lazily with, or as if with, a shovel + FDV: I am sure that [tiring] tramp [with the chocolate box [, Miny Mitchell,]] was listening.

mujik - a Russian peasant + music box - a mechanical musical instrument consisting of a revolving toothed cylinder working upon a resonant comb-like metal plate, a barrlel organ + magic box - applied colloq. to various, esp. electronic, devices + magical = magic + Chris Dunn remarked that the stone box in the King's Chamber (erroneously referred to as a "sarcophagus") is today a chocolate brown color, not the original rose color of the Aswan granite it is from.

miry - resembling a mire, stained with mire + mir (Serbian, Russian) - peace + Mary Matchwell/Mary Duncan, a professional con artist and schemer who infiltrates the Nutter household by offering to tell Mrs Nutter's fortune. Mrs Matchwell accuses Nutter of bigamy, having married her long ago; he sets off to attempt to prove that she herself was already married at the time and that her husband is still living. Unfortunately, he ends up in the Park just at the time of Sturk's meeting with Dangerfield, and when he hears the sounds of the attack he runs to the scene; his footprints are thus later found at the scene of the crime and he becomes a suspect. Nutter disappears (after anonymously reporting the crime) and for a long time is assumed to have committed suicide, especially after a body is pulled from the river; but he is eventually discovered and put in jail, pending trial for the attack on Sturk. (Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu: The House by the Churchyard)

Michael the Archangel. Decription of HCE's bedroom at FW 558.35 - FW 559.16 includes the sentence: "Over mantelpiece picture of Michael, lance, slaying Satan, dragon with smoke". Fiery Farrelly is the dragon.

outworn - obliterated by the action of time + FDV: I say, the remains of the famous gravemures where used to be blurried the Tollmens of the Incabus. Used he we?

mure - a wall; mire (a mass of dirt); moor (uncultivated ground covered with heather) + gravure (French) - engraving, illustration.

buried + blurred.

dolmen - a prehistoric megalith typically having two upright stones and a capstone + Ptolemy - 2d-century Alexandrian mathematician, astronomer, geographer. In Geographike syntaxis, he gives an inaccurate description of Ireland, calls Dublin "Eblana," and Howth an island + Ptolemies - a Macedonian dynasty that ruled Egypt from 323 to 30 BC + ptôma (gr) - corpse + tall men (giants, who supposedly inhabited the world in the prehistoric era). 

incubus - a feigned evil spirit or demon (originating in personified representations of the nightmare) supposed to descend upon persons in their sleep, and especially to seek carnal intercourse with women + Incas - a Peruvian people who built up a great empire in Pre-Columbian South America.

pretendent - pretender, claimant, one who lays a claim at something, one who simulates

stug - to stab, pierce + struggling + FDV: (He is only pretending to be sounding his tugging at the box harp from a second tired listener. Fiery Phil Fergus Farrelly)

jubilee - a special anniversary + Jubal and Tubal Cain - Jubal was "father of all such as handle the harp and organ"; Tubal was "instructor of every artificer in brass and iron" (Genesis, 4.) Their brother Jabal was father of those who live in tents and have cattle + In a 1997 video, JJ Hurtak said "this chord (F-sharp) is the harmonic of planet Earth to which native Americans still tune their instruments, and is in perfect harmony with the human body." According to Tom Danley, even the type of stone [in King's Chamber] was selected to enhance these vibrations."

exhausted ("outworn" two lines above)

fiery - burning, blazing, red, full of spirit, emotion, etc. + Feardorcha O'Farrelly - 18th century Irish poet. In Irish, an Fear Dorcha, "the Dark Man", refers to the Devil (dragon with smoke in the picture over the mantelpiece in HCE's bedroom: Shem) + The color change of the sarcophagus in the King's Chamber could be due to tremendous heat, which could indicate it was chemically altered by an explosion or fire in the chamber in antiquity.

lokk - to lock + Loki - Norse god of mischief and evil; in Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen, he appears as Loge, god of fire + FDV: It is well known. Look for himself. See?

butte - an isolated hill with steep sides + old but new + Old Bridge, Butt Bridge, New Bridge - bridges over the River Liffey (first two are in Dublin, third is in Leixlip).

W.K.O.O. - call signs for American radio stations east of the Mississippi generally consist of four letters beginning with "W" + Well-Known Optophone which Ontophanes.

mausoleum - the magnificent tomb of Mausolus + By the Magazine Wall, zinzin, zinzin (motif) + FDV: By the mausoleme mausolime wall.

funfair - a fair which is devoted to amusements + fanfare + The Letter: grand funeral/fun-for-all + FDV: Finnfinn Fimfim Fannfann fimfim. With with a grand funferall. Fumfum fumfum!

fumfum - expressing the sound of a stringed instrument; a thumping or beating

optophone - an instrument by which light variations are converted into sound variations so that blind person is enabled to locate and estimate varying degrees of light

onto- (gr) - being, reality + phaino (gr) - show.

list - listen + Shakespeare, Hamlet 1.5.22: "List, list, O list!" (spoken by the ghost of Hamlet's father to the Prince).

Wheatstone - English physicist, inventor of a lyre-shaped instrument, the acoucrytophone, which picked up vibrations from a piano being played in another room, appearing to play itself; he also invented a mouthorgan and concertina + whitestone.

lyer - liar (Wheatstone's acoucryptophone, which resembled a lyre, only appeared to play itself; 'Fake!' and 'pretendant' are other instances of deception in this section. Miry Mitchel is only pretending to play the Jew's-harp while Fiery Farrelly is the real source of the "music") + magic eye - a miniature cathode-ray tube used as a tuning indicator on a radio receiver, or to indicate the correct adjustment of other electrical equipment. 

tuggle - to struggle, labour, to drag about

foriver (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - forever + struggling for Ivor.

lichen - to cover with or as if with lichens + listening for Olaf.

forover (Danish) - forwards + FDV: They will be tuggling forever. They will be listling forever. They will be pretumbling forever.  

discord - disagreement or want of harmony between two or more musical notes sounded together; dissonance + FDV: The Their harpsichord harpsdischord will be theirs forever. 

ollave - a learned man in ancient Ireland + always + 2 Olafs ("O's") and 2 Ivors ("I's").  

Herodotus - Greek historian of the fifth century b.c. + hereditary + FDV: And four Four things therefore these four, saith Mamalu Mamalujius in his Grand Old Historiorum writ by Boriorum, sall ne'er fail in to Dyfflinarsky till [the] heathersmoke & the cloudweed Eire's isle Sall hide. [And here now they are the four of them four Erins.]  

mammon - wealth, money + Titus Livius - Roman historian, traditionally known as Livy + Mark, Mathew, Luke, John.

historiarum (l) - of histories, of inquiries (used in the Latin titles of historical works, e.g. Historiarum adversum paganos libri VII: 'Seven Books of History Against the Pagans' by Orosius)

Annals of the Four Masters were written in Donegal, which was called Boreum by Ptolemy.

best + blue - depressing, boring; indecent, pornographic + The first edition of James Joyce's Ulysses was published in Paris on 2 February 1922 by Shakespeare and Company. The book had a blue cover with a white title.

baile - dance, a social gathering for dancing + baile (Irish) - town (as in Irish 'Baile Atha Cliath': Dublin).

annals - historical records generally + Annals of the Four Masters.

f.t. (Norwegian) = 'for tiden' - at present + four things (abbreviation by initialising was common in medieval Irish chronicles).

Dyfflinarsky - territory around Norse Dublin 

sall - shall

til - till 

heather - native species of the genus Erica (bot.)

Eire - Ireland isle

ile - isle

pall - to cover with a pall (burial garment in which a corpse is wrapped); something, such as a cloud, that extends over a thing or region and produces an effect of gloom + FDV: sall ne'er fail in to Dyfflinarsky till [the] heathersmoke & the cloudweed Eire's isle Sall hide.


fear (Irish) - man + the four of them (list of the four things that have been predicted to occur by the four historians) + FDV: [And here now they are the four of them four Erins.]


toties (l) - so many times, as many times + teetotum - four-sided disk with letter on each side. In game of chance spun to see which side finished uppermost (originally written as 'T. totum').

unum (l) - one

adar - the 6th month of civil and 12th month of ecclestiastical year in Jewish calendar + Adar = Eadair (Irish) - Howth.

boss - spec. A hump or hunch on the back (obs.) + Ben Bulben - a mountain in County Sligo, Ireland, widely known in the poem Under Ben Bulben by William Butler Yeats; said to be the resting place of Gráinne, the bride of Fionn mac Cumhail, and Diarmuid + burning bush.

surmount - to stand or be placed on top of + FDV: A swellhead swelledhead bulbenhead on surmounting surmounted an alderman. Ay, ay! A shoe on a poor old woman. Ah, ho! An auburn maid, a bridabride, to be deserted. Adear, adear! A pen no weightier than a polepost. And so. And all.

alderman - a noble or person of high rank


ay (dialect) - yes + "Ay, ay" is sigh associated with Matthew Gregory; "Oh dear" is Mark's; "Ah, ho" Luke's; "Ah dearo dear" is John's.


duum (l) - of two

nizam (arab) - order + nisan - 7th month of c. year and 1. of ecc. year (jew.); it is the month that follows Adar (or Adar II in leap years).

puir - poor + Poor Old Woman or Shan Van Vocht - Ireland (poetically) + FDV: A shoe on a poor old woman. Ah, ho! 


trium (l) - of three

tamuz - tenth month of the civil year and the fourth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. It is a summer month of 29 days + Tammuz - Babybonian slain god, called Adonis by Phoenicians. Tammuz is the 6th month in the Babylonian calendar. The Annals, 13-14, are zodiacal (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake).

auburn - of a golden-brown or ruddy-brown colour + Oliver Goldsmith, The Deserted Village: "Sweet Auburn, loveliest village of the plain".

brine - the water of the sea; the sea + O'Brien - the ruling sept of Thomond (now County Clare), which took its name from the High King Brian Boru + Biddy O'Brien - a character in the ballad Finnegan's Wake; she weeps over Tim's corpse, so the brine could allude to her salt tears.

desart = desert - to abandon, forsake + Oliver Goldsmith, The Deserted Village + FDV: An auburn maid, a bridabride, to be deserted. Adear, adear!


quodlibet (l) - as many as one pleases, what you please + quodlibet - 1) a philosophical argument or debate, especially as an exercise; 2) a humorous medley of tunes + quadri- (prefix) - four. 

marcheshvan - second month of the civil year and the eighth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar; an autumn month which occurs in October–November in the Gregorian calendar. The Great Flood, which supposedly wiped out the world, started in Marcheshvan. + Joyce's note, Circe: 'Tamuz (June) Marchesvan (Oct) Adar (Nov) Nizam (Dec)'.

penn - pen (obs.) + Bulwer-Lytton: 'The pen is mightier than the sword' + penna (l) - feather (in the Egyptian Book of the Dead or 'boke of the deeds' two lines below, during the Judgment of the Dead by Osiris, the heart of the deceased (actually "ba", one of the subtle bodies, for which heart is hieroglyphic sign) is weighed in a balance against a feather to see if it is heavy with sin).

succoth = sukkoth - Jewish Harvest Festival, sometimes called the Feast of Tabernacles. It begins on the 15th day of Tishri (roughly late September). The celebration lasts for 7 days, during which the Jews commemorate the wandering in the wilderness + (notebook 1923): 'Succoth (Patrick)' → Flood: Ireland, Its Saints and Scholars 10: 'King Niall of the Nine Hostages went on successive expeditions against the peoples of Gaul and Britain. Amongst the captives... was Succoth, a lad of sixteen... afterwards called Patricius, probably in allusion to his noble birth' + suck at (Ass).

idler - one who is idle

wind turns over pages (notebook 1924) → Schuré: Les Grandes Légendes de France 162: 'a hurricane passed over the book and turned all the pages. It remained open on the XIIth chapter of the Apocalypse'.

innocent + innocens (l) - harmless + Innocent - thirteen popes, one antipope; the most relevant one here is Innocent II, who opposed Anacletus, the antipope, in 1132.

"The Heathen Priests and Philosophers hailed him [Julian the Apostate] the divine Anaclete (the Recalled), the re-ascending Apollo." + Anacletus II - antipope (1130-38) opposed to Innocent II.

popeye - a staring bulging eye + Pope + Popeye - of "Thimble Theatre", American comic strip, a popular version of Sindbad and Ulysses. Other references in FW: 'appop pie' (FW 067), 'popeyed' (FW 189), 'poopive' (FW 282), 'Olive d'Oyly and Winnie Carr', 'D'Oyly Owens' (other characters from the comic, FW 279, FW 574), 'I yam as I yam, I am yam' (his theme song, FW 604, FW 481).

antipope - one claiming to be pope in opposition to the pope chosen + 'Pop' was early name of HCE; so, antipop is HCE's rival.

boke - vomit, belch + "The first version [of the Book of the Dead] was edited by the priests of the college of Annu (Heliopolis), which was based upon a series of texts now lost, but which had passed through a series of revisions or editions as early as the period of the Vth dynasty. This, Heliopolitan version, is known from five copies which are inscribed upon the walls of the chambers and passages in the pyramids of kings of Vth and VIth dynasties at Sakkara... The evidence derived from the enormous mass of new material which we owe to the all-important discoveries of mastaba tombs and pyramids by M. Maspero, and to his publication of the early religious texts, proves beyond all doubt that the greater part of the texts comprised in the Book of the Dead are far older then the period of Mena (Menes), the first historical king of Egypt. Certain sections indeed appear to belong to an indefinitely remote and primeval time. The earliest texts bear within themselves proofs, not only of having been composed, but also of having been revised, or edited, long before the days of king Meni, and judging from many passages in the copies inscribed in hieroglyphics upon the pyramids of Unas (the last king of the Vth dynasty, about B.C. 3333), and Teta, Pepi I, Mer-en-Ra, and Pepi II. (kings of the VIth dynasty, about B.C. 3300-3166), it would seem that, even at that remote date, the scribes were perplexed and hardly understood the texts which they had before them." (Wallis Budge: The Egyptian Book of the Dead)

The Annals of the Four Masters - a collection of annals covering Irish prehistory and history from earliest times to the 17th century; they were compiled in the 17th century by four Irish scholars who are among the principal models for Joyce's Four Old Men; other, even more principal, models for Four Old Men were Joyce's grand aunts.

timed his cycle (notebook 1924)

Irish Grand National - a classic Irish steeplechase horse race, held annually at Fairyhouse, County Meath + The Palermo Stone is a large fragment of a stele known as the Royal Annals of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. It contains records of the kings of Egypt from the first dynasty through the fifth dynasty. The stela is a hieroglyphic list—formatted as a table, or outline, of the kings of ancient Egypt before and after Menes, with regnal years and notations of events up until the time it was created, likely sometime during, or up until, the fifth dynasty since that is when its chronology ends. The text begins by listing several thousands of years of rulers — presumed by many to be mythical — predating the rise of the god Horus, who, according to the text, conferred the kingship on Menes, the first human ruler listed.

fossil - fosil

emmet - A synonym of ant (chiefly dial., but often used poet. or arch.) + Robert Emmet - Irish patriot (1778–1803) who said at his trial, after being sentenced to death for treason: "When my country takes her place among the nations of the earth, then, and not till then, let my epitaph be written. I have done." + FDV: The Annals tell bring how 1132 AC AB Men like gnats to ants wondern all over on a groot Wide Wallfisch that lay in a Runnel.

wandern (ger) - wander

groot - mud, soil, earth + groot (Dutch) - great, large.    

hwide - hide + hvid (Danish) - white + white

whalefish - a whale + whall - wall + fisk (Danish) - fish + Walfisch (ger) - whale + Annals of Dublin record: 'A great famine relieved by a prodigious shoal of fish, called Turlehydes, being cast on shore at the mouth of the Dodder. They were from 30 to 40 feet long, and so thick that men standing on each side of one of them, could not see those on the other. Upwards of 200 of them were killed by the people'.

runnel - a small watercourse or channel; a small stream of water, rivulet

bloody + blub - swollen, puffed + FDV: Bloaty Blubber Blubby wares in upat Eblanium.  

ware - seaweed; esp. large drift seaweed used as manure; A collective term for: Articles of merchandise or manufacture; vessels, etc., made of baked clay.

Eblana - the Latin name appears on Ptolemy's map of Ireland around the North part of what appears to be Dublin Bay. There is no evidence that it refers to an ancient settlement on the site of Dublin, but it has been so often cited as the Latin name of Dublin + Dublinium (l) - Dublin.

Baal - Chief male deity of Phoenicia and Canaan + Beltane (Irish) - ancient Celtic May Day celebration, on which large bonfires were lit on the hills (Irish Bealtaine, etymol. 'Baal's fire') + baal (Danish) - bonfire + FDV: 566 A.C. B.A. On Bell Baalfirenacht Ballfireeve of this year a crone that hadde a wickered kish for to hale dead turves from the bog lookit under the blay of her kish as she ran & found herself full rich sackvulle of swalle swart goody shoon quickenshoon & smalle illigant brogues.  

crone - a withered old woman

wickered - made of wicker (a pliant twig or small rod, usually of willow, esp. as used for making baskets)

kish - a large square wicker basket used in Ireland for carrying peat

hale - to draw or pull along, or from one place to another

turves - pl. of turf

lookit - look at (only in imperative) + looked

blay - the name of a small fish, the bleak; dark, gray, black + Joyce's note: 'blay' Irish Independent 23 Jan 1924, 1/6: 'McGuires Great Sale Offers': 'Unbleached Twill Sheets. 1,500 pairs of Good Blay Sheets for Single Beds. Sale Price Each... 2/3'.

satisfy + Sothis - Egyptian goddess, personified as star Sirius (the "dog star"). In the pyramid text, Sothis is described as having united with the king/Osiris to give birth to the morning star, Venus, and through her association with that netherworld god, she was naturally identified with Isis, who she was eventually synchronized with as Isis-Sothis. The earliest known depictions of Sothis, known from a 1st Dynasty ivory tablet belonging to Djer and unearthed at Abydos, represent the goddess as a reclining cow with a plant-like emblem (perhaps representing the "year") between her horns. Her manifest nature is shown at one point in FW as several of these forms, and the search for the parts of Osiris is suggested simultaneously, as a questing crone runs to "sothisfeige her cowrieosity" + Feige (ger) - fig; vagina + feige (ger) - cowardly.

curiosity + cow - an animal sacred to Isis in Egyptian mythology + cowrie - a type of shell, used in some cultures as a form of currency; also a fertility symbol (the lengthwise opening looks like a vulva).

sawl - soul + shawl - cloak consisting of an oblong piece of cloth used to cover the head and shoulders.

sackful - the quantity that fills a sack + vull - full + Sackvllle, Lionel Cranfield, 1st duke of Dorset - Irish viceroy (1750-54). Sackville (now O'Connell) Street, the principal thoroughfare in Dublin, bore his name. 

swart - dark in colour, black or blackish + smart + svært gode (Norwegian) - mighty good.

goody - affectedly or unctuously good + (notebook 1923): 'Goodytwoshoes' → Goody Two-Shoes (pantomime based on an anonymous 18th century children's story, attributed to Oliver Goldsmith, about a child who was so pleased to get a pair of shoes that she would hold them up to all comers and exclaim 'Two shoes!').

quicken - to arouse, excite, give new life or energy to + shoon - dial. pl. of shoe + FDV: found herself full rich sackvulle of swalle swart goody shoon quickenshoon and & smalle illigant brogues.

illigant - elegant

brogue - a rude kind of shoe, generally made of untanned hide, worn by the inhabitants of the wilder parts of Ireland and the Scotch Highlands + Finnegan's Wake (song): "He'd a beautiful brogue so rich and sweet" [brogue (Anglo-Irish) - an accent, especially an Irish accent] + ignorant as a kish of brogues (Anglo-Irish phrase) - ignorant as a basket of shoes (literally).

blurry - blurred + blurry works - Finnegans Wake (referring to the Joyce's blurred vision) + FDV: Bluchy works on at Hurdlesford. / [Silent] 

Town of the Ford of the Hurdle = Baile Atha Cliath (Irish) - Dublin (name is referring to the ancient artificial ford of hurdles, i.e. lattice of osiers, by means of which the early inhabitants of the city could cross the Liffey dryshod).

A.D. - Anno Domini + FDV: 566 A.D. O.D. At that time it came to pass that many 2 fair bronzelocked maidens grieved to because their minions minion were was ravished of them by an ogre Europeus Pius.

fall out - to happen, come to pass

brazen - resembling brass in colour + lock - a strand or cluster of hair + chastity belt? + In Greek mythology, an oracle predicted that King Acrisius of Argos would be killed by his grandson. He locked his daughter, princess Danaë, in a brazen tower to protect her chastity. Zeus entered the tower in the form of a golden shower and impregnated Danaë. She bore a son, the hero Perseus, who indeed later caused Acrisius's death.

damsel - a young unmarried woman + FDV: many 2 fair bronzelocked maidens grieved to because their minions minion were was ravished of them

grieve - to feel grief, to be mentally pained or distressed, to sorrow deeply

sobre las olas (sp) - over (on) the waves + sob.

puppet - darling, pet + Pepette, (French argot for "money"), Pipette (Fr. argot, "pipe"), Popote (Fr. argot, "cooking," "mess hall"), these are associated with "Ppt," which is what Swift called Stella in Journal to Stella. 

minion - darling, favourite, a lover + mouni (gr) - vulva.

ravished - carried away by force; violated; ravaged

ogre - a man-eating monster (usually represented as a hideous giant); a man likened to such a monster in appearance or character

purpose + pia e pura bella - Vico's Latin catch-phrase for holy wars: 'pious and pure wars' + Purpeus (l) - Fire-eye + Purpeous Pius (l) - Fire-eye the Dutiful + FDV: by an ogre Europeus Pius. → Europa was abducted by Zeus (Greek mythology).

pious - faithful to religious duties and observances; devout; duteous; epithet used of Aeneas by Vergil; title affected by the emperors from Antoninus (a.d. 86-161) onward; name of 12 popes the first appearing in the year of the Lord (a.d.) + peos (gr) - penis.

BAILE ÁTHA CLIATH (Pronunciation 'blaaklee') - Dublin + FDV: Bloody wars in Dublin Ballyaughacleeaghbally.  

until (Archaic) - unto + FDV: 1132 A.D. D.O. Two sons at one time hour were born to a goodman & his wife hag. There were name Caddy & Primas. Primo Primas was a gentleman & came of sentryman & drilled by decent dacent people. Caddy went to Winehouse & wrote a piece peace of fun farce.

goodman - husband, innkeeper, landlord

hag - an ugly, repulsive old woman: often with implication of viciousness or maliciousness; an evil spirit, dæmon, or infernal being, in female form

ils s'appellent (French) - they are called (literally, "they call themselves") + FDV: There were name Caddy & Primas.

caddy - lad, a military cadet, one who takes odd jobs + cadet - younger son or brother + cad.

primus (l) - the first + prima (ger) - first grade + Primas (ger) - archbishop + Castor and Pollux (or Polydeuces), the twin sons of Leda, are born on the same night. Pollux was believed to be the son of Zeus, who came to Leda in the form of a swan, while Castor was the mortal son of Tyndareos.  

sentry - an armed soldier posted at a specified point to keep guard and to prevent the passing of an unauthorized person + country man - one who lives in the country or rural parts and follows a rural occupation + 'Saint Patrick was a gentleman and came of decent people' (nursery rhyme) + FDV: Primo Primas was a gentleman & came of sentryman & drilled by decent dacent people.

winehouse - wineshop; tavern (Archaic)

farce - a dramatic work (usually short) which has for its sole object to excite laughter + FDV: Caddy went to Winehouse & wrote a piece peace of fun farce.

blotty - dauby + Rocky Road to Dublin - the road of the well-known ballad may preserve a memory of the ancient Slighe Cualan, which reached the ford of the hurdles from Tara by something like the route of Stoneybatter. The road of the ballad is from Tuam to Dublin via Mullingar + FDV: Blooty worse words in Ballyaughacleeagh in Ballyaughacleeaghbally. Blooty words for Dublin. 

parent - apparent

ginn - gin + GINNUNGA GAP - In Norse myth, the eternal region of chaos between Niflheim, North region of mist and cold, and Muspelheim, South region of heat. Localized as the North Atlantic between Greenland and Labrador.  

gap - copyist hurries away (notebook 1924) → Sullivan: The Book of Kells 11: 'the larger figure was a later addition in order to fill a space left vacant when the original artist had touched the Manuscript for the last time... we can almost see from the illumination itself the very place where he was hurried from his work'.

antediluvian - concerning or referring to the period before the Flood + Gap is between destruction of Atlantis and Christia era, and between the end of FW and its beginning. The last word in FW, 'the', is a door (a few lines below someone is banging the door 'banged pan the bliddy duran') → "This is a Secret Story by some of Us written shortly before the Destruction of the last Kingdom of Atlantis. Understand now why this Chapter was written. When we landed on that primitive Planet still glowing and under domain of Fire, we built Our Sanctuary at the top of the Mount which we cooled. Hither came Great Waters and Mount became Island and Island became Continent. That happened even before the first Speck of Life was born on that Planet. Then Gods knew that Judgment was not yet completely executed so we proceeded with the work which had to be done. First Civilization which We founded was Hyperborea. We knew that Our Race had to be completely Destroyed so that Eons after it should Rise Again towards New even more Brilliant Highness." (Frank G. Ripel: Shautenerom: Book of the Law of Death)

Anno Domini - in the year of the Christian era + Anna dominant (ALP's final speech in FW).

copyist - one who copies or imitates; esp. one whose occupation is to transcribe documents

scroll - a roll of paper or parchment, usually one with writing upon it + Sullivan: The Book of Kells 4: 'The last few leaves of the Manuscript... have been missing for many years').

billy - male goat; a policeman's truncheon + bill - a statement of money owed for goods or services (one of commercial terms in this passage; others are 'charged him', 'in sum', 'fined', 'covered', 'middlemen', 'drawers', 'safe').

elk - the largest existing animal of the deer kind. Irish Elk was one of the largest deer that ever lived. Its range extended across Eurasia, from Ireland to east of Lake Baikal, during the Late Pleistocene. The latest known remains of the species have been carbon dated to about 7,700 years ago. Large numbers of skeleton have been found in Irish bogs. A significant collection of Irish Elk skeletons can be found at the Natural History Museum in Dublin (other species of hoofed ruminants in this passage: Pricket, Eland, Dik Dik, Hind, many of which can also be seen in the National History Museum).

satrap - a subordinate ruler; often suggesting an imputation of tyranny or ostentatious splendour + sultry - burning hot, extremely and unpleasantly hot + sultan - the sovereign of a Muslim country.

wright - a constructive workman + (notebook 1924): 'Worldwright' Jespersen: The Growth and Structure of the English Language 164 (sec. 162): 'Old English had various methods of forming nouns to denote agents... from... wyrhta 'wright' (in wheelwright, etc.)' + worldwright - the creator of the world, the Demiurge.

excelsus (l) - high + excelsissimus (l) - very highest.

empyrean - heaven, the highest heaven, the ultimate heavenly paradise + (notebook 1924): 'empyrean = ciel tout court'.

bolt - thunderbolt, a lightning stroke + "Now comprehend how in Darkness was wrought disorder. There were high Flames which soared until the highest Heaven and mighty Rains that devastated Depths of Abyss. Then there were a Lightning wrapped in blue which closed the Door. This was the Beginning; This is the End. Everything was said and nothing was Revealed." (Frank G. Ripel: Shautenerom: Book of the Law of Death)


Dannyman - sinister hunchback, informer in The Colleen Bawn; (hence, 'informer') + Dana or Danu - Irish goddess of death and fertility, great mother of all the gods of the Tuatha Dé Danaan (i.e., "People of Dana"). 

gallous = gallows + gallus (l) - cock + callous.

pan - face, cranium + upon

døren (Danish) - the door + duren (Ruthenian - Ukrainian) - fool, idiot + Biddy Doran + Blotty words for Dublin.

suicide + scribe - a scrap of writing + (scribe-slayer) + {Not Shem (who diddles even death) but Hosty (Huck Finn, one of HCE's 'versions'), who created the ballad, and destroyed HCE, thus commiting suicide}

led off - taken away (to the scaffold to be hanged) + led (Serbian) - ice (Ice age? Last glacial period of the Quaternary having ended approximately 10,000 years ago with the start of the Holocene epoch).

fine - a sum paid for exemption from punishment + Joyce's note: 'I. Scand in moyenage killing = fine 4/6 / Eng 19th Cent steal 4/6 = death' Gwynn: The History of Ireland 25: 'the law which laid down that killing should be atoned for by a fine, legally fixed - as was the usage in Ireland so long as the native law lasted... It was followed through all Scandinavia throughout the Middle Ages, and although it has been described as barbarous, it is less so than the excessive use of capital punishment characteristic of English law, under which even in the nineteenth century pocket-picking or sheep-stealing was punishable with death'.

mark - 160 pence (value of mark weight in pure silver) + mark weight - 8 ounces + Mark - current and former coin of several countries.

ninepins - a game in which nine 'pins' are set up to be knocked down by a ball or bowl thrown at them, the pins with which this game is played + ninepence.

metalman - a man made of metal + (notebook 1924): 'metal men' (faces on coins).

dross - impurity, rubbish, refuse + (notebook 1923): 'dross' → O. Henry: The Four Million 106: 'An Adjustment of Nature': 'And then Milly loomed up with a thousand dishes on her bare arm... And the Klondiker threw down his pelts and nuggets as dross, and let his jaw fall half-way, and stared at her' + (for killing the copyist).

now and again - from time to time, occasionally

upshoot - outcome, final result

cynosure - something that attracts attention by its brilliancy or beauty + sinecure - (from Latin sine = "without" and cura = "care") an office that requires or involves little or no responsibility, labour, or active service + gyne - the fertile female in a colony of social insects + gynê (gr) - woman.

scaffold - an elevated platform on which a criminal is executed + bring or send to the scaffold  - 'to be executed'.

covertly - in a concealed manner; secretly, privately

meddlement - meddling, interference

drawers - an undergarment for the lower part of the body

wife + (notebook 1924): 'Liam O'Flaherty Thy Neighbour's Wife' → Liam O'Flaherty: Thy Neighbour's Wife (his first novel, published in 1923) + Exodus 20:17: 'thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife' (9th Commandment, according to Roman Catholic tradition) + Joyce's note, Eumeus: 'gets playing with other fellow's wife / devil to pay'.

farfetched - improbable, not natural, from remote time or place

peregrine - roving, alien (adj.)

indignant + Annals of the Four Masters were compiled between 1632 and 1636 in the Franciscan monastery in Donegal Town and along the banks of the river Drowes. The chief compiler of the annals was Mícheál Ó Cléirigh, and he was assisted by, among others, Peregrine O'Clery, Fergus O'Mulconry and Peregrine O'Duignan.

clere - clear

ear = eye of dark (notebook 1924) → Crawford: Thinking Black 251: 'For the hundreds of night sounds - rustlings, twitterings, raspings, tinglings, and roarings - are all known to even Africa's tot, the ears being called his "eyes of darkness".'

liberflavus (notebook 1924) → Studies, An Irish Quarterly Review, vol. 13, no. 50, 189: Comments on the Foregoing Article (Paul Walsh): 'Augustine Magraidin, canon of Saints' Island in Lough Ree, who died in 1405, translated a Life of St. John the Evangelist; it lies unpublished in the Liber Flavus Fergusiorum'.

lividus (l) - bluish + Liber Lividus (l) - Blue Book [Ulysses, which was first published with a blue dustjacket (the colour of the Greek flag) and was regarded as a "blue book" (i.e. an obscene or pornographic book); also, 'bluest book' on the previous page]

toh! (it) - look!

paisible - peaceable + FDV: Yet how Peaceably eirinical in grayquiet all dimmering downs dunes & gloamering glades, selfstretches afore us this freedland's plain.  

eirenical - peaceful, harmonical + possibly ironical.

dimmer - to appear dimly, faintly, or indistinctly

dune - an ancient hill fortress in Ireland; a mound of drifted sand

gloam - to darken, to become dark + glimmering.

glade - a clear open space or passage in a wood or forest

frede - to be sensible of, feel + Fried- (ger) - peace + fred (Norwegian) - peace + faedreland (Danish) - Fatherland [Ireland, whose five fifths (the five provinces of the early Christian period) are enumerated in the following five phrases] + Friedland - Commune in East Prussia. Napoleon defeated Russians under General Bennigsem, 14 June 1807.

lean - not plump or fat, thin + (season of winter).

neath - beneath

stone pine - a pine with wide-spreading glat topped head + pine (French Slang) - penis + Shem and Shaun are identified with stem and stone.

pastor - a herdsman or shepherd (now unusual) + pastor (l) - a herdsman + St Patrick, buried in Ulster (hence this phrase refers to the province of Ulster).

crook - a shepard's staff (with a curve)

pricket - a buck in his second year + prick (Slang) - penis + (Issy and her reflection).

pricket's sister - female fallow deer in second year + A herd of fallow deer is kept in Dublin's Phoenix Park, hence this phrase refers to the second province Leinster; other species of hoofed ruminants in this passage: 'Dik', 'Eland', 'Elk', 'Hind'.

nibble - to bite away little by little

viridity - a quality or state of being green, greenness (i.e. green vegetation) + virility + (season of spring).

amid + a maid + May (season of summer).

herbtrinity - plant with violet flowers

sham - to be or to produce a deceptive imitation of, to feign

lowliness - meekness, humility + loveliness - the quality of being lovely, exquisite beauty.

(opposite of evergreen) + This phrase represents the season of autumn as well as the province of Connacht, which is the wettest and greyest of Irelands five fifths.

donkey's years - a very long time + (notebook 1924): 'donkeys years since' → Leader 15 Mar 1924, 134/1: 'As Others See Us': 'S' donkey's years since I've had a yap with you old man' + Ass or Donkey who always accompanies the Four Old Men here represents the fifth province of Ireland (i.e. the no longer recognised royal province which included Tara within its boundary).

FDV: Since the high old times of Hebear and Hairyman the tulipair tulips twolips amass themselves at Rush the cornflowers have been staying at Ballymun, the dogrose duskrose has chosen choosed out Goatstown crossroads, twolips have pressed togatherthem by sweet Rush, the place for townland of twilights twinlights, and the whitethorn and redthorn have fairygayed the valleys mayvalleys of Knockmaroon and though, for rings round them during a hundred thousand yeargangs, the Formoreans have brittled the Tooath of the Danes and the Oxmen Oxman have has been pestered by the Firebugs & the Joynts have given thrown up wallmaking & Little on the Green is childsfather of the city, their these paxsealing buttonholes have quadruled across the centuries and here now whiff to us fresh & made-of-all-smiles as on the day of combat Killallwhoo.

bout - a round at fighting; a contest, match, trial of strength + bout (French Slang) - penis.

Heber - legendary leader of the Milesian invaders of Ireland, the brother of Heremon (both are regarded as progenitors of the Irish race)

bare/hairy + Genesis 27:11: 'Esau my brother is a hairy man' → Esau is the first son of Isaac and Rebekah in the biblical Book of Genesis, and his lifelong rivalry with his twin brother Jacob is archetypal of war between brothers.

cornflower - plant with blue, pink or white rays

BALLYMUN - Village, North Dublin suburb on road to Naul

muskrose - (so called from its musky odour) a rambling rose (Rosa moschata), having large fragrant white flowers, in panicled clusters + dog rose - prickly wild rose with delicate pink or white scentless flowers (native to Europe) + FDV: the dogrose duskrose has chosen choosed out Goatstown crossroads

RUSH - Village and seaside resort, County Dublin, 18 miles North of Dublin + sweetrush - a marsh herb with long leaves + FDV: the tulipair tulips twolips amass themselves at Rush twolips have pressed togatherthem by sweet Rush  

townland - in Ireland, A division of land of varying extent; also, a territorial division, a township.

twined - Of a plant: Grow so as to spiral around a support + FDV: the place for townland of twilights twinlights

witethorn - a hawthorn

figure - to adorn or mark with figures, to embellish or ornament with a design or pattern + variegated.  

Moyvalley (Irish) - town, County Kildare, on the Liffey river (from Irish Magh Bhealaigh: Plain of the Path) + FDV: and the whitethorn and redthorn have fairygayed the valleys mayvalleys of Knockmaroon

maroon - a large kind of sweet chestnut native to Southern Europe + Knockmaroon Hill, just west of Phoenix Park; also, a western gate of the park ("knock out in the park") + Cnoc na Mabhan (Gael) - 'hill of the dead persons' + REFERENCE

chiliad - 1000 years + Iliad + chilly + FDV: and though, for rings round them during a hundred thousand yeargangs,

perihelion - that point in the orbit of a planet at which it is nearest to the sun + perihelios (gr) - around-the-sun. 

Fomhor (fower) (gael) - legendary pirates harassing pre-Milesian colonists; anglic. Fomorians. Three hundred years after the Flood, Partholón, who, like the Gaels, is a descendant of Noah's son Japheth, settles in Ireland with his three sons and their people. After ten years of peace war breaks out with the Fomorians, a race of evil seafarers led by Cichol Gricenchos. The Partholonians are victorious, but their victory is short-lived. In a single week they are wiped out by a plague — five thousand men and four thousand women — and are buried on the Plain of Elta to the southwest of Dublin, in an area that is still called Tallaght, which means "plague grave". A single man survives the plague, Tuan mac Cairill, who (like Fintán mac Bóchra) survives for centuries and undergoes a succession of metamorphoses, so that he can act as a witness of later Irish history.  

brittle - to cut to pieces

teeth + oath + tuath (tue) (gael) - region, territory; folk + Tuatha De Danann (tue de donun) (gael) - Folk of the Goddess Dana, descended from Nemed, leader of a previous wave of inhabitants of Ireland. They came from four northern cities, Falias, Gorias, Murias and Finias, where they acquired their occult skills and attributes. They arrived in Ireland, on or about May 1 (the date of the festival of Bealtaine), on dark clouds, although later versions rationalise this by saying they burned their ships to prevent retreat, and the "clouds" were the smoke produced. Led by their king, Nuada, they fought the First Battle of Magh Tuiredh (Moytura), on the west coast, in which they defeated and displaced the native Fir Bolg, who then inhabited Ireland. In the battle, Nuada lost an arm to their champion, Sreng. Since Nuada was no longer "unblemished", he could not continue as king and was replaced by the half-Fomorian Bres, who turned out to be a tyrant. The Fomorians were mythological enemies of the people of Ireland, often equated with the mythological "opposing force" such as the Greek Titans to the Olympians, and during Bres's reign they imposed great tribute on the Tuatha Dé, who became disgruntled with their new king's oppressive rule and lack of hospitality. By this time Nuada had his lost arm replaced by a working silver one by the physician Dian Cecht and the wright Creidhne (and later with a new arm of flesh and blood by Dian Cecht's son Miach). Bres was removed from the kingship, having ruled for seven years, and Nuada was restored. He ruled for twenty more years.

oxman - a man who tends or drives oxen + 'Oxman' - Viking (as in Oxmantown, part of North Dublin).

firebug - arsonist, the fire-fly + Fir Bolga (fir bulgu) (gael) - Bags Men, third legendary colonists of Ireland. In far antiquity the Fir Bolg were the rulers of Ireland (at the time called Ériu) immediately before the arrival of the Tuatha Dé Danann, or the Children of Danu, who many interpret as the Gaelic gods. The King of the Tuatha Dé Danann, Nuada, sued for half the island for his people, but the Fir Bolg king refused. They met at the Pass of Balgatan, and the ensuing battle - the Battle of Mag Tuired - went on for four days. During the battle Sreng, the champion of the Fir Bolg, challenged Nuada to single combat. With one sweep of his sword, Sreng cut off Nuada's right hand. However, the Fir Bolg were defeated and their king, Eochaidh, was slain by a goddess, The Morrígan, though the fierce efforts of their champion Sreng saved them from utter loss. The Tuatha Dé Danann were so touched by their nobility and spirit they gave them one quarter of the island as their own. They chose Connacht and are mentioned very little after this in the myths.

giants + joints + Joyce.

throw up - to erect or construct hastily; to cease definitely to do, quit, give up + FDV: Joynts have given thrown up wallmaking

jerrybuild - to build flimsily of materials of poor quality + Jerry/Kevin → Jerry, short for Jeremiah, is a cognate of Irish Diarmaid; Kevin is a cognate of Greek Eugenios.

Little Green Market, Dublin

William Wordsworth: My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold: 'The Child is father to the Man'.



pax (l) - peace + peace pact sealed.


button hole - the hole or slit through which a button passes, an opening like a buttonhole; a flower or small bunch of flowers worn pinned to the lapel or in the buttonhole, esp at weddings, formal dances, etc.


quadrille - to dance quadrilles (a square dance, of French origin, usually performed by four couples, and containing five sections or figures, each of which is a complete dance in itself) + FDV: their these paxsealing buttonholes have quadruled across the centuries


whiff - a slight puff or gust of wind, a breath  


waft - to blow softly, to send through the air + FDV: and here now whiff to us fresh & made-of-all-smiles

Killaloe (notebook 1924) → Cill Dha Lua (kilgalu) (gael) - Church of [St.] Dalua, Co. Clare, site of Brian Boru's palace; anglic. Killaloe + FDV: as on the day of combat Killallwhoo.

Babel - the city and tower, of which the attempted construction is described in Genesis xi, where the confusion of languages is said to have taken place; a confused assemblage + FDV: The babbling babblers of with their tongues have been & have gone, they were & went, thigging thugs were and houhynam songtoms were & gumly comely norgers norgels were & pollyfool francees fiancees;

teanga (Irish) - tongue, language + tanga (Portuguese) - a type of very brief bikini, the thong or g-string; a former coin of Portuguese India, equal to the 10th part of a rupee.

Confucius - Chinese sage + Genesis 11.7: "let us go down and confuse their languages..."

thigging - begging + tuigeann tú (Irish) - you understand [the Irish-speaking Celtic settlers in Ireland] + thinking.

thug - gangster

Houyhnhnm - The name given by Swift in Gulliver's Travels to one of a race of beings described as horses endowed with reason and bearing rule over a degraded brutish race of men, called the Yahoos.

Sodom - an extremely wicked or corrupt place. Freq. coupled with Gomorrah, the name of the other of the two wicked cities of the plain in Gen. xviii-xix + hymn, song.

comely - having a pleasing appearence

norgeln (ger) - to grumble, complain + Norge (Norwegian) - Norway.

playful fiancees + Parlez-vous Français? (French) - do you speak French? + FDV: thigging thugs were and houhynam songtoms were & gumly comely norgers norgels were & pollyfool francees fiancees;  

thaw - to abandon aloofness, reserve or hostility, to become softened in feelings

Sursum corda - (Latin sursum upwards, corda, pl. of cor hear) in Latin Eucharistic liturgies, the words addressed by the celebrant to the congregation at the beginning of the Eucharistic Prayer; in English rites, the corresponding versicle, 'Lift up your hearts' + susurro (l) - to hum, buzz, murmur + sussurrare (Italian) - to whisper.

brune - dark, brown, black + The blond invaders (comely norgels or Norse) desire the brunette women of Ireland + FDV: men have thawed, clerks have surssurummed surssurhummed, the blond has sought of the brune:

piggy - a little pig, having attributes of pig + elsker du mig, min kaere pige? (Danish) - do you love me, my dear girl? + FDV: Else kiss thou may mean [kerry] piggy?:

dunkel (ger) - dark + FDV: and the duncle duncledames have countered to the hellish fellows:

counter - to meet; to encounter or engage in combat

hellish - infernal, diabolical, devilish + hail fellow - an intimate or familiar associate, the state or footing of intimate friends.

espèce (fr) - species, sort, kind + où est ton cadeau, espèce d'imbecile? (French) - where is your gift, you imbecile? + FDV: Who ails tongue coddo, aspace dumbbeksally dumbbillselly?  

fall upon - to rush upon, assault + FDV: & they fell upon one another & themselves they fell have fallen:  

nowanights - on present nights

flora - the plants; in Latin mythology, the goddess of flowers whose festival, the Floralia on 28 April, was an occasion for unbridled sexual licence + Matthew 6:28: 'lilies of the field'.

faun - one of a class of rural deities; at first represented like men with horns and the tail of a goat, afterwards with goats' legs like the Satyrs, to whom they were assimilated in lustful character + fauna - a collective term applied to the animals + Shaun.

cull - to gather, pluck + call + yet still [nowanights as all in nights of yore] do all the bold Floras floras of the field to their fauns shyfaun lovers say only: Cull me I am ere I wilt to thee, and but a little later: Pluck me ere whilst I blush.  

wilt - Of plants or their parts: To become limp or flaccid, through heat or drought.

whilst - while

marry - an exclamation of asseveration, surprise, etc.

in troth - truly, verily, indeed

howitz - cannon + old as the hills - very old + FDV: Well, may they wilt, marry! And profusedly blush, be troth! For that saying is as old as the howths, wherever you have lay a whale in a whillbarrow (isn't it the truath I'm tallen ye?) you'll have fins & flippers to shimmy & shake. / Excuse us, Lictor. Can you direct one to the (Sic. Joyce ended his primitive draft here. Revision preceded the writing of the pseudohistoric dialogue between Mutt and Jute and perhaps also the Annals passage cited above.)  

lave - leave + laver (fr) - to wash.

a while - for a (short or moderate) time

wheel barrow - a barrow or shallow open box mounted between two shafts that receive the axle of a wheel at the front ends, the rear ends being shaped into handles and having legs on which it rests.

tallin (Ulster Pronunciation) - telling

flipper - the fin of a fish + (notebook 1923): 'flippers (whale)'.

shimmy - to oscilate abnormally + Finnegan's Wake (song), chorus: 'Whack fol the dah, dance to your partner, Welt the flure, yer trotters shake, Wasn't it the truth I told you Lots of fun at Finnegan's Wake' (originally, Poole: Tim Finigan's Wake: 'Whack, hurrah! blood and 'ounds, ye sowl ye! Welt the flure, yer trotters shake; Isn't it the truth I've tould ye Lots of fun at Finigan's wake!')

Hop! - a flea hops on the flagquilt on HCE and ALP's bed; this is the character Joyce represented in his notes and early drafts with the siglum *S*, a bloodsucking parasite on HCE. His principal role in the novel is the tavern's manservant or barman, "Old Joe".

in the name of - exp. of surprise

ainm (Irish) - name + Adam + (an anagram of 'name').

carl - a man of the common people, countryman, a base fellow

kopje - a small hill (in south Africa) + Joyce's note: 'hophare bacontree kopje' → Jespersen: The Growth and Structure of the English Language 156 (sec. 154): 'the Dutch... in South Africa... applied... kopje 'a little head or cup' to the hills' (from Afrikaans to English).

pelt - to strip or pluck off (the pelt or skin) from, to skin, fleece + Joyce's notes, Circe: 'slit mandolorn, suck brains, baby on back, pelts,'

thong - a narrow strip of hide or leather, for use as a lace, cord, band, strap, or the like

Parthalon (parhalon) (gael) - leader of second legendary colonists + apart, alone.

Joe Biggar (Joyce's note, Circe) → Biggar, Joseph - trusted parliamentary aide of Parnell's, a "character" of whom many stories were told. Biggar was hunchbacked and misshapen + Joe (*S*) + bugger + Jupiter. 

forshapen - transformed, misshapen + forshape - to metamorphose, transform + FDV: Scuse me, guy. Who is this This kerl on the kopje [who the joebiggar be he?] Forshapen like a pigmayde hoagshead.  

pygmy - very small, diminutive, tiny + pig, hog.

hogshead - a large cask or barrel; Applied to a person with allusion to the animal + *S* is the inn's bottlewasher, and a drunkard like HCE.



plod - a heavy tiring walk + Plattfuss (ger) - flat foot.


hath - have


lakat (Serbian) - elbow + lactose - a natural sugar found in milk.


shin - the front part of the human leg between the knee and the ankle + Joyce's notes, Circe: 'walk the earth, 5th glaciation, Homo Neanderthalensis, Piltdown, Herdelbey, short shins [15.31-32], cave [16.3] cavern, pectoral murals [15.32], flint, toe apart [15.31], Vevere Dordogma, monsterous [15.33], fire defences [16.2], the Kill, from his


O behold!


pectoral - something worn on the breast


pectoral muscles - the muscles of the chest + mamma - mother.


mousterian - rel. to late Paleolith period (70.000 - 30.000 B.C.) + monsterous + mysterious.


slake - to lick with the tongue


nuncheon = luncheon - a slight repast taken between two of the ordinary meal-times.


brain pan - the skull


me seemeth (Archaic) - it appears to me


almost + all month.

clear + keep - care, attention, heed, notice; usually in phrases to take, give keep, to take or give heed, take notice + on the qui vive - on the look-out. 

fief - a feudal estate + view

comestible - eatable, edible + tipple - to partake of alcoholic beverages + constable.

Saxon - a member of a Germanic people who conquered England and merged with the Angles and Jutes to become Anglo-Saxons + Sackerson - Elizabethan bear → Shakespeare, The Merry Wives of Windsor 1.1.306: "I have seen Sackerson loose twenty times, and have taken him by the chain." + (*S*).

junipery - abounding in junipers (gin contains juniper) + January

February + brewery.

March + arrack - an Eastern liquor.

April + ale + brillo (Italian) - drunk.

ramping - violent, unrestrained

pluviôse (fr) - fifth (mid-winter, January 20 to February 18/19) month of French Revolutionary calendar of 1793-1805. The calendar is in four groups of three rhyming months. Nivôse, Pluviôse, and Ventôse are the fourth, fifth, and sixth months, meaning snowy, rainy, and windy + (pouring rain or drinks).

frimaire (fr) - third (late-autumn, November 21 to December 20) month of French Revolutionary calendar (French frimas: hoar-frost, rime). Three months begin with "F": Floréal, Frimaire, and Fructidor. "Froriose" seems to be the word "roar" (as in roaring wind, windy, Ventôse) combined with Floréal (flowery) + fror (ger) - froze.

quare (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - queer + kuvar (Serbian) - cook.

soort - sort

man + mahan (Anglo-Irish) - bear (*S*).

miching (dial.) - skulking, creeping from sight; mean, cowardly; secret or underhand mischief, a bad deed probed by disguised means. To mich or meech means to skulk or shrink from sight. Michers are poachers or secret pilferers. Malicho is a Spanish word meaning an "evil action" + Joyce's note, Circe: 'mit chin daddy, mit ton chepp'.

overstep - to step over

kraal - an enclosure for cattle or sheep + kraal (Afrikaans) - stockade, pen, enclosure, native village in South Africa.

slit - a straight and narrow cut or incision

marrowbone - a bone containing edible marrow + merg (Dutch) - marrow.

cave (l) - beware! + (fire lit at the mouth of the cave).

p'raps - perahaps + perhaps poster (propose) us + preposterous.

pillory - a wooden instrument of punishment on a post with holes for the wrists and neck; offenders were locked in and so exposed to public scorn + pillarbox - postbox + billowy way (sea).

hirculus (l) - a little goat + Hercules' pillars - the rocks Calpé (now Gibraltar) and Abyla (Ceuta), on either side of the Strait of Gibraltar, thought by the ancients to be the supports of the western boundary of the world, and to have been set up by Hercules.

hosiery - socks and stockings and tights collectively (the British include underwear)

blown - destroyed, spoiled + Comment vous portez-vous aujourd'hui, mon blond monsieur? (French) - How are you today, my fair sir? + {ALP in fact has "blown" Jute as Cad to accost HCE} 

sewer - one who sews, or stitches + mon bon monsieur (French phrase) - my kind man.

scuse - excuse + FDV: Scuse me, guy. Who is this This kerl on the kopje [who the joebiggar be he?] Forshapen like a pigmayde hoagshead.

charley - a fool, simpleton + Sorley Boy MacDonnell - rebellious Ulster chief.

taler de Dansk (Danish) - do you speak Danish? + FDV: You tollerday donsk domk? N.

talkative + tolke (Danish) - to interpret + Tolka river, Dublin.

"Egyptian is rich in negative words, each of which possesses its own peculiar syntactic uses. For the moment we are concerned only with the commonest of these, which appears in two forms, nn and n... The distinction between nn and n is rather obscure." (Gardiner: Egyptian Grammar) [hieroglyph denoting n looks like river: ""]

Norwegian - the language of Norway + Scowegian (nautical slang) - Scandinavian + FDV: You talkatiff Scowegian? Nn.

spiggoty - Spanish-American, a foreign language + Jespersen: Language, its Nature, Development and Origin 399: 'Round Panama everything native is called spiggoty, because in the early days the Panamanians, when addressed, used to reply, "No spiggoty [speak] Inglis"' + Richard Pigott (*Y*), an Irish journalist, attempted to incriminate Charles Stewart Parnell (*E*) in the 1882 Phoenix Park Murders by means of false letters; trapped at a government inquiry by his spelling of 'hesitancy' as 'hesitency'.

English + Anglais (French) - English + Angles - along with the Saxons and Jutes, one of the Germanic invaders of Britain who were the ancestors of the English + FDV: You spigotty angliss? Nnn.

phoneo (gr) - I speak + euphonium, saxophone (musical instruments).

Saxo = Saxon - the language of the Saxons + FDV: You Phonio Saxo? Nnnn.

Jute - one of the three Low German (other two were Angles and Saxons) tribes which, according to the account preserved by Bæda, invaded and settled in Britain in the fifth and sixth centuries + mute + (notebook 1924): 'I am a Jute'.

swop = swap - to exchange, make an exchange + shake hands

exchange + échecs (French) - chess + FDV: 'Tis clear all so. Tis a Jute. Let us swop hats & exchange a few verbs with each either [& have a tolk about the blooty creep kneeks] .

strong language - expressions indicative of violent or excited feeling + strong and weak verbs in Germanic languages (e.g. Old English).

haphazard - dependent upon chance or accident; random + yap - a chat; to chat + (notebook 1924): 'yap' → Leader 15 Mar 1924, 134/1: 'As Others See Us': 'S' donkey's years since I've had a yap with you old man' + jazz - popular type of improvisatory African-American music.

bloot (Dutch) - naked + bloody

creek - an inlet or short arm of a river + Greeks + Creeks - Native American people traditionally from the southeastern United States. )

Utah - US state, and the name of a North American Indian nation + Jute! + REFERENCE

mutt - a stupid or commonplace person; a mongrel dog, cur + me + Mutt and Jeff - comic strip characters. Mutt was a tall, lanky man, while Jeff was short and fat.


my pleasure - a colloq. dismissal of thanks + muc (muk) - pig + muk (Serbian) - silence, voicelesness + FDV: Much Mutts pleasure

jeff - a derogatory term for a man + deaf [but notice the absurdity of asking a deaf person if they're deaf as well as the strangeness of Jute asking the question. Presumably, Jute is the one who stands for Jeff; it seems thay have swopped hats and identities weak oach eather (or at least, first letter)]


somehow - someway, in some manner + hard of hearing - deaf + FDV: Someward


deafmute - deaf and dumb [(notebook 1924): 'deafmute']


nohow - not at all + FDV: No, only an utterer.  


utterer - one that utters + stutterer - one who stutters.

whoa - a word of command to a horse or other draught-animal to stop or stand still + how


matter + Mutter (ger) - mother + FDV: Jute — What is the mutter with you?


stun - the condition of being stunned


stummer - to stumble + stammer - to stutter + Stummer (ger) - mute person + FDV: I became a stummer.


horrible + audible + FDV: What a turrurrurrurrible thing to because! How?


apud, aput (l) - with, at, near, by, amid, among + upon 

buttle - to serve as a butler + battle + "Buttle / franking machine / son turned out badly / look at it over / there": first words on the first page of the first notebook Joyce used after completing Ulyssess. Combined pun on the words 'bottle' and 'battle' looks ahead to Joyce's practice in the rest of his last book. Word 'Buttle' is taken from Irish Times on 9 October 1922: "Buttle - In proud and loving memory of Albert Edward Buttle, Lieutenant, Royal Irish Rifles, who died in France, October 2nd, 1918, of wounds received in action the previous day, aged 23 years..."

surd - irrational; voiceless; stupid (Archaic) + sir + surdus (l) = sourd (fr) - deaf.


poddle - to walk with short or uncertain steps, to toddle + puddle + battle + Poddle river, Dublin.


wherein - in what, where


Clontarf + FDV: The Inns of Dungtarf where used ought to be.  

inedible - not edible + inaudible + FDV: You are almost inedible to me. Become a little more wiseable as if I were you. Let me cross your


a' bisschen (ger) - a little


Brian Boru + FDV: Up Urp Boohooros Boohooru! Boroorusurp! Booru! Usurp! I trumple with from wrath rath in my mine mines when I rememmerem.  


usurp - to seize and hold by force or without right

trample - to tread heavily and (esp.) injuriously upon; to crush + tremble

rath - circular earthwork stronghold of an ancient irish chief + wrath + rat (Serbian) - war + Rathmines - district of Dublin.

rim - edge + mir (Serbian) - peace + Thomas Moore: Remember the Glories of Brian the Brave (song).


Augenblick (ger) - moment + Ein Augenblick (ger) - 'one moment' + eye gone black (Joyce wore a black eye-patch at times).


bison (Slang) - nickel (United States coin) + business is business (phrase) + Joyce's note, Circe: 'bisons are bisons'.


fore - before


hesitancy - the quality or condition of hesitating, indecision, vacillation


qualm - a spasm of fear + cross your qualm - overcome your misgivings + Qualm (ger) - thick smoke + cross someone's palm with silver - to give money to someone (esp. for some information).

trinket - a small drinking vessel; a cup + trinken (ger) - to drink + Trinkgeld (ger) - tip (literally "drink-money") + gilt trinket.

gilt - gilt plate, the thin layer of gold with which anything is gilt; gold, money + guilt + FDV: Let me cross your qualm with gilt trinkgilt. Here is coyne, a piece of oaks.  

sylvan - rel. to wood or woods + silver

coyne - an Irish chieftain's exaction of food and drink from his tenants for his soldiers; 'coyne and livery' is an old Irish custom whereby a host was obliged to provide his guests with bed and board ('liveries' at FW 017.01) + cone - the more or less conical fruit of pines and firs + coin

Wood's halfpence; also 'woodpiles of haypennies' [FW 011.21]

Guinness - the proprietary name of a stout manufactured by the firm of Guinness. Guinness's advertising agency did some market research during the 1920's to find our what people liked about Guinness. People responded that they felt good when they had their pint and the slogan, "Guinness is Good for You", was born + guinea - a gold coin issued in England from 1663 to 1813 and worth one pound and one shilling.

louis - a gold French coin + l’ouie (French) - the sense of hearing + lui, lui (Italian) - it’s him! (Mutt recognizes the face stamped on the coins).

wouldn't + (of wood, i.e. sylvan) + Wood's halfpence - copper coinage for Ireland produced by William Wood in 1723-24, a swindle denounced by Jonathan Swift as "Wood’s halfpence" in four Drapier's Letters.

untellable + indelible - that cannot be removed, washed away or erased.

great + Harald Graycloak ruled West Norway in the 10th century + 'great cloak' suggests Daniel O'Connell ("The Liberator"), whose statue on O'Connell Street is clothed in a great cloak.

Celtic + Sitric Silkenbeard led the Danes to an ignominous defeat at the battle of Clontarf in 1014 (as King of Dublin, he issued silver coins with his face on them).

shag - a mass of matted hair + FDV: How I know it the livery greytecloke of Cedric Silkyshag [with his hairyside out]! It He is him. Tormentor Thormentor. He was poached on that eggtentical spot by the. Here where the liveries. There where the missers mooney: Minnikin Passe.

mealy - resembling meal, having the qualities of meal, powdery

faulty - defective, imperfect, unsound + Cead mile failte romhat (ked mili falt'i rot) (gael) - a hundred thousand welcomes to you (traditional Irish greeting). 

dabble - to wet by splashing, to play about in shallow water + Dublin Bar - a sandbar at the mouth of the Liffey which could only be navigated at high tide; the construction of the North and South Walls led to its dispersal.

bar - a room or establishment where alcoholic drinks are served over a counter; one pound sterling (Slang)

grilse - the name given to a young salmon on its first return to the river from the sea + grizzly - powerful brownish-yellow bear of the uplands of western North America + grisly - frightful, ghastly.

poach - to cook (fish, fruit, etc.) by simmering in water or another liquid; to hunt illegally + poached salmon or egg + (killed).

identical + (poached egg).



livery - a servant's uniform; the lodging provided for a person, the quarters of a portion of an army + Coyne and Livery - food and entertainment for soldiers, and forage for their horses, exacted by an army from the people whose lands they passed through, or from towns where they rested on their march + Liberties - district of Dublin.


monomark - combination of letters as an identification mark + monomachos (Greek) = monomachus (l) - fighter in single combat, gladiator.

misser - a mass priest + missies (Colloquial) - girls.


moony - stupidly dreamy; rel. to moon; many + MOONEY'S - Mooney and Co has operated a chain of pubs in central Dublin since the 19th century + Mooney, Mrs - landlady in the Dubliners story, "The Boarding House," whose daughter waits upstairs while argument rages + mouni (gr) - vulva. 

minikin - tiny + manikin - a model of the human body used for exhibiting the anatomical structure or for demonstrating surgical operations + Mannequin Pisse - a famous statue of a small boy taking a leak, often seen as a symbol of Brussels.

passe - no longer young, faded, no longer fashionable + passe (fr) - a fuck + pass


taciturn - silent + Tacitus, Cornelius (55-120) - Roman historian. The surviving portions of his two major works —the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the Roman Emperors Tiberius, Claudius, Nero, and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors (AD 69). These two works span the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus in AD 14 to (presumably) the death of emperor Domitian in AD 96. In Life of Agricola he mentions Ireland.


pre-tells (foretells) + pretends - claims + FDV: Simply Sumply because, as Taciturn pretells, the our wrongstory shortener, he dumptied the this wholebarrow of rubbages on to soil here?


make a long story short - to relate in few words


dumpty - short and stout + dump - to throw down in a lump or mass, as in tilting anything out of a cart + emptied + Humpty Dumpty.


wheelbarrow + barrow - an ancient burial mound.


rubbage = rubbish


puddingstone - a conglomerate rock consisting of naturally-cemented pebbles; conglomerate + (notebook 1924): 'poudingue pudding stone' → Boulenger & Thérive: Les Soirées du Grammaire-Club 263: 'We need a more subtle working of the mind to separate and classify the elements of this pudding-stone' (glossed in a footnote: 'This is not an arbitrary frenchisation, but a word of geology').

inat (Serbian) - spite, malice + FDV: Just like a puddingstone at inat the brookcells of a riverpool.  

brook - rivulet + Bruck- (dial. ger) - bridge + BRUSSELS - City, and capital of Belgium, on Senne River; Fr Bruxelles. The Willibroek Canal makes Brussels a seaport + cell - a small apartment, room, or dwelling.

all marshy + Lord-a-mercy - An interjection expressing astonishment + FDV: Lord Loud Load a marshy marshey!

wid - colloq. and dial. pronunc. of with

wad (Cornish) - forefather + with what - at which time, when + FDV: With what Wid wad for a noise like?  

similar + Romulus - legendary founder of Rome + FDV: Somular to a bull in a Clompturf. (Joyce intended to make an addition here. In the next draft we find "Rooks roarum rex Roome!").

BULLS, NORTH AND SOUTH - The "Bulls" were the great sandbanks North and South of the channel in inner Dublin Bay, so-called "from the roaring of the surf against them when uncovered at low water" (Haliday, 234). Since the building of the South and Bull Walls, the South Bull is under water at all tides and the North Bull is an island, connected with the mainland by a bridge (no longer wooden as in A Portrait), and paralleling the shore from Clontarf almost to Howth. Clontarf, "meadow of the bull," may have been named from the North Bull. 

clomp - to tread clumsily and noisily, a thud + (Buckley Shot the Russian General when he wiped himself with the clump of turf) + Clontarf

res, rei, rei, rem (l) - a thing, of a thing, to a thing, thing + rex, regis, regi, regem (l) - king, of a king, to a king, king + ros, roris, rori, rorem (l) - dew, of dew, do dew, dew + rex rorum, rex Romae (l) - The King of the dews is the King of Rome + rex rerum (l) - king of wealth + rex Romae (l) - king of Rome.

snore - to make harsh or noisy sounds in sleep, to declare + schnore (swiss) - talk, chatter + FDV: I could snore to him [woolseley side in], with my owth by the neck I am sutton on old Brian O'Flynn O'Flinn.

spumy - covered with spume (foam, froth) + Cape Horn - southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of southern Chile, located on the small Hornos Island. Waters around the Cape are particularly hazardous, owing to strong winds, large waves, strong currents and icebergs; these dangers have made it notorious as a sailors' graveyard.

woolsey = linsey-woolsey - textile of wool and linen + Arthur Wellesley - first Duke of Wellington.

neck - a narrow stretch of land (isthmus, cape, mountain pass), a brick wall

SUTTON - The narrow isthmus joining Howth to the mainland (Greek isthmos: neck) + sitting

Brian O'Linn (Joyce's note, Circe) → Brian O'Linn (song): 'Brian O'Linn had no breeches to wear / So he got him a sheepskin to make him a pair / The leather side out and the wooly side in / "Sure it's great summers clothing." said Brian O'Linn' + Black Linn - the highest point on Howth.

boiled oil + BALDOYLE - Village, North of Sutton and Howth; site of race course.

raw - uncooked, not prepared for use as food by the action of fire or heat + Raheny - N.E. Dublin suburb + raw honey

barely + beurre (fr) - butter + Beurla (Scottish Gaelic) - English language.

forstand - understand + FEV: Boiledoil Boiledoyl & rawhony for on me if I can forestand you your such a norse noise noise norse as you make out of it.   

weird - fate, destiny, one of the Fates; a spell or charm + word

sturk - a young bullock or heifer; a foolish person + Sturk - occupant of LeFanu's House by the Churchyard, he is attacked in Butcherswood in the Phoenix Park. Sturk is "resurrected" by Black Dillon + start & Turk.

Finnic - Finnish, the finnic languages + finish

Rotterdam + rotter - slang. In vaguely depreciative use: One who is objectionable on moral or other grounds + Gotterdammerung (ger) - twilight of the gods + FDV: [You tell of rutterdamrott unheardof & unscene.]

unheard - not heard, new, strange + on- (Dutch prefix) - un-

obscene + unseen + umsehen (ger) - to look around.

gut (ger) - good + good afternoon - salutation used at meeting or parting + FDV: Good aftermeal! [See you doomed.]  

doom - to pronounce judgement or sentence against; esp. to condemn to some fate + see (someone) hanged or damned first - to refuse absolutely to do what one has been asked + see you soon.

agree + a dream. 

sec - second + but wait a second.

dun - dark, dusky + blink - glance + take a walk - to take a short journey on foot (for exercise or pleasure) + Dunsink Observatory, Dublin.

roundward - in a circular direction + FDV: Rest a while. Half Walk a look onward roundward you will see [how old the plain] From in the Bigning Bygning to Finnisthere. Punct. 

all but - very nearly + all but isle, i.e. peninsula (from Latin pæne: almost, and Latin insula: island).

shall + Head of Howth.

olde - old

ye - the, you

Elders - two ancient judges in the apocryphal book of Susanna. They first proposition the young matron and, when repulsed, accuse her of unchastity with a young man. Daniel unmaskes the Elders' lies + Eltern (ger) - parents + Magh nEalta (Irish) - Plain of Flocks. Variously rendered into English as Moynalty, Moynelta, Moyelta etc; the plain north of the Dublin Mountains, where the legendary Irish colonizer Parthalón settled until he and his people were wiped out by a plague.

Humphrey + free from Huns.

ours (French) - bears

wone = won - dwell, abide; one; past of win + one.

whimbrel - a small curlew (occasionally found on Bull Island and in Clontarf)

peewee - dwarf, a lapwing; the thin wailing cry of this bird

salting - land flooded regularly by tides, the place where a stream joins the sea + Joyce's note: 'Saltings'.

will be + by (Danish) - town.

Isthmus of Sutton, joining Howth and the mainland

droit - right, law, justice

signory - lordship, a power of feudal lord + droit de seigneur - the supposed right of a feudal overlord to deflower the bride of any of his tenants on the first night of her marriage. 

icefloe - a large sheet of floating ice

bygning (Danish) - building + Genesis 1:1, John 1:1: 'In the beginning'.

Finistére - French department where, some say, Tristan died + Finisterre (l) - an indication on ancient maps for the end of the known world (from Latin finis terræ: end of the earth) + Cape Finisterre - northwestern tip of Spain (wherefrom Milesians supposedly came to Ireland).

punct - point + punctum (l) - punctation mark; period; point + Punkt (ger) - period, full stop + Phoenix Park - large park northwest of Dublin; name probably derives from Irish fionn-uisge: spring of limpid water (Pronunciation 'fin-uiske'), corrupted into Phoenix + finishing point. 

Let Erin Remember the Days of Old (song) - a lyric by Thomas Moore (sung to the tune of 'The Red Fox')  

mear - to mark out (land) by means of meres (landmarks) or boundaries + (notebook 1924): 'limit of 2 races child's grave' → Chateaubriand: Œuvres Choisies Illustrées I.41, Atala: 'We passed close to the tomb of a child, that served as a boundary for two nations'.

race - a strong current in the sea or a river

swete = sweet + white + sweet and brackish - the fresh water of the River Liffey and the salt water of Dublin Bay, which merge in the river's estuary.

brack - somewhat salt, briny + black + Finngaill and Dubhgaill (Irish) - "white foreigners" and "black foreigners" (generic names for the Norwegian and Danish settlers in Ireland).

morthering - to become foul, fetid, etc. + morther - murther; mother; a young girl + Moddereen Rue or 'The Red Fox'. Thomas Moore's Let Erin Remember the Days of Old is sung to this air + murder + Mordred - character in the Arthurian legend, known as a notorious traitor who fought King Arthur at the Battle of Camlann, where he was killed and Arthur fatally wounded.

rue - sorrow, distress; pity, compassion; a perennial evergreen shrub of the genus Ruta, esp. Ruta graveolens, having bitter, strong-scented leaves which were formerly much used for medicinal purposes + maidrín rua (Irish) - fox (literally: "little red dog").

Krach (ger) - crash + cracher (fr) - to spit.

eastward + estuary + (Hitler, attacking eastwards).

surgent - rising or swelling in waves + insurgence - uprising, an act of rising up physically.

ebb - the reflux of the tide; the return of tide-water towards the sea

requiesce - to rest, repose + (notebook 1924): 'here flux unites *T* & *L* reflux divides' → Schuré: Les Grandes Légendes de France 215: (of the tides of the Baie de Tréspassés) 'A touching folk legend has it that here meet the souls of those who had killed themselves for love and had been lost in death. Once a year, they are allowed to see each other. The flux unites them, the reflux separates them, and they tear away from each other amid prolonged lamentations'.

nether - situated down or below + niederfallen (ger) - to fall down + FDV: Thousand & one livestories have netherfallen here.

plage - the beach; plague + page (in FW).

flick - a light blow + thick as snow flakes.

litter - odds and ends, fragments and leavings lying about, rubbish + letters.

waast = waste + waas (Dutch) - haze, blur + vast

wizzard = wizard + blizzard.

all of (P) - completely, quite (used to emphasize)

whirl - the act of rotating rapidly + whirlwind - a whirling or rotating wind + Heimskringla (Old Norse) - Snorri Sturluson's sagas of the Norse kings; the name means "world’s whirl".

tomb - to lay in the grave, bury, entomb

mound - a tumulus; esp. the earth heaped up upon a grave

ashes to ashes + isge (Old English) - ice + gēs (Greek) - Earth + ice ages (icefloe seven lines above).

erde - do dwell, live, to inhabit + Erde (ger) = erde (Old English) - earth + merde (French) - shit + FDV: They are tombed to the mound isfes to ishges to ishges, erde from erde.  

stench - a foul, disgusting, or noisome smell, a disagreeable or offensive odour, a stink + 'Sdeath! - God’s Death! (archaic oath used by Shakespeare).

fiat (l) - let there be; let it be, so be it + fuit (l) - it was + fiat lux et lux fuit (l) - 'let there be light and there was light' (Genesis 1:3). 

herein - in this place

lye = lie; a strong alkali (i.e. the burial of plague victims in quicklime)

estrange - a stranger, foreigner + l'étrange (French) - the strange + l'étranger (French) - the foreigner.

Babylon + Arnold Bennett wrote 'The Grand Babylon Hotel', 1902 + Revelation 17:5: 'BABYLON THE GREAT'.

hotel - to lodge at an hotel + title of Finnegans Wake may have started out as 'Finn's Hotel'.

tit - dear, loved; a girl or young woman (often qualified as little); titmouse

tittle - the smallest or a very small part of something + titmouse - a bird of the genus Parus, comprising small active birds; a small, petty, or insignificant person or thing + 'Tit-tit-tittlemouse Lived in a little house' (nursery rhyme).

alp - a bullfinch (bird); a high rugged mountain, a mountain pasture

earwig - an insect, Forficula auricularia, so called from the notion that it penetrates into the head through the ear

drukne (Danish) - to drown + drunk (on ale).

ild - pple. of ill + ild (Norwegian) - fire.

like as - as, in the way or manner that

ist Liebes (ger) - is love's + Liebes (ger) - love + Wagner: Tristan und Isolde: Liebestod ('love-death' aria).

luv - love + lee bez luv → bez (Serbian) - without → lee without love.

smrt (Serbian) - death + Mord (ger) - murder + morte (fr) - death + 'Zmorde - God’s Death! [after the archaic Shakespearean oaths, ’Sdeath! ("God's Death!"), ’Sblood! ("God's Blood!"), ’Zounds ("God's Wounds!) etc.]

Mild und leise (German) - softly and gently → Wagner: Tristan und Isolde: Liebestod: 'Mild und leise wie er lächelt' (German) - 'gentle and soft how he smiles' (the opening words from Isolde).

fierce + Thomas Moore, Irish Melodies: Desmond's Song: 'By the Feal's wave benighted' (Thomas, the heir of the Desmond family, had accidentally been so engaged in the chase, that he was benighted near Tralee, and obliged to take shelter at the Abbey of Feal, in the house of one of his dependents, called Mac Cormac. Catherine, a beautiful daughter of his host, instantly inspired the Earl with a violent passion, which he could not subdue. He married her, and by this inferior alliance alienated his followers, whose brutal pride regarded this indulgence of his love as an unpardonable degradation of his family.)

behauptet (ger) - asserted + hough - trans. To disable by cutting the sinew or tendons of the hough, to hamstring.

despond - depression or dejection of spirits through loss of resolution or hope



ancestress - a female ancestor + ace (playing card) + thanatos (gr) - death + kestreus (gr) - hungry + thanasimos (gr) - deadly, fatal + thanatephoros (gr) - death-bringing + that ancestral. 


swallowed + swollen up.


Earth of yours [oach eather (FW 016.08 ); ea and ou have been interchanged, as Mutt and Jute change their characters]


save = safe - affording security or immunity, not exposing to danger.


brickdust - powdered brick + Genesis 3:19: 'for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return' + FDV: This earth ourth is not but brickdust.


humus - the dark-brown or black substance which forms the soil in which plants grow


rune - to compose or perform poetry or songs; to lament + Habakuk 2.2: Then the LORD answered me and said, "Record the vision And inscribe it on tablets, That the one who reads it may run ('he may run that readeth it').


rede - interpret, explain, surmise, predict + FDV: He who runes may read it.


on all fours - on hands and knees + run on all fours - fairly, evenly, not to limp like a lame dog + All Fours - a card game.


OLDCASTLE - Town, County Meath, 64 miles from Dublin. 


Newcastle - a village in County Dublin


Threecastles - a village in County Wicklow


crumble - to break down into small crumbs; to reduce to crumbs or small fragments + (brickdust) + The 4 Royal Manors of County Dublin, established under Henry II, were Esker, Newcastle, Saggart, and Crumlin. Crumlin is a village in County Dublin (now a suburb of the city).


sell (obs) - to give


sooth - truth + tell me sooth (Archaic) - tell me true.


Dublin + humble - submissive.


sift - to pass (something) through a sieve, in order to separate the coarse from the fine particles; intr. To use a sieve, to do sifting + all so softly + FDV: But speak siftly.


moulder - a worker who makes molds; to turn to dust (crumbling and brickdust)


whisht - hush, silence + wish + bí i do thost (Irish) - be quiet! + whist - a card-game + FDV: Be in your whisht.

whysht - wish + why is that + what + FDV: Whyst? 'Tis viking viceking's soil.


gyand - giant


forficula - a genus of earwigs


amnis (l) - river


fay - fairy + Morgan le Fay is a powerful sorceress in the Arthurian legend. As her epithet "le Fay" (from the French la fée, meaning fairy) indicates, the figure of Morgan appears to have been originally a supernatural being. She is King Arthur's sister and the mother of his son Mordred.

waist - the portion of the trunk of the human body that is between the ribs and the hip-bones; waste + west


howe - hollow, valley; how + THING MOTE - The assembly place, usually on a mound, established by the Vikings whenever they settled. In Dublin, the Thing Mote was on a low hill South of the present Dame Street. The hill of the Thing Mote was called the Howe, Haugh, or "Howe over the Stein" (Steyne), from haugr, Old Danish "hill, sepulchral mound." 

viceking - viceroy + Henrik Ibsen: The Viking's Barrow.

grab - seize, snatch + Grab (ger) - grave.


hvad (Danish) - what


are + øre (Norwegian) - ear.


astonished + Stone Age.


oye - grandchild + øye (Norwegian) - eye + I

terrorstruck + thunderstruck + Ragnarøkr (Old Norse) - destruction of the Norse gods + Thonar or Thon - god worshipped in England and on the Continent, maybe a form of Thor because his name is that of the Teutonic word for 'thunder'. 


stoop - to bow down; an act of stooping; a post, pillar + Stop, please stop... (motif) + FDV: Stoop, if you are abcedminded, [to this claybook,] what curios of signs, (please stoop) in this allaphbed, a hatch, a celt, an earshare for to the pourquose of which was to cassay the earthcrust at all [of] hours [furroward & bagowards bogowards like an ox yoxen at the turnpath]!

absentminded -  paying no attention to, and receiving no impression from, present objects or events + Joyce's note: 'abced' + abecede (Old English) - alphabet + ABCDE-minded = literate.

claybook (Joyce's note) → Clodd: The Story of the Alphabet 89: (of cuneiform writing) 'the abundant clay of the alluvial country afforded material whose convenience and permanence brought it into general use. Upon this the characters were impressed by a reed or square-shaped stylus, the clay-books being afterwards baked or sun-dried'.

curious + kurios (gr) - lord + curio - any curious or rare object.


alaphbet (Joyce's note) → Clodd: The Story of the Alphabet 122: (quoting Canon Taylor) 'the very word ALPHABET... is obviously derived from the names of the two letters alpha and beta... which are plainly identical with the names aleph and beth borne by the corresponding Semitic characters' + (riverbed).

rede - read

Lane-Poole: The Speeches & Table-Talk of the Prophet Mohammad xl: 'the "we" (God), and "thou" (Mohammad), and "ye" (the audience), of the Koran'.

have it out - to settle or clear up the matter by free discussion or a fight



mina (also mna) - an ancient Near Eastern unit of weight equivalent to 50 shekels. The mina, like the shekel, was also a unit of currency. From earliest Sumerian times, a mina was a unit of weight. At first, talents and shekels had not yet been introduced. By the time of Ur-Nammu, the mina had a value of 1/60 talents as well as 60 shekels.


miscegenation - a mixture of races [Joyce's note: 'miscegenation']


tekel = Armaic equivalent of shekel - any of several ancient units of weight or of currency. The first usage is from Mesopotamia around 3000 BC. Initially, it may have referred to a weight of barley (the first syllable "she" was Akkadian for barley). This shekel was about 180 grains (11 grams or .35 troy ounces). The earliest shekels were a unit of weight, used as other units such as grams and troy ounces for trading before the advent of coins. Coins were invented by the early Anatolian traders who stamped their marks to avoid weighing each time used.


four l's → closing line of the novel (FW 628.15-16)

forsin - ruined by sin, burdened with sin + forsan (l) - perhaps + upharsin - half of mina.

kingdom + Thingmote + In the book of Daniel, King Belshazzar of Babylon during a drunken feast takes sacred golden and silver vessels, which had been removed from Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem by his predecessor Nebuchadnezzar. Using these holy items, the King and his court praise 'the gods of gold and silver, brass, iron, wood, and stone'. Immediately, the disembodied fingers of a human hand appear and write on the wall of the royal palace the words מנא ,מנא, תקל, ופרסין (Mene, Mene, Tekel u-Pharsin). These are known Aramaic names of measures of currency: MENE, a mina, TEKEL, a spelling of shekel, PERES, half a mina. Despite various inducements, none of the royal magicians or advisors can interpret the omen. The King sends for Daniel, an exiled Jew taken from Jerusalem, who had served in high office under Nebuchadnezzar. Rejecting offers of reward, Daniel warns the King of the folly of his arrogant blasphemy before reading the text. The meaning that Daniel decrypts from these words is based on passive verbs corresponding to the measure names. And this is the writing that was inscribed: MENE, MENE, TEKEL, and PHARSIN. This is the interpretation of the matter: MENE, God has numbered the days of your kingdom and brought it to an end; TEKEL, you have been weighed on the scales and found wanting; PERES, your kingdom is divided and given to the Medes and Persians. That very night King Belshazzar is slain, and Darius the Mede becomes King.

MEDIA - Ancient country in area now North-West part of Iran; became part of Persian empire under Cyrus, 6th century BC. Dan 5:25: "Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians."  

Porson, Richard (1759-1808) - English classical scholar

meander - to wander deviously or aimlessly + Neanderthal - middle Paleolithic fossil hominid Homo neanderthalensis.

Heidelberg man - an early pleistocene man closely rel. to Neanderthal + Edinburgh (In James Hogg's novel Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner two brothers, Robert and George, meet, as young men, in Edinburgh where Robert starts following George through the town, mocking and provoking him and disrupting his life. He appears to have the ability of appearing wherever George is. Finally, George is murdered, stabbed in the back, apparently during a duel with one of his drinking acquaintances. The only witness to the murder is a prostitute, who claims that the culprit was Robert) + "hubbub caused in Edenborough." FW 029.35-36

imply - uplesti, ume¹ati, nagovestiti

knit - weave, to conjoin as by knotting or binding together

whet - to hone, sharpen

convey - to transport, to transmit, be the medium of

sweeten - to add sugar, refine, purify

sensation - feeling, emotion

adhere - to stick fast, to become or remain firmly attached to

attachment - liking, affection, love, devotion

dog - to follow insidiously, to act as a dog, to guard as a dog

bitch - to spoil, botch, say mean things

entail - to bring on by way of necessary consequence

ensuance - the fact of ensuing + ensue - to follow, to result from.

reredos - an ornamental screen covering the wall at the back of an altar; the back of the hearth + (during enlightenment, a reed grew out of Buddha’s navel, or according to other sources rays of light emanated from it).

Rama - seventh avatar of the god Vishnu in Hinduism, and a king of Ayodhya in Hindu scriptures + Ramsbottom - a place in Lancashire, England + ram's bottom. 

terricolous - Zoology: Living in or on the ground + terricola (l) - earth-dweller.

vively - in a lively or energetic manner; clearly, vividly + vivlion viou - modern greek for biblion biou (book of life). 

quaky - inclined to quake; of the nature of quaking + The Letter: 'Dear, and it goes on to'

hatch - hatchet

celt - an implement with chisel-shaped edge, of bronze or stone (but sometimes of iron), found among the remains of prehistoric man. It appears to have served for a variety of purposes, as a hoe, chisel, or axe, and perhaps as a weapon of war.

ear (obs) - a ploughing; to plough + ploughshare - the horizontal pointed cutting blade of a mouldboard plough + (*E* the ploughshare, *A* the earth).

purpose + pourquoi (French) - the reason why.

casser (fr) - to break + assay - to determine the content or quality of (a metal or ore).

crust - the upper or surface layer of the ground (obs.)

furrow - a long, narrow, shallow trench made in the ground by a plow + forwards, backwards.

turnpath + boustrophedon (gr) - turning like oxen in ploughing (of writing from left to right and right to left in alternate lines) + FDV: furroward & bagowards bogowards like an ox yoxen at the turnpath 

say - see + FDV: Here are say figurines billicoose arming and mounting. Mounting & arming bellicose figurines are see there here.

figurine - a small carved or molded figure + (*V* and *C*).

bellicose - inclined to war or fighting; warlike + bill and coo - to interchange caresses. Doves express affection by billing (touching beaks) and cooing to one another. Also said of demonstrative lovers.

arm - to embrace; to equip with weapons, to prepare for struggle

mount - to organize and equip (an attacking force); to get upon the back of a horse or other animal for the purpose of riding

futhorc - runic alphabet + further + Joyce's note: 'futhorc' → Clodd: The Story of the Alphabet 201: 'The primitive Gothic alphabet is named, on the acrologic principle, "futhorc", after the first six letters, f, u, t, h, o, r, c'.

effinge - to fashion, shape + little effigy + (*I*).

flint - a kind of hard stone + Vorfall (ger) - incident + fire-lighting flint + FDV: And  uthor, this little effingee stands (not completed) is for fire a fing called in flintgun flintforfall. ace at the eased. O I fay!!  ace at the waist. Ho you fie! Upwards & down them! ace to ace!  

east + 'Face to the east, Face to the west Face to the one you love the best' (children’s game).

fay - to fit closely together, to agree, succeed; to clean + see + say.

fie - exp. of disgust or the affectation of being shocked; to trust + see

wap - to fold up, bind, wrap + "Up guards and at 'em!" - Wellington's order in the last charge at Waterloo.

dump - to fall abruptly, to knock down [Joyce's note: 'dump']

san (gr) - old letter SS; numerical symbol 900

petit (fr) - small + pretty.

holos (Greek) - whole

alphabet (Joyce's note, Circe) + all for a bit → synecdoche - a figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole or the whole for a part. Giordano Bruno held that every tiny particle embodies the entire universe within itself + FDV: When a piece does duty for the whole we soon get used to an allforabit allphorabit.

several + silvern (Archaic) - silver-coloured, made of silver + sylvan + Here are selveram cued little petty petteet peas of quite a pecuniar interest inaslittle as they are the pellets that make the tomtums tomtummy's payroll.  

cue - the letter q; to make an indicatory mark on; to drive (a ball in Billiards & Snooker) with a cue; to form a line or queue + cute.

peteet - small; of little importance or value + petits pois cuits (French) - cooked peas.

pea - the round seed of Pisum sativum, a well-known article of food; something small and round like the seed

pecuniar = pecuniary - of, belonging to, or having relation to money + peculiar.

inasmuch as - in so far as, in view of the fact that, seeing that

pellet - any globe, ball, or spherical body, usually one of small size

tom tommy - a double breasted plough + tom (Danish) - empty + tummy - belly, stomach + FDV: that make the tomtums tomtummy's payroll.

roll - a quantity of bills or notes rolled together; hence, the money a person possesses + payroll - a employer's list of those entitled to receive compenstion at a given time and of the amounts due to each.

rank - to form a rank or ranks, to stand in rank + FDV: Right are rocks and with these rocks rogues orangotangoes rangled rough & rightgoring rightgorong.

Ragnar Lodbrok - a 9th century Danish warlord, said by some to have fathered Ivar the Boneless, who was a prominent Norse king of Dublin + ragnarok - in Scandinavian mythology, the destruction of the gods or the twilight of the gods; spec. the last battle of this world, in which gods and men will be defeated by monsters and the sun will grow dark (often mistranslated as 'twilight of the gods').

rox - to decay + rocks

orangutan - an anthropoid ape + orangotangos (Portuguese) - orang-utans (from Malay for 'forest dweller').

rangle - to argue noisily or vehemently; to range about in an irregular manner

wisha - Used as an intensive or exp. of surprise: indeed, well.

tha (Þa) (Old English) - then, when + FDV: Wisha, wisha, whydidthe whydidtha?

thik - that same, this, that + FDV: This Thik is for thorn that's tuck in its toil like tom tomfool's anger traitor thrust for vengeance.

thorn (Old English, Old Norse) - the letter Þ, pronounced th ([θ] or [ð]) + Joyce's note, Eolus: 'a fool's word like a thorn in hand'.

thrust - a forcible push or pushing + thirst

midnight + midden - a dunghill, refuse-heap + FDV: What a [mnice old mness it mnakes,] middenhide's mniddenhide's hoard of abjects! olives, bats, kimmels, dollies, alfrids, ____, pethers gormons daltons [&]  


hoard - a secret store of valuables or money


beet - a plant or genus of plants (N.O. Chenopodiacea), having, in cultivation, a succulent root much used for food, and also for yielding sugar + FDV: olives, bats, kimmels, dollies, alfrids, ____, pethers gormons daltons [&]  


kimmel - a tub used for brewing, kneading, salting meat, and other household purposes + Kümmel (ger) - caraway + kamila (Serbian) - camel.


dolly - a pet name for a child's doll; a wooden implement for stirring clothes in a washtub; a small piece of wood or metal placed on the head of a pile to prevent damage to the pile while it is being driven + Alef, bet, gimel, dalet - the first four letters of the Hebrew alphabet.


owlet - an owl; a young owl or little owl


eggs + x.


bleakish - rather pale (obs.) + creak - to make or cause to make a harsh squeaking sound + Greekish.


fromage (fr) - cheese


quite - rather, to a moderate degree


y + epsilon (uppercase Ε, lowercase ε) is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet, corresponding phonetically to a close-mid front unrounded vowel /e/. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 5. It was derived from the Phoenician letter He + epsilaine (gr) - was growing thin + obscene.

wobble - an unsteady rocking motion or movement + old worldly w's.


haud (l) - not + FDV: Oiolets' eegs creakish with ____ the hoopoocough age [& now] quite epsilene [waweldy's oldwoldy & wobblewers] not hand worth a wipe of a grass.


keep of the grass - do not take liberites + a wipe o grass [cf. How Buckley Shot the Russian General, in which the General (HCE) wipes his arse with a sod].


worm - to move or progress sinuously like a worm + wurm (obs) - snake, worm + Wurm (ger) - worm, dragon (Wagner’s preferred term to describe the dragon Fafner in his operatic tetralogy Der Ring des Nibelungen) + FDV: Sss! See the snake worms wurrums everywhere our durst durl bin is sworming with sneaks!


Dublin + dustbin + durbin (Serbian) - field glass, telescope. 


swarm in - to be crowded with + worming.

sneak - a sneaking person + snakes


toucher terre (French) - to land + Angleterre (French) - England (source of most of Ireland's foreign invaders) + (notebook 1923): 'triangular Spain' → Flood: Ireland, Its Saints and Scholars 27: (Adamnan on the spread of Saint Columcille's influence) 'his name not only became illustrious throughout the whole of our own Ireland and Britain, but reached even to triangular Spain and Gaul and Italy, and also to the city of Rome itself'.

prairie - a tract of level or undulating grass-land, without trees, and usually of great extent

rare = rear - to erect by building, construct, elevate, raise + "When we landed on that primitive Planet still glowing and under domain of Fire, we built Our Sanctuary at the top of the Mount which we cooled. Hither came Great Waters and Mount became Island and Island became Continent. That happened even before the first Speck of Life was born on that Planet. Then Gods knew that Judgment was not yet completely executed so we proceeded with the work which had to be done. First Civilization which We founded was Hyperborea. We knew that Our Race had to be completely Destroyed so that Eons after it should Rise Again towards New even more Brilliant Highness." (Frank G. Ripel: Shautenerom: Book of the Law of Death)  

caldron - a large kettle; a natural formation suggesting a cauldron + cargo - a ship-load + Genesis 3:3: "the tree which is in the midst of the garden" + (notebook 1924): 'S came in a cargo of fruit' (it is unclear whether the initial S is an *S* siglum or simply an abbreviation for 'snakes') Freeman's Journal 22 Feb 1924, 8/4: 'By the Way': 'The ss. Reventazon was landing a cargo of bananas from Jamaica when a strange little creature was discovered hiding among the fruit... its precise genus seems to have baffled everyone... Now, what is it?' 

prohibitive - that forbids or restrains from some course of action + forbidden fruit + Genesis 3:3: 'the tree which is in the midst of the garden'.

pome - a fruit of the apple kind or resembling an apple + pomme (fr) - apple + pome fruit - a plant that bears pomes + fruct = fruit.

paddy - rice; Irishman; policeman, cop

Wippingham, Paddy - (1) St Patrick; (2) Dick Whittingtom; (3) The Whippingham Papers (a Victorian work of sado-masochistic pornography) + whipping them (St Patrick banishing the snakes).

cotch - catch + William Shakespeare: Macbeth III.2.13: 'We have scotch'd the snake, not kill'd it'.

prick - erect and pointed + quicker + prick (Slang) - penis.

Genesis 2:23: 'she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man'.


pick up her (drawers)


tally - any tangible means of recording a payment or amount + FDV: Subdivide and sumdolot and but the tale comes out the same balifusion.

balofuseni balifusion (Joyce's note) → Clodd: The Story of the Alphabet 203: (of the Ogam alphabet) 'The alphabet is divided into four aicmes or groups, each containing five letters: the first aicme, B, L, F, S, N... the fourth aicme, comprising the vowels A, O, U, E, I'.

racketeer - one who extorts money

bootlegger - one who carries liquor in his boot-legs; hence, an illicit trader in liquor + Joyce's note: 'bootleg stuff'.

axe - the axle of a wheel; an edge tool with a heavy bladed head mounted across a handle + ace + (x + x + x)(x + y) = 111, if x = 1, y = 36.

thwack - bang, whack, to strike with something heavy + two

thrack - to pack full, fill, to load + three & tracks + FDV: Axe plays on axe thwacks on axe acks thracks axewise.  

one by one - one after another, one at a time

plus + FDV: One by one please place one be three and one before.  

ditto - the aforesaid, the same; Used, in accounts and lists to avoid repetition of a word or phrase appearing above + one by one, place 1 by 3, then 2, and 1 before = 1132.

minus + two nurses (*IJ*) + FDV: Two nursus one make free tree free and idem behind.

plausible - worthy of being applauded, agreeable, popular

idem (l) - the same + jedan (Serbian) - one.

start off - to set out, to begin a journey; to begin to move, to leave the point of departure in any kind of progression

boa - a genus of serpents native to the tropical parts of S. America + *S*.

threelegged - having three legs + Crow: Master Kung: The Story of Confucius p. 49: "Three-legged calves, big snakes, the discovery of rocks of strange appearance" [examples of omens] + three-legged - the siglum Joyce uses in his notes and drafts for the combined Shem-Shaun character has three legs.

calver - a pregnant cow + kalvers (Dutch) - calves.

Igraine - mother of King Arthur + evergreen. 

jade - a contemptuous name for a horse; a horse of inferior breed, e.g. a cart- or draught-horse as opposed to a riding horse + Crow: The Story of Confucius, Master Kung 45: (before Confucius's birth) 'a fabulous animal known as a chi lin appeared before the prospective mother, bearing in its mouth a jade tablet inscribed with a message prophesying future greatness for the son then about to be born. The young girl tied a silken scarf around the single horn of the animal and it disappeared the same night, only (according to the story) to reappear more than seventy years later, just after the death of Master Kung'.

Crow: The Story of Confucius, Master Kung 43: (in ancient China) 'Most of the writing done was laboriously inscribed with a stylus on slips of bamboo... a book the size of the volume now in the reader's hands would fill a small truck. It was said of one industrious scholar that he read 'a hundredweight daily'' + 111.

liberorumque (Latin) - and of children + librorumque (Latin) - and of books + liber (l) - book + queue (fr) - penis.

con - to get to know; to study or learn, esp. by repetition + con (fr) - vulva.

an (Archaic) - if

All Hallows Day - All Saints' Day; the first of November + All Hallows' Eve (Archaic) - Halloween.

meander - a winding course or movement (from the Meander river in Greece, noted for its winding course) + Neanderthal.

unfurl - to make or become spread out from a rolled or folded state, esp. in order to be open to the wind + FDV: What a tale to unfurl & with what an end in view of squattor autosquattor auntisquattor & postprone . . . .squattor postproneauntisquattor!

larry - confusion, excitement, noise; a long handled hoe + Tom, Dick and Harry - any man taken at random.

the (old) sod - one's native district or country; spec., Ireland

little son - a grandson

lea - land 'laid down' for pasture, pasture-land, grass-land + FDV: And to say that we us to be are all every tim mick & larry of us, sons of the sod, sons littlesons, yea & weelittlesons leastlittlesons when we are usses not to be every sue, ciss & sally of us, dugters of Jor Nan. Accusative ahnsire! Dam to infinities!

(plural of us)

siss - a hissing noise + sis - sister.

sally - the european house wren

daughters + duga (Serbian) - rainbow + dugs - paps, tits + Paps of Ana - two mountains in Kerry shaped like female breasts.

accusative - marking direct object (gram.); accusing

answer + Ahn (ger) - ancestor.

nullus - no one, nobody + in illis diebus (l) - 'in those days', Latin formula used in the Mass to introduce Lesson + in nullis diebus (l) - in no days + Nile - Egyptian river, associated with papyrus reeds, from which Egyptian "paper" was made and from which the word 'paper' is derived.

as yet - up to this time, hitherto

Lumpenpapier (German) - rag paper (paper made from cotton) + FDV: True there was no lumpend paper papeer as yet in the waste and the mountain pen still groaned for the micies to deliver him.

penn = pen (obs.) + parturiunt montes, nascetur ridiculus mus (l) - the mountains are in labor, a laughable little mouse is born (when much is promised, little performed) + fountain pen + the pen is mightier than the sword.

groan - to utter a low deep sound expressive of grief or pain

ancientry - ancient times, antiquity

give (I) the boot - to dismiss (someone from his job) or end a relationship with (someone), kick out, dismiss + FDV: You gave me a boot (signs on it!) and I ate the wind.  

signs on it (Anglo-Irish) - consequently, therefore, as a result; and it looks it too!

eat the air - to have vain hopes

quiz - to question, interrogate; to find out (a thing) by questioning + quis (l) - who + FDV: I tipped quizzed you a quid (with for what?) and you went to quod.  

quid - a sovereign; one pound sterling; a piece of something (usu. of tobacco), suitable to be held in the mouth and chewed + quid (l) - what.

quid pro quo (Latin) - an exchange (literally: "what for what")

quod - a quadrangle or court, as of a prison; hence, a prison + quod (l) - 1) because; 2) that (conjunction) + 'Nemo dat quod non habet', literally meaning "no one [can] give what they don't have" is a legal rule + god.

mind - mark my words! + anima mundi (Latin) - the World Soul, believed by ancient philosophers to be the soul of the Universe + FDV: But the world, mind, is, was & will be writing its own runes wrunes for ever, man, on all matters that fall under the ban of our senses.  

ban - anathematization, curse + pan - the action of panning a camera, a panoramic sequence + ban (Cornish, Welsh) - mountain, height.

infrarational - below what is rational

fore = for (prep. in various uses); on account of, because of (obs.)

milch - of domestic mammals: Giving milk, kept for milking + Michael + Lane-Poole: The Speeches & Table-Talk of the Prophet Mohammad xiv: 'The hospitality of the Arab is a proverb... it is strictly true. The last milch-camel must be killed rather than the duties of the host neglected'.

vein of rage (lust) swelled (Joyce's note) → Lane-Poole: The Speeches & Table-Talk of the Prophet Mohammad xxvii: (of Mohammad) 'Fine long arched eyebrows were divided by a vein, which throbbed visibly in moments of passion'.

moor - to secure one's ship (etc.) in a particular place; to anchor; to secure (a ship, boat, or other floating object) in a particular place by means of chains or ropes

Charmian - lady attending on Cleopatra in William Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra + Lane-Poole: The Speeches & Table-Talk of the Prophet Mohammad xxvi: (of Mohammad) 'his rich cousin, Khadija, whom he presently married at the age of twenty-five' + cousin-german - a person who shares common grandparents but not common parents, the child of your aunt or uncle.

Lane-Poole: The Speeches & Table-Talk of the Prophet Mohammad xxx: (of Mohammad) 'his ordinary food was dates and water'.

tether - to make fast or confine with a tether + Lane-Poole: The Speeches & Table-Talk of the Prophet Mohammad xxiii: (of ancient Arab superstition) 'a few tied camels to the graves of the dead that the corpse might ride mounted to the judgement-seat'.

dread - extreme fear; deep awe or reverence; apprehension or anxiety as to future events + Lane-Poole: The Speeches & Table-Talk of the Prophet Mohammad xxxix: 'The day of judgement is a stern reality to Mohammad... he calls it the Hour... the Smiting... the Day of Decision'.

Joseph Charles Mardrus, Introduction to the Koran, 13: 'Koran was written at first on palmleaves, pebbles, skins and shoulderblades of sheep'.

chip - to hew or cut with an axe or adze, or with strokes from any other cutting tool

chap - to break into small pieces, chop, strike + FDV: A bone, a pebble, a ramskin: chip them, chop chap them, cut them allways:  

terracotta - a hard unglazed pottery of a fine quality, of which decorative tiles and bricks, architectural decorations, statuary, vases, and the like are made

melting pot - a vessel for melting + Mutter (ger) - mother + Hering (ger) - herring + muttering (murmuring) pot + FDV: leave them to terracook in the slow slowth of their oven mutthering pot: 

guten Morgen (ger) - good morning + Johann Gutenberg (1398 – 1468) was a German inventor who achieved fame for his contributions to the technology of printing during 1448. His inventions allowed for the rapid printing of written materials, and an information explosion in Renaissance Europe + FDV: and the day gutenmorg of a magnum charter we must one way dawn else there is is there no virtue more in alcohoran.

CroMagnon - used, chiefly attrib., to designate a group of mankind characterized by a long low skull, a wide face, and wide orbits (Mesolithic and Neolithic times) [(notebook 1924): 'Cro-Magnon'] + James Joyce, Dubliners: 'The Sisters': 'gnomon'.

charter - lit. A leaf of paper (in OE. called bóc, book); a legal document or 'deed' written (usually) upon a single sheet of paper, parchment, or other material, by which grants, cessions, contracts, and other transactions are confirmed and ratified + Magna Carta is an English legal charter, originally issued in the year 1215. It was written in Latin and is known by its Latin name. The usual English translation of Magna Carta is Great Charter. Magna Carta required King John of England to proclaim certain rights (pertaining to freemen), respect certain legal procedures, and accept that his will could be bound by the law. Magna Carta was arguably the most significant early influence on the extensive historical process that led to the rule of constitutional law today in the English speaking world.

tinting - the action of tint, the result of this, colouring + tint - a colour, usu. slight or delicate + Tintenfass (ger) - inkwell (an ink-cup adapted to occupy a hole in a desk).

great primer - a size of printer's type approximately equal to 18 point, formerly used for Bibles

omnibus (l) - for everybody + once for always - once as a final act, once and done with.

rubric - a heading of a chapter, section, or other division of a book, written or printed in red; red ochre + rubricked - marked by red letters, written or printed in red + redd - cleared for a new occupant + (the dustjacket of the first edition of Finnegans Wake was red or wine-coloured).

virtue - occult efficacy or power

alcohol + Alcoran - the sacred book of Muslims, the Koran.

rapt - entranced, ravished, enraptured + Lane-Poole: The Speeches & Table-Talk of the Prophet Mohammad xxxi: (of Mohammad's second revelation) '"O thou who art wrapped, rise up, and warn!..." - Koran, ch. lxxiv'.

papyr - papyrus + 'What Are Little Girls Made Of, Made Of' (nursery rhyme).

meed - to reward. In bad sense, to bribe + FDV: For that is what paper is made of, made of, hides and hints and misses in prints.

hide - a hiding place, the action or an act of hiding, concealment + (parchment made of animal hides).

misprint - a mistake in printing

endlich (ger) - finally

typus (l) - figure, form, image + typos (gr) - print, impression; image, model + FDV: Till we finally (though not yet for all) meet with the acquaintance of Mr Typ, Mrs Top and all the little typtoppies — Fillstop Fillstap.

tope - to drink heavily; an exclamation used in drinking; app. = I pledge you + topos (gr) - place, passage in a book.

tiptop - the very top, the highest point or part, the extreme summit + (notebook 1923): 'Mrs Doesbe & all the little Dobes'.

bind over - to oblige (a person) to undertake to do a particular act + FDV: So you need hardly tell spell me that every word will be bound to carry 3 score & ten tomtypsical readings through the book of life Ballyliving duble ends out till Daleth, who opened it, closes thereof the door. + REFERENCE


three score and ten - the span of a life, seventy years, as given in the Bible; according to Joseph Charles Mardrus' Introduction to the Koran, Muslim exegetes believe that every word of the Koran has seventy different meanings, one for each year of a man's life.


reading - an interpretation, as of a piece of music, a situation, or something said or written


thorouhout - through the whole of (a space, region, etc.), in or to every part of, everywhere in

Dublin's giant + double ends joined (Finnegans Wake has two ends which, seemingly, join) + 'What God hath joined, let no man put asunder... till death do us part' (marriage ceremony) + FDV: through the book of life Ballyliving duble ends out till Daleth, who opened it, closes thereof the door.

genie (also jinni, djinni, from Arabic جني jinnī) is a supernatural creature which occupies a parallel world to that of mankind, and together with humans and angels makes up the three sentient creations of God (Allah). According to the Qur’ān, there are two creations that have free will: humans and jinn. We do not know many details about them; however, the Qur'an mentions that jinn are made of smokeless flame, and they form communities just like humans, and, just like humans, they can be good or evil.


Lane-Poole: The Speeches & Table-Talk of the Prophet Mohammad xxix: (of Mohammad) 'The worst expression he ever made use of in conversation was, 'What has come to him? may his forehead be darkened with mud!''


sunder - to become separated or severed from something; to be torn, break, or split in pieces + Sünder (ger) - sinner.


daleth - 4. letter of Jewish alphabet, meaning "door"


Mahamanvantara (Sanskrit) [from maha great + manvantara period of manifestation] - A great cycle of cosmic manifestation and activity, whether of a universe, solar system, or planet. The mahamanvantara of a solar system or Life of Brahma is a period of 311,040,000,000,000 terrestrial years. A mahamanvantara of the earth-chain is a Day of Brahma or a period of seven rounds of the planetary chain. We have lived somewhat more than one-half of our planetary mahamanvantara; and again 50 Years of Brahma (one half of the Life of Brahma) have also passed away. We have thus reached the first Divine Day of the first Divine Month of the ascending cycle of the second cosmic period of fifty Divine Years of the cosmic mahamanvantara. The day after the mahamanvantara is the Day-Be-With-Us or the Christian Day of Judgment. Then all individualities are merged into one, each still possessing essential or intrinsic knowledge of itself. But at that time, what to us now is nonconscious or the unconscious, will be absolute consciousness.  


ope (Archaic) - to open


thereof - of that, of it, from that cause


dor - trick, deception, mockery + In FW the at the end is a door. Also, the (French: 'tea'), is end of the letter, which is obliterated by tea stain made by Belinda (Biddy) Dorans.

Fly not yet (notebook 1923) → Thomas Moore, Irish Melodies: song: Fly Not Yet [Air -- Planxty Kelly] + "You haven't done anything yet," don Juan snapped at me. "That much, I know." Was he right! On my next dreaming session, at home, all hell broke loose. I reached the shadows' world, as I had done on countless occasions..." (Carlos Castaneda: The Art Of Dreaming)


nondum (l) - not yet; not now (i.e. there is many miles till the end of FW and its opening page which repeats the phrase 'not yet' seven times) + "How many miles to Babylon? Three score and ten, sir. Will we be there by candlelight?" (Ulysses. 9.415). 

city + sixty + sytti (Norwegian) - 70 + sette (Italian) - 7 (FW 003.04-14 repeats the phrase 'not yet' seven times) + According to one Islamic tradition, there are 72 houri for every man in heaven + "He stated that the nagual Rosendo's miscalculation was to assume that the inorganic beings are not, in the slightest, interested in women. His reasoning was correct and was guided by the sorcerers' knowledge that the universe is markedly female and that maleness, being an offshoot of femaleness, is almost scarce, thus, coveted. Don Juan made a digression and commented that perhaps that scarcity of males is the reason for men's unwarranted dominion on our planet. (Carlos Castaneda: The Art Of Dreaming)

Wsir or Wsr - Osiris

candlelight - the light given by a candle or by candles. Often, artificial light in general + Kindl (ger) - child + "On one occasion, a scout guided me very roughly through countless tunnels, as if searching for something, or as if it were trying to draw all my energy out and exhaust me. By the time it finally stopped, I felt as if I had run a marathon. I seemed to be at the edge of that world. There were no more tunnels, only blackness all around me. Then something lit up the area right in front of me; there, light shone from an indirect source. It was a subdued light that rendered everything diffusely gray or brownish. When I became used to the light, I vaguely distinguished some dark, moving shapes ["movibles"!]. After a while, it seemed to me that focusing my dreaming attention on those moving shapes made them substantial. I noticed that there were three types: some of them were round, like balls; others were like bells; and others yet like gigantic, undulating candle flames. All of them were basically round and the same size. I judged that they were three to four feet in diameter. There were hundreds, perhaps even thousands of them." (Carlos Castaneda: The Art Of Dreaming)

handsel - a gift to express good wishes at the beginning of a new year or enterprise; the first money or barter taken in, as by a new business or on the opening day of business, especially when considered a token of good luck + "Tonight, in your dreams, you must look at your hands... Dreaming has to be performed with integrity and seriousness, but in the midst of laughter and with the confidence of someone who doesn't have a worry in the world. Only under these conditions can our dreams actually be turned into dreaming." (Carlos Castaneda: The Art Of Dreaming)

movables - small objects of value; nine concentric revolving spheres of the heavens (in the Ptolemaic astronomy) + movable type - type in which each character is cast on a separate piece of metal. Most people have the general idea that Gutenberg invented printing. A few who think they know better believe that although the Chinese developed printing, Gutenberg invented movable type. Neither is actually true - Chinese inventors created printing, the paper to print on, and movable type made from wood or ceramics. These concepts spread to the West relatively soon after their invention, especially the manufacture of paper. Gutenberg's actual inventions were two. Although he was not the first to try casting metal type - the Chinese had tried it and found it too difficult to do properly - he created the first system for casting type so that the letters could form a flat surface, essential to their use in printing. And he invented a printers' ink that would function with metal type. The arrangement he developed to use a modified wine press to impress type held in wooden forms on paper was good enough not to change in any substantial way for about 300 years. From the very first, Gutenberg produced what we still recognize as printing of the highest order.

scrawl - to move with a scrambling and shuffling motion, to scribble, to write carelessly or awkwardly

pitpat - a pattering sound



eerie - fear-inspiring; strange, weird + FDV: The movables movibles are scrawling in motion march marching, all of them again ago in pitpat & zingzang to for every little busy earywig eeriewhig tells 's a little bit of a torytale to tell.


Whig - an adherent of one of the two great parliamentary and political parties in England, and (at length) in Great Britain (opposed to Tory) + earwig (Earwicker).

thyme - a plant comprising shrubby herbs with fragrant aromatic leaves + once upon a time


lettice = lettuce; lattice + Leixlip - village six miles west of Chapelizod + "As I watched them, I felt a sizable jolt of nervousness in the pit of my stomach; it was like a punch. The jolt distracted me, and I lost sight of the people, the circus, and the mountain town in Arizona. In their place stood two strange-looking figures. They were thin, less than a foot wide, but long, perhaps seven feet. They were looming over me like two gigantic earth worms... It all came to an end, at a given moment, when I woke up with a fright. I was immediately besieged by fears. A deep preoccupation took hold of me. It was not psychological worry but rather a bodily sense of anguish, sadness with no apparent foundation. The two strange shapes appeared to me from then on in every one of my dreaming sessions. Eventually, it was as if I dreamt only to encounter them. They never attempted to move toward me or to interfere with me in any way... When I finally discussed with don Juan what was happening to me, I had spent months solely viewing the two shapes... "What can I do, don Juan?" "Face them, right now, in the world of daily life, and tell them to come back later, when you have more dreaming power."... The day he took me to the hills of the Sonoran desert to meet the inorganic beings, I was in my normal state of awareness... When we got to a narrow gully between two hills, don Juan stopped. "This is for sure an ideal place to summon your friends," he said." (Carlos Castaneda: The Art Of Dreaming)

strubly - untidy, unkempt + STRAWBERRY BEDS - The area, actually known for its strawberries, along the North bank of the Liffey between Chapehizod and Woodlands + strubbeling (Dutch) - difficulty + "This is the shadows' world," the emissary's voice said as soon as I was there. "But, even though we are shadows, we shed light. Not only are we mobile but we are the light in the tunnels. We are another kind of inorganic being that exists here. There are three kinds: one is like an immobile tunnel, the other is like a mobile shadow. We are the mobile shadows. The tunnels give us their energy and we do their bidding." The emissary stopped talking. I felt it was daring me to ask about the third kind of inorganic being. I also felt that if I did not ask, the emissary would not tell me. "What's the third kind of inorganic being?" I said. The emissary coughed and chuckled. To me, it sounded like it relished being asked. "Oh, that's our most mysterious feature," it said. "The third kind is revealed to our visitors only when they choose to stay with us." "Why is that so?" I asked. "Because it takes a great deal of energy to see them," the emissary answered. "And we would have to provide that energy" I knew that the emissary was telling me the truth. I also knew that a horrendous danger was lurking. Yet I was driven by a curiosity without limits. I wanted to see that third kind." (Carlos Castaneda: The Art Of Dreaming)


chick - chicken; a young woman + Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.216: (common modern folktale opening formula) 'A long time ago, When the hens had teeth' +  Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.215: (common 16th century folktale opening formula) 'At the time when the beasts spoke'.


bray + bégayer (French) - to stutter.


Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.216: (common 16th century folktale ending formula) 'For if you do not believe it, neither do I'.

cuddy - ass, donkey; lout, blockhead + cuidiú liom (Irish) - help me + cuddle

wallop - gallop; a powerful blow + walls have ears


barnet = barnet fair (Cockney Rhyming Slang) - hair + barnet (Danish) - the child + 'Forty Bonnets' - nickname of Mrs Tommy Healy of Galway (wife of the brother of Nora Barnacle's mother, whose maiden name was Annie Healy; from her great variety of hats and bonnets; was a petite woman married to a big man; they had no children) + Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.166: 'The tall bonnets of the fifteenth century, a hair-style raised high above the forehead, had passed into proverb by the next century, and the expression from the time of the tall bonnets reappears often under the quill of Rabelais'.


hoop (Dutch) - hope + hoop-skirts.


run high - lit. said of the sea when there is a strong current with a high tide, or with high waves; hence fig. of feelings or conditions, manifesting themselves forcibly + Ulysses 196.09: "All we can say is that life ran very high in those days."


Noah's Ark + archon (gr) - leader → no-arch = 'no leader', leader of anarchy + FDV: Of a man noarch and of a wife chopwife and or of a pomme so fall grave and a famme fammy of levity or of the golden youths that wanted gilding or of the maid that what the misschievmiss made maide a man do.  

chop - to cut into pieces + shopwife (ALP).

pomme - a potato + pomme (fr) - apple + homme (fr) - man + pomus gravide (l) - a heavy laden fruit tree.

fammy (cant) - waistcoat-pocket + femme (French) - woman + fama levitatis (l) - a reputation of lightness; pseudo aphorism modeled on 'gravida ventris, famae levis' (l) - laden of belly, light of repute.

levity - lightness in movement; frivolity, freedom of conduct (said esp. of women)

gilded youth - young people of wealth and fashion, esp. if given to prodigal living (in the French Revolution, applied to young men of the upper classes who aided in suppressing the Jacobins after the Reign of Terror).

mischief - harm or evil considered as the work of an agent or due to a particular cause + mischievous maid (Issy).

Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.207: 'Mal maridade, the poorly-married, a dance of Provence'.

Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.207: 'Revergasse (in Langedoc, revergado), an ancient dance in which the young girls tucked their skirts up to the thighs (from reverga, to tuck up)'.

frisque = frisk - a brisk and lively movement in horsemanship or dancing, a caper + Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.207: 'appellations de danses... la Frisque' (French 'names of dances... la Frisque').

frasques (fr) - tricks, pranks, extravagant actions

pyrrhic - the war dance of the ancient Greeks + peruke + Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.207: 'danses grecques... la pirrichie' (French 'Greek dances... la pirrichie') + Pyrrha - Deucalion’s wife in Greek mythology (corresponds to Coba, Noah’s wife, in the Greek myth of the Flood; see chopwife (Coba) three lines above).

Morgana le Fay - sorceress in the King Arthur stories + ma foi! (French) - an interjection expressing surprise or shock.

Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.207: 'appellations de danses... la Gaye' (French 'names of dances... la Gaye').

snaky - snakelike, wavy, wriggly + Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.220: 'la fameuse Mélusine... fée sous forme de femme-serpent' (French 'the famous Melusine... a fairy in the form of a snake-woman').

Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.207: 'appellations de danses... la Trippiere' (French 'names of dances... la Trippiere')



Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.207: 'Expect un pauc, attends un peu... danse gasconne' (French 'Expect un pauc, wait a bit... a dance of Gascony')


veil - a garment that covers the head and face


volante - moving with light rapidity


valentine - one's beloved, sweetheart chosen on st. Valentines's day. It is of Latin origin, and the meaning of Valentine is "strong, healthy". Variant of Valentinus, the name of more than 50 saints and three Roman emperors. Despite the popular Valentine's day, Saint Valentine himself has nothing to do with romantic love + Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.207: 'appellations de danses... La Valentinoise' (French 'names of dances... La Valentinoise').


best + Lazare Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais (Paris 1922) I.108: 'Besch, vent du sud-ouest' (French 'Besch, South-West wind') + It's an ill wind that blows nobody good (proverb).


flouin (French) - 'a type of sea-vessel, resembling the rauberge, a little smaller' (Lazare Sainéan, La Langue de Rabelais, Paris 1922) + flow in, flow on + Ann (ALP).


hore (ger) - listen + Ho! ho! + whore (ALP).


mien - dignified manner or conduct + gentlemen.


rearing - the action of erecting, building up, etc. + rear - the back part of something, esp. a building or vehicle + in the rear of earwig.


weeny - exceptionally small


teeny - tiny


comme ceci (French) - like this + come see.


het - hot, heat, 8. letter of Jewish alphabet + wis - know + wiss- (ger) - know + het was of ie wist (Dutch) - it was as if he knew it.


newt - a small tailed amphibian (Triton), allied to the salamander + FDV: It was of a night. Lissom! lissom! I am doing it.  

lissom - supple, limber + listen + REFERENCE


corne - a musical instrument, a horn; a corner + corne (fr) - horn.


entreat - to ask earnestly for (a thing), to beseech, implore


harp + FDV: Hark, the corne entreats! And the larpnotes prittle.


prittle prattle = prattle - to talk or chatter in a childish or artless fashion.


FDV: It was one night at a long time ago when Adam was delvin & his madami madamene spunning watersilts Sir Howther had his burnt head up in his brain hive lamphouse with laying [cold] hand on himself. And his two little jimminies were not yet kicking on the oil cloth of van [homerigh] the cashel homecashel earthshouse earthenhouse, Tristopher & Hilary. With their dummy.


lang - long


auld - old + stane - stone.


eld - age, old age, antiquity + old stone age.


delve - to labour with a spade in husbandry, excavating, etc.: to dig.; to work hard, drudge + 'From thee, sweet Delvin, must I part' - Ode Written on Leaving Ireland by Gerald Nugent + "When Adam delved and Eve span, who was then a gentleman?" - a line taken from a sermon by the 14th century priest John Ball.


-een (Anglo-Irish) - (diminutive, often pejorative) + 'Madamina' - song from Don Giovanni.


spin - to revolve or gyrate, to whirl round


silt - fine sand, clay, or other soil, carried by moving or running water and deposited as a sediment on the bottom or beach + spin one's wheels - to do nothing productive.


MONTENOTTE - (name means 'night-mountain'; also district of Cork) Village, East of Genoa, Italy. 1st battle of Napoleon's Italian campaign, 11 April 1796, where he defeated the Austrians. 


Bully Hayes - an American pirate of the South Seas + everybody.


leal - loyal, true; lawful (Archaic) + real.


river lover + Eve was fashioned from a rib robbed from Adam (Genesis 2:21)

rivers had their own way (notebook 1924) → Canon W. Fleming: St Patrick 48: 'The network of rivers, tributaries of the Loire... must have exposed the country to periodical inundations in those days, when rivers had at all times their own way' + ain (Scots) - own + ain (Hebrew) - none, no, void.


billy - lad, fellow + King Billy - William III of Orange, defender of the Protestant cause in Ireland.


biddy - woman + Biddy Doran - the Hen in the yard behind HCE's tavern + Biddy O'Brien - one of the mourners at Tim Finnegan's wake.


jarl - a medieval scandinavian noble ranking immediately below the king + Earl of Howth (Scandinavian/Dutch) + FDV: Sir Howther had his burnt head up in his brain hive lamphouse with laying [cold] hand on himself.


burnt - set on fire; excited; that had suffered injury from fire + (burnt match).

lamphouse (Joyce's note, Circe) + Baily Lighthouse on Howth Head.

jiminy - used as a mild oath; alt. of gemini (pair, couple) + gemini (l) - twins.

ourn (Middle English) - ours

Tristopher and Hillary - Mr Tindall pointed out that Tristopher and Hillary and their mingling exemplify Bruno's motto: 'In tristia hilaris hilaritate tristis' (Latin 'In Sadness Cheerful, in Gaiety Sad'; appears on the title page of his play 'Il Candelajo') (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake).

kick one's heels - to have nothing to do esp. while being kept waiting + kick up one's heels - to have a lively time.

dummy - doll; one who is dumb

oilcloth - a canvas of various degrees of thickness, painted or coated with a preparation containing a drying oil, used for table-cloths, floor-cloths, etc.

flure - floor

Vanhomrigh, Bartholomew - Vanessa's father, Lord Mayor of Dublin in 1697. According to the Dublin Annals, he "obtained from William III a royal donative, a collar of SS in lieu of that lost in 1688." The SS collar is (was?) the mayor of Dublin's chain of office. 

earth house - a dwelling built into or covered with earth + earthen - made of earth + FDV: And his two little jimminies were not yet kicking on the oil cloth of van [homerigh] the cashel homecashel earthshouse earthenhouse, Tristopher & Hilary. With their dummy.

Diarmaid (Dermot) (*Y*) and Grania (*I*) - equivalent of Tristan and Isolde in Fenian myth [Finn MacCool (*E*) is equivalent of King Mark] + be damned!

keep - central tower of a medieval castle (serving as a last defence), a tower + As Babalon, [Maat] utters the word S, the background hiss, the ophidian spanda (vibration) of cosmic creation. Its number is 60, which is that of BChN, a 'watch-tower', from the Egyptian word bekhn, a 'tower' or 'fortress' (Kenneth Grant: Outside the Circles of Time) → Behan, Manservant, *S*.

inn - a dwelling place, a house + (innkeeper).

niece in law - the wife of one's nephew + (notebook 1924): 'niece-in-law' → Freeman's Journal 16 Feb 1924, 4/4: 'Publican's Story': 'Witness then asked his niece-in-law, Mary Maher, to go for the priest'.

prank - a practical joke or mischievous act + quean (archaic) - a harlot, whore; a woman of worthless character; a saucy girl + FDV: And who come to the keep of his inn but the niece of his a prankwench.

rosy - having the crimson or pink colour of a rose; rose-coloured + pluck a rose (Slang) - to urinate.

wit - mental capacity, understanding, intellect + made her wit - said something witty + made her water - urinated + wit (Dutch) - white.

fornenst - right opposite to, over against; facing + "One time you'd stand fornenst me" [FW 626.21-22] + FDV: And the prankwench picked a rosy one & made her wit foerenenst the dour.

dour - hard to move, stubborn, obstinate, sullen; door (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation)

Ireland + (notebook 1923): 'S Patrick's vision 1 All I ablaze' → Flood: Ireland, Its Saints and Scholars 43: 'An ancient Irish manuscript of unknown authorship divides the Saints of Ireland into three great orders. The First Order was in the time of St. Patrick... The Second Order... flourished during the latter half of the sixth century. The Third Order of Saints lived in Ireland for a period which extended for about seventy years from the end of the sixth century. The writer of the manuscript says that "the First Order was most holy, the Second Order holier, and the Third holy... These Three Orders the blessed Patrick foreknew, enlightened by heavenly wisdom, when in prophetic vision he saw at first all Ireland ablaze, and afterwards only the mountains on fire; and at last saw lamps lit in the valleys"'.


ablaze - on the fire, radiant with light


petty - of small importance, inconsiderable, insignificant, trivial + Le Petit Parisien - a journal of the 1920s (French: 'The Little Parisian').


Parisian - the French spoken in or associated with Paris + Parisienne - a Parisian woman.


wan - one + wans (Dublin Slang) - girls + King Mark, Tristan's uncle + Joyce's note, Circe: 'Mark falling stars, pranqueen'.


poss = post (?); an act of 'possing', a thrust or knock + a pot (glass) of porter, please + FDV: And spoke she to the dour in petty perusienne: Why do I want like a cup poss of porter porterpease.


porter - one who has charge of a door or gate, esp. at the entrance of a fortified town or of a castle or other large building; a kind of beer, of a dark brown colour and bitterish taste, brewed from malt partly charred or browned by drying at a high temperature (Guinness is the best known example).


skirmish - a petty fight or encounter


antwoordde (Dutch) = antwortete (ger) - answered + (made a sign with the hand) + FDV: But the dour handworded her grace [in dootch nossow]: Shut.


native - native liquor, native language + NASSAU - German duchy until 1866. William the Silent, founder of the Dutch Republic, inherited the title of Nassau-Dillenburg from his father, of Orange-Chalons from his cousin, and was 1st prince of Orange-Nassau. He fought on Wellington's side at Waterloo. William III of Orange, the King of England, victor at the Battle of the Boyne and champion of the Protestant cause in Ireland, was a member of this house.


A person's shadow, Shut (, '¹wt' in Egyptian), was always present. It was believed that a person could not exist without a shadow, nor a shadow without a person, therefore, Egyptians surmised that a shadow contained something of the person it represents. For this reason statues of people and deities were sometimes referred to as their shadows. The shadow was represented graphically as a small human figure painted completely black as well, as a figure of death, or servant of Anubis. 


malice - the desire to injure another person, active ill-will or hatred + Grace O Malley - 16 c. pirate chieftainess (REFERENCE)


kidnap - originally, to steal or carry off (children or others) in order to provide servants or labourers for the American plantations; hence, in general use, to steal (a child), to carry off (a person) by illegal force.


shandy - wild, boisterous; also visionary, empty-headed, half-crazy + Tristram Shandy - title, hero of Sterne's novel. "Shandy" is "boisterous mirth," and, therefore, the name exemplifies opposites - hilarity and sorrow (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake). 


wilderness + (Grace O'Malley was a princess of Connacht)


run + (suggests the 40 days rain of the Noachic Flood) + FDV: So she her grace o'malice snapped up Tristopher and she ran, ran, ran rain, rain, rain.


wireless - to send a message by wireless


lovecall - a call or note used as a means of amorous communication between the sexes + Dubh-gall (Irish) - Dark foreigner (i.e. Dane); the Dubh Gaill were opposed by the Finn Gall, another sect of Danes.

deef - deaf + dief (Dutch) - thief + thief & dear + 'Stop, Thief!' - the title of a protest letter against Samuel Roth's pirating of Ulysses, signed by many famous people, as it appears in Transition #1 (where an early version of I.1 also appears).


Erin (Anglo-Irish) - Ireland. Erin is an anglicization of Irish Éirinn, the dative case of Éire, the Irish word for 'Ireland'. According to Irish mythology and folklore, the name was given to the land by the Milesians after the goddess Ériu + Come Back to Erin (song) + FDV: And Sir Howther warlissed after her in his Finngallese: Stop deef stop. Come back to my Earin Stop.


svarede (Danish) - answered + FDV: But she sware swareded at to him: Unlikely Unlikelyhood.


unlikelihood - something improbable, improbability


brannew - brand new (quite new, perfectly new) + ail - trouble, ailment + branne (Danish) - fire + Grannuaile - one of the numerous transliterations of Grace O’Malley's Irish name, Gráinne Ní Mháille.


sabbath - Saturday + sabaoth (Hebrew) - armies, hosts (Romans 1:1, Hebrews 5:4) + FDV: And there was a brandnewwail [that same sabbaoth] somewhere in Erio.


Eria - the old name for the small island outside Dublin Bay now known as Ireland's Eye was Eria's Island. Eria was a woman's name and this became confused with Erin, an Irish name for Ireland. The Vikings substituted the Old Norse word 'Ey' (Island) and so the island became known as 'Erins Ey' and ultimately 'Ireland's Eye'.


TIR NA MBAN - In the 10th-century text of The Voyage of Bran, Bran and his followers stay so long on the enchanted island of Tir na Mban, the Land of Women, where a century is like a year, that when they return to land the 1st man to step on shore collapses into a pile of ashes. If the Prankquean spends "forty years" there between visits to Howth, she is absent from Howth for 21 weeks + 'Le Tour du Monde en Quatre-Vingts Jours' (Around the World in 80 Days) - a novel by the French author Jules Verne.


Jacob received his fathers blessing through deception 


Diarmuid Ua Duibhne, or Diarmuid "of the Love Spot" was the foster-son of the Irish love god Aonghus. His mortal father gave him to the god as a child, a gift that was returned when Diarmuid received the famous love spot as a young Fenian warrior. One night, when out hunting, Diarmuid and three companions took shelter in a small hut in a wood. There a beautiful young woman received them but chose to sleep only with Diarmuid. She told him that she was Youth, and that the love spot she put on his forehead would make him irresistible to women. As a consequence, Diarmuid's life was almost continuously troubled by desperate women, the worst being Grainne, the passionate daughter of High King Cormac Mac Art.


suddle - a stain, spot + Gulliver's Travels + FDV: Then the prankwench went for a hundred forty years walk and she washed the scabs blessings off the jiminy and she had her four [owlers] monitors for to taught him his tickles


owler - one engaged in the illegal exportation or 'owling' of wool or sheep from England + old master - a 'master' who lived before the period accounted 'modern'; chiefly applied to painters from the 13th to the 16th or 17th century.


tickle - an act of tickling


converted + convortare (l) - to turn around; to transform + (*C* changed into *V*).


allgood - sort of plant + Allgood, Sara (1883-1950) - Irish actress who gave a reading of "Anna Livia Plurabelle" (see Letters, III, 261) + all-good - wholly or infinitely good. 


Luder (ger) - carrion, carcass; scoundrel + Lutheran - a member of Lutheran church + ludraman (Irish) - lazy idler, loafer + letterman


dermot + be damned!


in a brace of shakes - in a very short time = in two shakes + FDV: and brought him she was back came raining back through the westerness again in a brace of samers back to Sir Howther another night at another time.  


pinafore - a covering of washable material worn by children, and by factory girls or others, over the frock or gown, to protect it from being soiled. Also, a low-necked, sleeveless fashion garment worn by women and girls, usu. over a blouse or jumper.


hostelry - an inn, a hostel + Henry II granted Dublin to the citizens of Bristol + bristols = bristol cities (Cockney Rhyming Slang) - titties (breasts) + FDV: And where did she come but to the bar of his bristolry.  


Bartholomew Vanhomrigh - father of Swift's Vanessa + bruised heel (Genesis 3.14-15): "And the Lord God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life: And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.


cellar - an underground room or vault + malt - barley or other grain prepared for brewing or distilling by steeping, germinating and kiln-drying + FDV: And Sir Howther had his heels down drowned in his cellarmalt shaking [warm] hands with himself

*V* shakes hands with self (notebook 1924) → Key: John McCormack, His Own Life Story 65: (of William Rathborne, a competitor in the Feis Ceol) 'I saw him take his left hand in his right and press it with congratulatory fervor... that act of Rathborne's of shaking hands with himself on his assumed victory struck me as a trifle previous'.


infancy - the condition of being an infant; the earliest period of human life, early childhood


tearsheet - a sheet torn from a publication (or, later, separately printed and unbound) to be sent to an advertiser whose advertisement appears on it as proof of insertion; also one containing an article.


wring - to twist and compress, as if in pain or anguish + ringen (ger) - to wrestle + FDV: and his little jiminy, Hilary and his dummy were on the watercloth, kissing & spitting tearsheet of the cashel, wringing & coughing in their first infancy.


Brodhar or Brodar - Danish sorcerer who killed Brian Boru at the Battle of Clontarf + Bruder (ger) - brother + brodar (Serbian) - shipman, sailor.

hister - a sort of beetle + sister


nip - to snatch, catch, seize or take smartly + Napoleon


paly - pale, or somewhat pale + FDV: And the prankwench said to the wicked picked a paly one & made witter before the wicked.


red cock - a male of red grouse; a euphemism for fire maliciously raised [(notebook 1924): 'red cock'] + redcoats - English soldiers. 


flacker - flutter, to flap (like wings)


hillock - a little hill + comb - the fleshy red crest on the head of the domestic fowl and other gallinaceous birds + (notebook 1923): '2 hilltops'.


witter - comp. of witty + witter (Dialect) - mark, sign.


wicked - a wicked person + wicket (obs) - female pudendum + wicket-gate - a small gate set in a larger gate.


twy - two, twice + Mark Twain.


poss - to dash or toss with a blow, to knock, an act of possing; post + FDV: I want Why do I liking 2 cupsa poss of porterpeace.  


antworten (ger) - answer + antwoordde (Dutch) - answered + (made a sign with the hand).


modesty + her majesty - the Queen + FDV: But the wicked handworded her grace. Shut. Then the prankweneh her grace o'malice put down Tristopher & picked up with Hilary and she ran, ran, ran rain, rain, rain


aforethought - premeditated, previously in mind


Lilliput - the name of an imaginary country in Gulliver's Travels (1726), peopled by pygmies six inches high. Used attrib.= diminutive + Lilith - Adam's wife before Eve, in kabbalistic lore.

woemen = woman + no (woe) man's land.


blather - to talk foolishly, talk nonsense, to cry loudly, to blubber

atter - poison, venom, bitterness + after + atter (Danish) - again, once more.


Fingal - Finn's name in Macpherson's Ossian poems. Fingal is a Scottish hero who comes to Ireland and fights the Danes. The Irish called certain Norse invaders, Finn Gall, meaning "fair stranger" (contrasted with Dubh Gall, another faction of Danish Vikings).


domb = dumb + FDV: And Sir Howther bleethered atter her: Stop Deef Damd stop Come back with my Earing. Stop.


svarede (Danish) - answered + FDV: But she swareadid to him: Am liking it. And there was a [fineold] grandnewwail [that altarsame sobbaoth] somewhere in Erio.


Grannuaile - the Irish name of Grace O'Malley


St. Laurence's day - 10 August + Saint Lawrence family, Earls of Howth.


starshooting - Jocularly used with reference to taking the altitude of stars + shooting star - a small, rapidly moving meteor burning up on entering the earth's atmosphere.


TIR NA MBAN - In the 10th-century text of The Voyage of Bran, Bran and his followers stay so long on the enchanted island of Tir na Mban, the Land of Women, where a century is like a year, that when they return to land the 1st man to step on shore collapses into a pile of ashes + le même (French) - the same. 


Crom Cruach - a Celtic idol destroyed by Saint Patrick + the curse of Cromwell.

lark - a frolicsome adventure, a spree + farsical + FDV: Then the prankwench went for a hundred years war walk with Hilary and she punched holes in curses in him & she had her four [larksical] monitrix to taught him his tears


monitrix - a female monitor (one who admonishes or gives advice or warning to another as to his conduct) + monitrix (l) - instructress + Saint Patrick was said to have served four masters.


provorto (l) - I turn forwards + perverted.


Christian + Tristan + (*V* changed into *C*).


ermot + verdammter (ger) - damned + ter (l) - three times, thrice.


Hillary + (stone) [.24] + FDV: & then she went with her Larryat Larryhill for another hundred years walk & brought in a pair of changes she was back to Sir Howther.  


(little) apron


ward - the ground between two encircling walls of a fortress


mansion house - a house of the lord of a manor, a large imposing residence + Mansion House, Dublin (the Lord-Mayor's residence).


lace - a cord, line, string, thread, or tie (obs.) + late night.


third time is charm + FDV: And why did she halt at all but by the ward of his mansionhouse [another a third time for the third charm].


hurricane - a violent rush or commotion bringing with it destruction or confusion; a storm or tempest of words, noise, cheers, etc. + Joyce's note: 'hurricane lamps'.


pantry - a room or apartment in a house, etc., in which bread and other provisions are kept + sentry-box.


dare (it) - to give + dair (Irish) - oak + Adear, adear! (motif) + Dear, oh dear!


Tristopher (reversed) + (*C* and *I*).


watercloth - ? a dish cloth + cloth (spec.) = table-cloth - a covering for a table, particularly that spread on it when it is 'laid' for a meal.


rogue - to act like a rogue + FDV: Sir Howther had his hurricane hand hips up to his pantrybox and his little jiminy Tristopher Toughertrees & the dummy were belord on the tarssheet watercloth, kissing & spitting [& roguing & poghing] in their second infancy.


poghuing (Irish) - kissing


knave - a boy or lad employed as a servant (obs.); rogue, rascal + paltry - rubbishy, worthless; insignificant, trifling; contemptible, of worthless nature + Naomh Pádraig (Irish) - Saint Patrick + Joyce's note: 'knavepaltry'.


Naomh Brighid (Irish) - Saint Brigid (also known as 'Saint Bride')


second infancy - the state of childishness incident to extreme old age


blank - white, colourless + FDV: And the prankswench she picked a plank and said to the gate made ____ (her wittest) in front of the Archway Arkway of Triumph & asked: Why am do I like 3 cupss poss porterpease.

I lit out (ran) [Joyce's note, Oxen of the Sun]


Thomas Moore, Irish Melodies: The Song of O'Ruark, Prince of Breffni: 'The valley lay smiling before me' (to the tune The Pretty Girl milking Her Cow → Jarl van Hoother as a ruminant with four stomachs).


twinkling - sparkling, glittering + (notebook 1923): '3 lights in valley' → Ireland: Its Saints and Scholars 43-4: An ancient Irish manuscript of unknown authorship divides the Saints of Ireland into three great orders. The First Order was in the time of St. Patrick. They were 350 in number [...] The Second Order numbered 300 [...] and flourished during the latter half of the sixth century. The Third Order of Saints lived in Ireland for a period which extended for about seventy years from the end of the sixth century. The writer of the manuscript says that "the First Order was most holy, the Second Order holier, and the Third holy. The First glowed like the sun in the fervour of their charity; the Second cast a pale radiance like the moon; the Third shone like the aurora. These Three Orders the blessed Patrick foreknew, enlightened by heavenly wisdom, when in prophetic vision he saw at first all Ireland ablaze, and afterwards only the mountains on fire; and at last saw lamps lit in the valleys."


archway - the arched entrance to a castle, etc. + arc de triomphe (French) - triumphal arch.


Mark of Cornwall - king, uncle of Tristan, husband of Isolde of Ireland. Mark is best known from Wagner's opera, but Bédier's Tristan et Iseult is the great source. Bédier's Mark is, as it were, two men: one loves wife and nephew and believes what they tell him lies; the other listens to four wicked barons, spies with them, sets traps for the lovers. 


tris (Greek) - thrice + The threefold form of the riddles (wans, twy, tris) is a charm motif that is used elsewhere in FW (e.g. in the tales 'How Kerrse Made A Suit of Clothes for the Norwegian Captain' and 'How Buckley Shot the Russian General'). It is used in "the fairytale pattern of three tries and a magic opening" (Margeret C. Solomon, Eternal Geomater) → magic opening of the "door" (the) at the end of FW.


acoming - coming to, reaching + The Campbells Are Coming (song) → REFERENCE

fork - the act of branching out or dividing into branches + first


lance - a weapon, consisting of a long wooden shaft and an iron or steel head


Boanerges or Sons of Thunder - the name Jesus gave to the apostles James and John (Mark, 3:17)


Brian Boru was called 'The Terror of the Danes' 


hip hop - with hopping movement, with successive hops


handicap - any race or competition in which the chances of the competitors are sought to be equalized by giving an advantage to the less efficient or imposing a disadvantage upon the more efficient.


suton (Serbian) - twilight + Isthmus of Sutton, joining Howth and the mainland.


(three castles on the Dublin coat of arms) + FDV: And Sir Howther came hip hip handicap out of through the gate as far as he could his arkway of his 3 cashels  


ginger - a light sandy color + Brobdingnag - a land of giants in Swift's Gulliver's Travels + gingerbread.


civic - of, pertaining, or proper to citizens + civic crown - a garland of oak leaves and acorns, bestowed in Roman times upon one that had saved the life of a fellow-citizen in war.


collar + choler (Archaic) - bile, anger.


buff - military attire [for which buff (wild ox) was formerly much used]; a military coat made of buff + FDV: allbuffshirt


hem - to edge or border (a garment or cloth), to decorate with a border + Hemd (ger) = hemd (Dutch) - shirt, undershirt.


Balbriggan - the name of a town in Ireland, applied attrib. to a knitted cotton fabric manufactured there, used in hose, underwear, etc.


socks and gloves + Anglo-Saxon.


Ragnar Lodbrok (Ragnar "Hairy-Breeks") - a Norse legendary hero from the Viking Age. To court his second wife, the Swedish princess Thora, Ragnar traveled to Sweden and quelled an infestation of venomous snakes, famously wearing the hairy breeches whereby he gained his nickname. 


breeks - breeches


catgut - dried sheep intestines (used for the strings of musical instruments, etc.) + CATTEGAT (KATTEGAT) - The strait connecting North and Baltic Seas between Sweden and Denmark. Dan, "cat's throat."  


bandoleer - a broad belt, worn over the shoulder and across the breast used by soldiers; orig. it helped to support the musket, and had also attached twelve little cases, each containing a charge for the musket.


panuncula (l) - thread wound upon a bobbin (a cylinder or cone holding thread, yarn, or wire) + peninsular.


gumboots (i.e. Wellingtons) + bottes (French) - boots.


rude yelling + FDV: [yellow green blue red orange violet hair all in his [broadginger his civic chollar &] allbufishirt like a redwary redyellan orangeman in his violet indigonation [by to the whole length longth of the strength strongth of his bowman's bill.]]  


indignation - anger at what is regarded as unworthy or wrongful + red, yellow, green, blue, orange, violet, indigo.


whole length - exhibited at full length + FDV: by to the whole length longth of the strength strongth of his bowman's bill


bowman - a man who shoots with a bow + Strongbow, Richard - led the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland in 1170. He married Eve MacMurrough and ruled Leinster till he died in 1176. He was buried in Christ Church Cathedral; his tomb was long a Dublin landmark, a place where debts were paid, business done + In the Odyssey Odysseus is recognized when he alone has the strength to string his own bow. 


bill - a halberd (weapon); a note of charges for goods delivered or services rendered, in which the cost of each item is separately stated


clop - to clap; a blow; a sharp sound


hitch - a contrivance for fastening something, a catch + FDV: And he put his rude hand to his hackneyseat E C Haitch.


ordered + ord (Norwegian) - word + ordure - excrement, dung, filth.


shut up shop - to discontinue the work one is doing


dippy - mad, insane, crazy + FDV: And he ordered And his thick speech spuck for her to shut up shop, dummy.


duppy - name among West Indian Negroes for a ghost or spirit + dup (Archaic) - to open + dupe (Serbian) - ass + "... northeast wall [of HCE and ALP's room], with the window looking into the backyard, toward Phoenix Park and Dublin bay beyond... The northeast is also the historic source of Viking invasions, and indeed the window, like the door, is often a focus of the dreamer's anxities about the assaults from the outer world, anxities amplified by the hailstones which early beat against his window and windowboards. Those boards, mentioned at 316.04 for their effectiveness in 'aerian insulation resistance' go through a number of changes. 583.14-15 indicates that they are 'Persian blinds', a kind of sturdy outdoor version of Venetian blinds, consisting of horizontal slats or planks set in a frame. They are two in number, hinged on either side of the window and fastened by a clasp. Three thing to bear in mind about them are, first, that tending them is the manservant's responsibility (at 23.05 for instance, he is ordered to close them)..." (John Gordon: Finnegans wake: a plot summary)


put up the shutters - to stop doing business + FDV: And the dummy shot the shutter down and they all drank free.


Perkun - Lithuanian thunder-god. Perun is the Slavic one. 


kurun (Breton) - thunder


barg (Persian) - thunder


griauja (Lithuanian) - it thunders


gök gürliy or (Turkish) - thundering sky


grom grmi (Serbian) - thunder thunders


guntur (Malay) - thunder


thruma (ON) - thunder


thuna (Rumanian) - thunder


radi (Kiswahili) - thunder


dill (Arabic) - thunder


failitily (Samoan) - thunder


bumulloj (Albanian) - thunder


ukkonen (Finnish) - thunder


break free + Stock ending of Irish fairy tales: 'They put on the kettle and they all had tea' + 'Here the story fell to the sea' on 204(a) derives from the Senegalese equivalent of the Irish 'and they all drank tea', the closing formula of a tale without a proper ending: 'Here the tale goes for a walk and falls into the sea' (Robbert-Jan Henkes).


armour - protective covering made of metal and used in combat + pot valiant (Slang) - courageous through liquor + Ulysses.15.4402: 'Doctor Swift says one man in armour will beat ten men in their shirts' (from Swift's The Drapier's Letters: 'Eleven Men well armed will certainly subdue one Single Man in his Shirt') + (contraceptives).

shurt - short + shirts


illiterate - unfurnished with letters, not written upon, unwritten + FDV: And this that was the first peace of porter of illiterative porthery in the whole flooding.     

portery - citizenship or burghership in a Flemish or Dutch city + pottery - the manufacture of earthen vessels + pother - disturbance, tumult, noise + porthor (Welsh) - doorkeeper, porter.


floody - pertaining to the flood


flatuous - windy; generating wind


Kirsche (ger) - cherry


tiler - one who covers the roofs of buildings with tiles, a tile-layer; Freemasonry: (Usually tyler.) The doorkeeper who keeps the uninitiated from intruding upon the secrecy of the lodge or meeting.


unclose - to make open; to cause to open; to disclose, make known, reveal + ('the' at the end of FW) + 'How Kersse the Tailor Made a Suit of Clothes for the Norwegian Captain'.


narwhal - a type of whale with a large projecting, spiral tusk

saw - p. od see + so far


betune (Anglo-Irish) - between + Genesis 9:12: 'the covenant which I make between me and you'.


git - get + get it up (Slang) = bander (French Slang) - to have an erection + get the wind up - to get into a state of alarm or funk + FDV: The prankwench was to get hold the her dummy dummyship & the jiminies was to keep their peace peacewave & the Sir Howther was to get the wind up.


gehorsam (ger) - obedient + (capability of hearing).


burger (Dutch) = Burger (ger) - citizen.


felicitate - to make happy


polis - a Greek city-state; police, policeman + Obidientia civium urbis felicitas (l) - Citizens' Obedience is City's Happiness (The municipal motto of Dublin) + Heliopolis.


culprit - prisoner at the bar, the accused [Joyce's note: 'culprit'] + O felix culpa! (l) - 'O happy fault' (St Augustine's comment on the fall of man) + {Adam and Eve's disobedience (the "happy fault") is contrasted with the obedience of the citizens of Dublin enjoined in the city's motto, which is alluded to in the preceding lines}


nicky (Czech) - nulls, zeros + ex nihilo nihil fit (l) - out of nothing comes nothing (Persius: Satires 1.84: 'De nihilo nihilum': 'Nothing can come out of nothing').


malum (l) - evil; apple (Eve's) + malo (Pan-Slavonic) - a little, wee + ex nihilo malo venit nihilum bonum (l) - out of nothing evil comes nothing good.


Michaelmass (29 September) + mickle (Dialect) - much + amassed.


bonum (l) - good + ex malo bonum fit (l) - out of evil good is made (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927, to Harriet Shaw Weaver) + SDV: O phenix culprit! Ex nicklow cometh good.


rill - a small stream, a brook, rivulet + hill (*E*) and rill (*A*) + SDV: Hill and rill once in company [billeted], we see less be proud of.


billet - to enter in a list, assign the place to, locate, to lodge + Sons & Company, Limited - Arthur Guinness, Sons & Company, Ltd (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927 to Harriet Shaw Weaver).


let's be proud of + "be proud of them but naturally, as hill (go up it) as river (jump it)" (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927 to Harriet Shaw Weaver).


breast high - to the height of the breast; said in hunting of the scent when it is so strong that the hounds go at a racing pace with their heads erect  


bestride - to sit upon with the legs astride, to ride, mount (a horse, etc.) + (surmount a hill, bestride a stream) + SDV: Breast it high and bestride!


Norronesen (Old Norse) = Old Norse, warrior (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927 to Harriet Shaw Weaver) + norroenn (Old Norse) - norse.


Irenean = Irish born; peace [eirene] (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927 to Harriet Shaw Weaver) + eirēnē: (Greek) peace.

secrest - to sequestrate goods + secret + SDV: but only for that they will not speak breathe the secret secrest of their silentness sourcelessness.


quarry - a surface excavation for extracting stone or slate + The quarry and the silex (flint) suggest HCE silent (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927 to Harriet Shaw Weaver).


silex (l) - rock, flint + quare siles (l) - why are you silent? + SDV: Quarry silex, Homfries Homfrie Noanswa? Undy festiknees, Livia Noanswa?


ní h-annsa (Irish) - not hard (formula for answering riddles) + "No answer" (Mark Twain, Tom Sawyer, p. 1.) + Albert Nyanza (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927 to Harriet Shaw Weaver) + Albert Nyanza - Lake Albert, in East Africa, one of the principal sources of the Nile.


undy - waving, wavy

gentian - any plant belonging to the genus Gentiana


festiness - confinement, durance + unde gentium festines? (l) - where the dickens are you hurrying from? (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927, to Harriet Shaw Weaver) + Festy King [FW 085.23].


nyanza (Bantu) - a lake + VICTORIA NYANZA - Lake Victoria, in central Africa, the source (through the Albert Nynaza) of the White Nile, long-sought and bitterly disputed by explorers and geographers in the 19th century. John Speke was the 1st European to see Lake Victoria, in 1858, and the 1st to discover its Nile outlet, in 1862. 


Wolken (ger) - clouds, cloud- + wolkenkap (Dutch) - cloud cap (the Hill of Howth is often cloud-capped) + woollen cap of clouds (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927, to Harriet Shaw Weaver).


frown - to present somber or menacing appearence + he is crowned with the frown of the deaf (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927, to Harriet Shaw Weaver) + SDV: Wolkencap is on his head him, frowned;


audio (l) - to listen + -urient - desiring, characterized by desire + audi urio (l) - I long to hear, I desire to hear + Vulgate Psalms 113:6: 'Aures habent et non audient' (l) - 'They have ears, but they hear not' + 'Audi urio (I long to hear) Es urio (I long to eat)' (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927, to Harriet Shaw Weaver).


eavesdrop - to listen secretly + his house's e(a)ve ALP water (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927, to Harriet Shaw Weaver) + Joyce's note: 'he would hear (audiebat)'.

mous = pl. of mou - mouth + mouse + mous = Chaucerian form to suggest distance in time (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927, to Harriet Shaw Weaver).


at hand - near in time or place + SDV: audiurient, he would hear evesdrop were it mice mouse at hand, were it dinned din of bottles [in the far ear].  


din - a loud noise; particularly a continued confused or resonant sound, which stuns or distresses the ear + din the noise of an angry armed djinn spirit, to suggest distance in space (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927, to Harriet Shaw Weaver).


air + far east (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927, to Harriet Shaw Weaver).


murk - to grow dark, to darken; darkness + mark - to notice or observe + SDV: Murk, his vales are darkling!

vale - a dale or valley, esp. one which is comparatively wide and flat + eyes

darkle - to grow dark, to lurk in the dark + His hill begins to be clouded over in the effort to hear (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927, to Harriet Shaw Weaver).


to (gr) - the + all the time + SDV: with lipth she lispeth lithpeth to him ever and ever of thow and thow all the time of thuch and thuch and thow and thow: she he she ho she ha to la: hairfiuke, if he could but twig her!


thow - thaw; thou; though + such on such and so on so


had to laugh + "Kickakick. She had to kick a laugh." [583.26] + "We'll have a brand rehearsal. Fing! One must simply laugh. Fing him aging! Good licks!" [617.16-.17]


fluke - a successful stroke made by accident or chance, an unexpected success + verflucht (ger) - accursed, damn (expl.) + He tries to grab her hair which he hopes to catch by a fluke (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927, to Harriet Shaw Weaver).


twig - notice, understand; to beat with or as with a twig + twig = AngloIrish = to understand & twig = beat with a twig (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927, to Harriet Shaw Weaver).


impalpable - incapable of being felt by the organs of touch; incapable of being (readily) grasped or apprehended by the mind + Manus habent et non palpabunt [Psalms 115.7 (Vulgate Psalms 113.7)] - "They have hands, but they handle not...." (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927, to Harriet Shaw Weaver) + SDV: he is impalpabunt, he abhears.


abhor - to hate utterly, loathe + ab- - position away from + abear (Archaic) - to tolerate + 'His ear having failed, he clutches with his hand & misses & turns away hopeless and unhearing (he abhears)' (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927, to Harriet Shaw Weaver).


buffet - a blow, stroke + buffeter - a boxer, one that buffets.


trompe - to deceive, cheat; to blow a trumpet + (pounding against the promontory of his head).


trompe (French) - elephant's trunk + trumpet + trump (at cards).


roary - given to roaring + Scribbledehobble, 6: "3 waves of I[reland] = Thoth, Ruri, Cleeva." These waves sound round the Irish coast in recognition of a great hero. Irish waves are sometimes four (i.e. the Waves of Rory, Tuath, Cleena and Scéina).


hoosh - an exclamation used in driving animals


hawhaw - ha ha + SDV: The soundwaves are his buffeteers: They trompe him with their trompes: the wave of roaring and the wave of hooshed and the wave of bawahawrd and the wave of dontmindthesefelowsbutlistentome neverheedthemhorseluggarsandlistletomine. 


landlocked - shut in or enclosed by land; almost entirely surrounded by land, as a harbour, etc. + Lochlann (Anglo-Irish) - Scandinavian.


per- - thoroughly, completely + perpetuated in his offspring.


offspring - the progeny which springs or is descended from some one, children + Aufsprung (ger) - bound, leap.


sabe - expertness in particular field, knowhow, intelligence + babe - baby + Psalms 8:2: 'babes and sucklings'.


piper - one who plays on a pipe (esp. a strolling musician) + morning papers + SDV: Perpetrified in his offsprung, the moaning pipes piper tells could tell him to his face faceback how only butt for him his old butt there would not be a spier on the town or a vestal in the dock, no, nor a you yew nor an eye wilbud to play catch clash cash cash in old nilbud new by swamplight nor a'toole a'tall a'tall and noddy hint to the convaynience.


loathly - highly offensive, arousing aversion or disgust + County Louth.


loaf - Obs. exc. dial. Bread + 'leb (Serbian) - bread + Leib (ger) - body, used also in religious sense, as 'der Leib des Herrn', the body of Christ.


devoro (l) - I swallow, I devour.

butt = halibut - flatfish + but


halibut - a northern marine food fish that is the largest of the flatfishes + holy butt + SDV: how only butt for him his old butt


pudor - modesty, due sense of shame + puder (German) - powder + powder puff.


puff - breath, a short impulsive blast of breath or wind, a scornful gesture


life + libas (gr) - stream + Liebe (ger) - love + liber (l) - wine.

biff - whack, blow + biffin - a cooking apple + but


tiddy - small, very small, tiny


windfall - something blown down by the wind, like fruit from the tree + (notebook 1922-23): 'windfalls (apples)' → Irish Times 30 Oct 1922, 2/5: 'There has been a wonderful crop of apples this year... those that have fallen off in the late storms. "Windfalls," when gathered fresh, may be used in making tarts or puddings'.


bread and water - the type of extreme hard fare, as of a prisoner or a penitent

holey - full of holes + According to legend, the Holy Lance (also known as the Spear of Destiny, Holy Spear, Lance of Longinus, Spear of Longinus or Spear of Christ) is the name given to the lance that pierced Jesus while he was on the cross.


Spier (ger) - thin stalk


vestal - a virgin, a chaste woman; prostitute (Slang) + vessel - any structure designed to float upon and traverse the water for the carriage of persons or goods.

flout - to mock, jeer + floating


plein (French Slang) - drunk


avowal - an act of avowing; declaration; unconstrained admission or confession + vowels - u, i, a, o, e + à plein voiles (fr) - in full sail.


yew - you


cache-cache (fr) - hide and seek


novo (l) - new


Dublin + Nil (French, Serbian) - Nile (i.e. source of) + James Joyce: Letters II.192: letter 13/11/06 to Stanislaus Joyce: (of Joyce's Dubliners 'Clay') 'The meaning of Dublin by Lamplight Laundry? That is the name of the laundry at Ballsbridge, of which the story treats. It is run by a society of Protestant spinsters, widows, and childless women - I expect - as a Magdalen's home. The phrase Dublin by Lamplight means that Dublin by lamplight is a wicked place full of wicked and lost women whom a kindly committee gathers together for the good work of washing my dirty shirts. I like the phrase because 'it is a gentle way of putting it'' (Maria works there).


lamplight - the light afforded by a lamp or lamps + swamp - bog, marsh + FDV: to play catch clash cash cash in old nilbud new by swamplight nor a'toole a'tall a'tall and noddy hint to the convaynience.


tall - account; shape, fashion + House by the Churchyard: "'That poor fellow got no chance for his life at all, at all!' said Tim."


toll - a definite payment exacted by a king, ruler, or lord, or by the state or the local authority, by virtue of sovereignty or lordship, or in return for protection + (bells ringing).


noddy - foolish, silly; drowsy, sleepy + nod - to make a quick inclination of the head, esp. in salutation, assent, or command + not a hint + a nod's as good as a wink to a blind horse (proverb).

convaynience (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) = convenience - the state of being able to proceed with something with little effort or difficulty + conveyance.


dig in - to work hard, to penetrate


dig out - to take out by excavation, to excavate + day in and day out - every day for an indefinite number of successive days.


tilth - cultivation of the soil + by the skin of one's teeth - with a very little time, space, etc. left over.


crew - the men who man a ship + sweat of one's brow - hard work, violent or strenuous exertion; labour, toil + Genesis 3:19: 'In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread'. 


auspice - any divine or prophetic token; esp. indication of a happy future; prosperous lead, patronage, favouring direction + The Irish Sisters of Charity opened a hospital for 'incurables' in Cork in 1870 and a hospice for the dying in Dublin in 1879.


urn - to enclose in or as if in an urn, entomb + earned


dread - extreme fear; deep awe or reverence + bread + SDV: He sweated his crowd crew in beneath the auspice for the living and he urned his dead and he made louse for us & delivered us to boll weevils amain and begad he did in his windower's house till his with a blush mantle upon him from earsend to earsend. 


volant - having the wings extended as if in flight, flying + dragon-volant - the old name for a gun of large calibre used in the French navy (literally 'flying dragon').

louse - a parasitic insect, infesting the human hair and skin and causing great irritation by its presence + love + laws + Lucifer.  


boll weevil - a beetle measuring an average length of six millimeters, which feeds on cotton buds and flowers. Thought to be native to Central America, it migrated into the United States from Mexico in the late 19th century and had infested all U.S. cotton-growing areas by the 1920s, devastating the industry and the people working in the American south. During the late 20th century it became a serious pest in South America as well + Lord's Prayer: 'and deliver us from evil' + all evils.


amain - with all one's might, at full speed, suddenly + amen.


Humphrey Chimpden Earwicker


begad - a mild oath + Finnegan’s Wake (song): 'Bedad he revives, see how he rises'.


worshipful - distinguished, worshipable, entitled to honour


blue mantle - the dress and the title of one of the four pursuivants of the English college of arms + blush - a rosy colour or glow + SDV: blush mantle


earth's end + from year's end to year's end + blushing from ear to ear (phrase).


grassie - red backed parrot + TDV: And would again could whispning grassies wake him.


fiery - burning, blazing


dismember - to divide into parts or sections


sooth - truth


whine - a low somewhat shrill protracted cry, usually expressive of pain or distress + wine


bedding - a supply of bed-clothes for one bed


whoop - a cry of 'whoop!', or a shout or call resembling this; spec. as used in hunting, esp. at the death of the game


deading - deadening (to become dead, to die) + deading is a = dead in Giza + Henrik Ibsen: When We Dead Awaken.


usquebaugh - whiskey (literally 'water of life') + usque ad mortem (l) - even unto death.


anam (Irish) - soul + TDV: Anam a dhoul! did Did ye drink me dead?  


muck - the dung of cattle + muc (Irish) - pig + Anam muic an diabhail (onum mwik un d'oul) (gael) - Soul of the devil's pig.


dhoul - Irish "devil" + thanam o'n dhoul (Anglo-Irish) - your souls to the devil! (from Irish t'anam o'n diabhl).


deoch an dorais (Irish) - parting drink (literally 'drink of the door') + Finnegan's Wake (song): 'Then Micky Maloney raised his head / When a noggin of whiskey flew at him, / It missed and falling on the bed, / The liquor scattered over Tim; / Bedad he revives, see how he rises / And Timothy rising from the bed, / Says "Whirl your liquor round like blazes, / Thanam o'n dhoul, do ye think I'm dead?"' (originally, Poole: Tim Finigan's Wake (song): 'Mickey Mulvaney raised his head, / When a gallon of whiskey flew at him; / It missed him, and, hopping on the bed, / The liquor scattered over Tim! / Bedad, he revives! see how he raises! / And Timothy, jumping from the bed, / Cries, while he lathered around like blazes, / "Bad luck till yer sowls! d'ye think I'm dead?"').


doornail - a large headed nail for nailing doors + dead as a doornail - completely dead + This is as close as dreamer, Tim (Atum) Finnegan, will get to his wake. Best chance is already missed, though, at the end of the book - door which conspirators try to conceal awkwardly connecting last with the first [sentence of FW], and preventing the dreamer's wake (may his forehead be darkened with mud who would sunder!) (SS)


TDV (third draft version): Now be aisy, good Mr Finnimore, sir! And take your laysure and don't be walking abroad, sir. Sure, you'd only lose yourself the way the roads are [that] winding now and wet your feet, maybe. You're better off, sir, where you have all you want and we'll be bringing you presents, won't we? Honey is the holiest thing ever was [(mind you keep pot!)] or some goat's milk, sir? The menhere's always talking of you. The grand old Gunne, they do be saying, that was a planter for you! He's duddandgunne now but peace to his great limbs with the long rest of him!


aisy (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - easy


Fionn Mor (fin mor) (gael) - Great Fionn ("Fair")


laysure (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) = leisure - time which one can spend as one pleases, free or unoccupied time.


abroad - out of one's house or abode out in the open air, out of the home country; in or into foreign lands


Heliopolis - Greek name of Annu "(Place of) Pillars", anciet city in lower Egypt, occupied since the Predynastic Period, with extensive building campaigns during the Old and Middle Kingdoms. Today it is mostly destroyed; its temples and other buildings were used for the construction of medieval Cairo. Beneath a maze of busy narrow streets of a middle and lower-class district, lie vast hidden remains of ancient Heliopolis about fifteen to twenty metres down. Atum was worshipped in the site's primary temple, which was known by the names Per-Aat, "Great House" and Per-Atum, "the House of Atum". Another temple in Heliopolis was the "Mansion of the Benben", also known as the "Mansion of the Phoenix", which is believed to have been a sacred precinct in which in the middle of an open courtyard, stood a stone pillar, on top of which sat the "benben stone". It was seen as the solidified seed of Atum, the Stone of Creation, a magical stone, and some have concluded that it was of meteoric origin, "shining" in the sky, but when fallen on earth, black. Giza and Heliopolis were connected by the "Sacred Roads of the Gods". Heliopolis is 22.4 kilometres from Great Pyramid. 


Kapilavastu (Sanskrit) - the birthplace of Siddhartha Gautama, later Shakyamuni Buddha; located in what is now Nepal + capall a mhaistir (Irish) - his master's horse.


Calvary or Golgotha - the proper name (the Bible glosses it as "place of the skull") of the place where Christ was crucified


umbrian - rel. to Ital. province Umbria + umbra (l) - shadow + Northumberland Road, Dublin + Northumbrian - referring to Northumbria, one of the ancient kingdoms of the Angles.


PHIBSBOROUGH (PHIBSBORO) - District and Road, North Dublin.


WATLING STREET in Dublin lies on the East side of Guinness's Brewery, between Thomas Street and Barrack Bridge. It is Luke Tarpey's residence + sráid (Irish) - street. 


BOHERMORE - The name is from Bothar Mor, Ir. "Great Road." There were 5 "great roads" built in Ireland in the 2nd century, but none was uniquely called the Bothar Mor. 


foggy - misty; marshy, boggy + The Foggy Dew (song).


bankrupt - one hopelessly in debt; one who has lost all his means, and is without resources + Buddha met an old man, a sick man, and a corpse outside his palace and thus learned of age, sickness, and death.


Cotterick = Cothraige - this was the Old Irish form of Patrick, folk-etymologized into mog cethrair or "servant of four masters" (*X*) + "Old Cotter, puffing away on his pipe (a detail repeated four times in little more than a page of text), spitting "rudely into the grate," and fixing the boy with "his little beady black eyes," talks appropriately of "faints and worms". In an interesting bit of wordplay, Old Cotter becomes the "old cutter" responsible for having Osiris hacked to pieces... "The Sisters" of Joyce's story, Nannie and Eliza [reenacting the roles of Isis and Nephthys], do not carry water in cracked jugs from the Nile (nor from the Liffey for that matter), but they do carry associations of libations and lamentation. As Eliza discusses the "beautiful corpse" of their deceased brother [Osiris], Nannie presses sherry and cream crackers on the guest mourners in a ritualistic presentation." (Susan Swartzlander: James Joyce's "The Sisters")


clakety clank - sharp successive often metalic and ringing noises + Kantaka - Buddha's horse + Katachanka - Mohammed's horse.   


impure - unclean


mean - poor in quality, inferior; to complain, to lament for (a dead person) + "(the babes that mean too)" [FW 308.25]


Nugent, Gerald (16th century Gaelic poet): Ode Written on Leaving Ireland: 'From thee, sweet Delvin, must I part; / Oh! hard the task - oh! lot severe, / To flee from all my soul holds dear' (Drummond's translation from Cabinet of Irish Literature, 1897, p.8; Delvin is a barony in County Westmeath).


tanglesome - tangled, confused


lush - full of juice (said of vegetation)


enfranchisable - that admits of being enfranchised [to make (lands) freehold under feudal law] + infranchissable (French) - impassable + en franchise (fr) - duty free.


better off - in better circumstances 


primesign - to mark (a person) with the sign of the cross before baptism, to make a catechumen; in the 10th Century, prime-signing meant marking men with the sign of the cross, permitting their association with both Vikings and Christians + The Irish and Welsh custom of the "wake" is little known but was still practiced at the end of the last century. In Wales, the coffin was placed open, standing at the place of honor of the house. The dead man would be dressed in his finest suit and top hat. His family would invite all of his friends, who honoured the departed all the more the longer they danced and the deeper they drank to his health. It is the death of an other, but in such instances, the death of the other is always the image of one’s own death.


blood eagle - a method of Viking ritual execution, in which the ribs are opened, and the lungs pulled out and arranged to resemble wings 

Osiris buried sycomore grove (notebook 1930) → Budge: The Book of the Dead (pamphlet) 16: 'By some means or other Set did contrive to kill Osiris... Isis, accompanied by her sister Nephthys... rescued the body of her lord... They then laid the body in a tomb, and a sycamore tree grew round it and flourished over the grave' + There is an account of how Khufu mentions that an old sycamore tree that grew near the Sphinx was damaged "when the Lord of Heaven descended upon the Place of Hor-em-Akhet", the latter translated as "the place of the Falcon God (Horus) of the Horizon", identified with the Sphinx. This tree was linked to Atum and in Heliopolis there was a chapel to "Atum of the sycamore tree".

keld - spring, fountain + cold

TORY ISLAND - Island, 7 miles off North coast of County Donegal; ancient haunt of pirates, esp. "Balor of the Baleful Eye," who had one eye whose glance could kill. The island was noted for its various clays, used for heat-resistant pottery. There are no rats on Tory Island; they were driven out by St Columcille. Mainlanders still use earth from the island against infestation of rats.

varmint - animals obnoxious to a man (lice, mice, owls, etc.)

pouch - a bag, sack, or receptacle of small or moderate size, used for various purposes, esp. for carrying small articles; a small bag in which money is carried, a purse

bricket - a smal brick (a brick shaped block of any substance e.g. of tea) + briquet (fr) - lighter; short sword.

kerchief - handkerchief

pyre - a funeral pile for burning a dead body

Lonan - a chieftain converted by Saint Patrick + Homer & Brian (baroque) Boru & Napoleon.

Nebuchadrezzar - the second and greatest king of the Chaldean dynasty of Babylonia (reigned c. 605-c. 561 BC). He was known for his military might, the splendour of his capital, Babylon, and his important part in Jewish history + Groves of Blarney (song): 'But were I Homer, or Nebuchadnezzar'.

Guinness + Genghis Khan.

ombre - shaded + ombre (it) - shadows, ghosts + Ombre, English corruption of the Spanish word Hombre, arising from the muting of the H in Spanish, is a fast-moving seventeenth-century trick-taking card game with an illustrious history which began in Spain around the end of the 16th Century as a four person game. It is one of the earliest card games known in Europe and by far the most classic game of its type, directly ancestral to Euchre, Boston and Solo Whist. As with most games, Hombre acquired many variations of increasing complexity over the years, being its popularity eclipsed by the second quarter of the 18th century by a new four player French variant called Quadrille, later displaced by the English Whist. Other lines of descent and hybridization produced games like Preference, Mediator and Twenty-five. Ombre is a three-handed game, and l'Hombre, or the man, refers to the single player who plays against his two opponents.

rake - to level or smooth with a rake ("rake gravel")

Fenian - One of an organization or 'brotherhood' formed among the Irish in the United States of America for promoting and assisting revolutionary movements, and for the overthrow of the English government in Ireland; the name was also erroneously applied to the Fianna, Finn's army (2.-3. c.).

spittle - saliva, spit

stint - to limit (a supply) unduly, to give in scanty measure + stint of - to limit unduly in supply.

shabty - a figurine of deceased person placed in an Egyptian tomb to act as an substitute for the dead person + (notebook 1930): 'Shabti figures' → The Book of the Dead ch. VI: 'The text of Chapter VI was cut on figures made of stone, wood, etc. (ushabtiu), which were placed in the tomb, and when the deceased recited it these figures became alive and did everything he wished. The shabti figure... took the place of the human funerary sacrifice which was common all over Egypt before the general adoption of the cult of Osiris'.

image - a statue, effigy, sculptured figure + imagettes (French) - little images + (Joyce's note): 'ushabti (male puppet in Egyptian tomb - servant)'.

pennyworth - the amount of anything which is or may be bought for a penny, esp. a very small, or the least, amount

dodge my eyes

city + suttee - a Hindu widow who immolates herself on a pyre with her husband's body + smutty stores - dirty stores, stores that sell pornography.

'Osiris field of reeds - - grasshopp - - offerings of food' (notebook 1930) Budge: The Book of the Dead (pamphlet) 21: 'Osiris offered... as a reward a life in the Field of Reeds, and the Field of Offerings of Food, and the Field of the Grasshoppers, and everlasting existence in a transmuted and beatified body among the resurrected bodies of father and mother, wife and children, kinsfolk and friends'.

miel (fr) - honey + miliodôros (gr) - of a thousand gifts + míle deóra (Irish) - a thousand tears.

medicine man - a magician or shaman among American Indians and other peoples; hence colloq., a doctor

poppy - a plant (or flower) of the genus Papaver, comprising herbs of temperate and subtropical regions, having milky juice with narcotic properties + pap - soft or semi-liquid food for infants or invalids, made of bread, meal, etc., moistened with water or milk + (opium).

passe-partout (French) - functioning in all circumstances; a master key + Passepartout - a character in Jules Verne's Around the World in Eighty Days.

hive - an artificial receptacle for the habitation of a swarm of bees, a beehive

comb - the flat cake or plate consisting of a double series of hexagonal cells of wax made by bees; a honeycomb

earwax - a viscid secretion which collects in the external meatus of the ear + beeswax.

If the game is won, Ombre then takes the content of the pot and is paid by each opponent. Spanish card suits were commonly coins and cups (female) and swords and clubs (male) + TDV: Honey is the holiest thing ever was [(mind you keep pot!)] or some goat's milk, sir?

nectar - the drink of the gods; the sweet fluid or honey + (an allusion to the weighing of the deceased's heart before Oriris in the Egyptian Book of the Dead).

basilicon ointment - an ointment of rosin, yellow wax and lard

Fintan MacBochra - the only Irish person to survive the flood. God preserved him to tell early Christian saints the history of Ireland's past. He spent centuries as an eagle, a hawk, and then became an otherworld god of wisdom, incarnate in the salmon from which Finn got his wise thumb. 

Lalor, James Fintan - 19th-century Irish nationalist + The Fintan Lalor Pipe Band of Dublin.  

pipe - to play (a tune, music) upon a pipe

Bothnian - rel. to Bothnia (province in Sweden); The Gulf of Bothnia is North part of Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Finland. 

menhir - a single upright monolith of prehistoric origin + menheir - sir, master + meneer, mijnheer (Dutch) - gentleman, Mr, sir + TDV: The menhere's always talking of you.  

roof tree - the highest horizontal timber in roof, a horizontal pole at a top of a tent + According to the ancient Egyptian narrative, the tree (erica or heather) was cut down and, still containing the body of Osiris, made into a roof tree.

hollow - a valley, a basin; a hole, cave, den, burrow (obs.)

hallow - a holy personage, a saint + Every bullet has its billet (proverb).

dreng - a free tenant in ancient Northumbria, a low or base fellow + dregs + "Manden gav Blommen TIL DRENGEN" (Danish) - "The man gave the plum to the boy" → The plural of nouns in Danish are formed by the addition of e to the singular; as, Dreng: boy / pl. Drenge: boys.

The Salmon House - a Chapelizod public house (mentioned in Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu's "The House by the Churchyard", prologue); it no longer exists, but jutted into the high street from the north and faced east.

shillelagh - an Irish cudgel of blackthorn or oak + (HCE's umbrella).

manument - management + monument + manus (l) - hand + manumit - to free from slavery or bondage "To the left of the portal are 11 images of the zodiacal constellations. There are 11, rather than the statutory 12, because Scorpius and Libra are merged as one, in the image of a scorpion grasping in its chelae, or claws, the balance of Libra. In this form, the ancient Greek images of the zodiac were manumitted from the writings of the Alexandrian-Roman astronomer, Ptolemy, to the architects of the first Romanesque cathedrals." (Mark Handsel: Zelator).

eirênê (gr) - peace

chep = chip + chip off the old block (phrase).

battery - a device that produces electricity + Wellington Monument, erected on site of old Salute Battery.

to be bought and sold - to be betrayed for a bribe

let down - to lower in position, intensity or strength, to abase, to disappoint

oner - something unique; to burden (obs) + owner of the land + honour of the Lord.

paddy - rice in the husk either gathered or still in the field; Irishman + planter - one who sows seed, one that cultivates plants + Joyce's note: 'paddyplanters walk bowed'.

pack up - to put (things) away in a proper or suitable place

lap - the upper side of the thighs of a seated person

goddess - a female deity in polytheistic systems of religion + in the lap of the gods - beyond human control, left to fate.

free and easy - unconstrained, natural

game - having the spirit of a game-cock; full of pluck, showing 'fight'

gunne - gun (a person of distinction or importance) + Michael Gunn, director of the Gaiety Theatre on Dublin's King Street + DTV: The grand old Gunne, they do be saying, that was a planter for you!  

skaal! (Danish) - (toast)

spicer - a dealer in spices, an apothecary or druggist + daddy of them all - best example of som. pleasant or unpleasant.

begob, begod - mild oaths + bog (Serbian) - god.

dead and gone - dead + TDV: He's duddandgunne now but peace to his great limbs with the long rest of him!  



sore - sickness, disease, a bodily injury; a wound + shoresh (Hebrew) - a root.


body + zadek (Czech) - buttocks, arse + tsedeq (Hebrew) - justice.


Buddha + buttock + badhach (Anglo-Irish) - lout, bumpkin, clown (from Irish: bodach) + hoch (ger) - high.


league long - that extends the length of a league (roughly about 3 miles)


TUSKAR LIGHTHOUSE - On Tuskar Rock, off Carnsore Point, County Wexford (had a one-million-candlepower light) + tusk (Buddha had incarnations as an elephant). 


SEA OF MOYLE - Poetic name for the North Channel of the Irish Sea, between County Antrim and Scotland. Joyce thought (Letters III, 339) it was St George's Channel, between Wexford and Wales, which is swept by the Tuskar Lighthouse + James Macpherson: The Poems of Ossian: Temora I: 'He turned his eye to Moilena'.


warlord - a supreme military leader


BRETLAND - In the Sagas, the name for Wales; later poetic for 'Britain' + (Great Britain and Ireland has become Great Erin and Britain).


PIKE COUNTY - Missouri county on the Mississippi River, North of St Louis; site of the imaginary town of St Petersburg, home of Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn. In an introductory note to Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain refers to the care he has taken with the "ordinary 'Pike County' dialect" and its variants. 


árd rí (Irish) - High King (of Ireland)


bung - a plug used to close a hole in a barrel or flask


Sun King - epithet of Louis XIV


well-hung - man with a large penis


hoist - elevate


Liam (Irish) - William + LIA FAIL - The "Stone of Destiny," a monolith at ancient Tara which shrieked at the coronation of rightful high kings, and caused "black spot" on any guilty man seated on it + James Macpherson: The Poems of Ossian: Temora II: 'When thou, O stone, shalt fail'.


MacCool + mór (Irish) - great.


reise = raise


funny man + Fin.


compass - encompass, encircle, comprehend, grasp


cause - reason for action, motive + compas course - a course steered by compass.


Huckleberry + haggle - to dispute or bargain persistently, esp. over the cost of something.


Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 5: (Huck's pap) 'He was most fifty, and he looked it. His hair was long and tangled and greasy, and hung down, and you could see his eyes shining through like he was behind vines.'


table ("Tonight Better Half asked me to lay the table")


batter - one that bats (to strike with, or as with, a bat; to cudgel, thrash, beat); the player at bat in baseball and cricket


Mick - Irishman (offensive)


Macaulay, Thomas Babington (1800-1859) - English poet, historian 


take off - to imitate (esp. by mockery), to mimic


Stanford: Complete Collection of Irish Music as Noted by George Petrie no. 393: 'Leather bags Donnel'.

shuffle - movement of the feet along the ground without lifting them + (shuffle and cut cards).


cut - appearence + Phil the Fluter's Ball (song): 'the shuffle, and the cut'.


HOPKINS AND HOPKINS - 1 Lower Sackvilie (now O'Connell) Street; goldsmiths, jewellers, and watchmakers. 


eggy - annoyed, irritated + naggy - ill natured, bad tempered + egg-nog - a hot drink usually made of eggs, milk, sugar and spirits + everybody.


cis (kish) (gael) - wickerwork, basket + kiss.


tilly - a small extra measure given to a customer, the thirteenth of a baker's dozen (from Irish tuilleadh: added measure) + Kersse the Tailor.


buggerlugs (Nautical Slang) - Offensive term of address + bugger off (Slang) - go away + General Nikolai Ivanovitch Bobrikoff (1857-1904) - despotic Russian governor-general of Finland from 1898; he was assassinated by Eugen Schaumann on Bloomsday, 16 June 1904 + How Buckley shot the Russian General (motif).


"Jerusalem-farers" were the crusaders. 12th century Norwegian king Sigrid Magnusson (25.36), the most famous of the Northren Crusaders, was known as the "Jerusalem-farer" + be going to Jerusalem (Slang) - be drunk.


arse (Russian General) + Asia Minor.


gamier - comp. of 'gamy' (showing an unyielding spirit to the last) + game cock - a cock bred and trained for fighting, or of the breed suitable for the sport of cock-fighting + agamê (gr) - virgin.


jake - an uncouth country fellow + Peter, Jack, Martin - in Swift's Tale of a Tub, they are the Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran churches. In FW they are also the Three. 


stubble - to clear (land) of stubble (the stumps or lower parts of the stalks of wheat or other grain left in the ground by the sickle or reaping-machine)

Kherheb = priest 9 worms (notebook 1930) → The Book of the Dead ch. I and I.B: 'Chapter I was recited by the priest who accompanied the mummy to the tomb... the priest (kher heb) assumed the character of Thoth... Chapter IB gave the sāhu, or "spirit-body," power to enter the Tuat immediately after the burial of the material body, and delivered it from the Nine Worms that lived on the dead'.


scalding - very hot, burning + (notebook 1930): 'scalding water' → The Book of the Dead ch. LXIII) 'The recital of Chapter LXIII enabled the deceased to avoid drinking boiling water in the Tuat. The water in some of its pools was cool and refreshing to those who were speakers of the truth, but it turned into boiling water and scalded the wicked when they tried to drink of it'.


teaboiler - a vessel used for boiling tea + table + tay (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - tea.


PAPA WESTRAY ISLAND - Northmost of the Orkney Islands. The name "Papa" in several of the Orkneys derives from the Irish missionaries, or papae, sent there by Saint Columba to preach to the Pictish natives (6th cent) + vestry - church room with the westments of the clergy + vester pater (l) - the pope.


anear - near


whiter + As Your Hair Grows Whiter I Will Love You More (song) + (notebook 1930): 'wheat = Osiris' → Budge: The Book of the Dead (pamphlet) 31: 'Osiris was the Wheat-god... and the beatified lived upon the body of their god and ate him daily'.

celestial Liffey (notebook 1930) → Budge: The Book of the Dead (pamphlet) 38: 'cool water from the Celestial Nile and the springs of waters of heaven'.


hep - hip + (notebook 1930): 'Hep = river in heaven' → Budge: The Book of the Dead (pamphlet) 34: (quoting from a hymn to Rā) 'Thou didst create the earth, and man, thou didst make the sky and the celestial river Hep'.


Buddha was addressed as 'Hero' by a monk.


After his enlightenment, Buddha was saluted seven times.  


thereto - to that + "Having forced Finnegan back into his coffin, the mourner-conspirators witness his dismemberment. Mr. Atherton first mentioned this use of the dismemberment, but he did not include the salute, "Seven times thereto", which is important in the Osirian context, expressing as it does "seven times two" or fourteen, the number of pieces into which the body of Osiris was torn (Budge, Gods, II, 127). As Mr. Slomczynski points out this salute may also include the number of conspirators, seventy-two."


kit - a number of things viewed as a whole; a set, lot, collection; esp. in phr. the whole kit + the whole bag of tricks - things that are needed for particular purpose esp. when almost magically effective.


In ancient Egypt, a headdress consisting of a pair of falcon plumes was worn by several deities, including Min, the fertility god, and Amun, the creator.


jackboot - a heavy military boot


included + "There are a number of parallels between the three characters, Osiris, Orion, and Dionysus. Dionysus was torn in pieces by the Maenads. In the Orion myth it says the Scorpion stung him on the heel and caused his death. Osiris was cut into pieces by Seth. In reference to this Plutarch says "Such is the tradition. They say also that the date on which this deed was done was the seventeenth day of Athyr, when the sun passes through Scorpion"."


koproi kaprôn (gr) - pig shit (literally 'excrements of boars') + Tropic of Capricorn - the southern Tropic forming a tangent to the ecliptic at the first point of Capricorn (the tenth of the twelve signs of the Zodiac).

cloister - convent + cluster


Virgo - the sixth sign of the Zodiac + Virgo Cluster - a cluster of galaxies in the constellation Virgo, the Virgin [virgin contrasted with Shewolf (i.e. prostitute)].


olala - Expression of happiness or surprise + alala - a shout used by the ancient Greeks in joining battle, a (Greek) battle-cry.


in the region of - round about, approximately


Sahu, Sah, was an ancient Egyptian title for Orion. Allen (Star Names) says that in Egypt, Orion in the great Ramesseum of Thebes about 3285 B.C. was known as Sahu. This twice appears in the Book of the Dead: "The shoulders of the constellation Sahu"; and: "I see the motion of the holy constellation Sahu". The Ancient Egyptians, their soul - their being - were made up of many different parts. Not only was there the physical form, but there were eight immortal or semi-divine parts that survived death. Sahu is the incorruptible spiritual body of man that could dwell in the heavens, appearing from the physical body after the judgment of the dead was passed (if successful) with all of the mental and spiritual abilities of a living body + sahel (Arabic) - shore.


Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 29: 'sure as you are born'


shuck - shell, husk, an outer covering + Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 20: 'a corn-shuck tick... a shuck tick' (a kind of coarse mattress).


Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 12: 'texas' (an officers' cabin or deck on a steamboat)


tow - the fibre of flax, hemp, or jute prepared for spinning by some process of scutching


linen - cloth woven from flax, a linen garment + Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 20: 'tow-linen' (material for shirts).

lonesome + loam - clay, clayey earth, mud + Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 12: 'lonesome' (over ten times in 'Huckleberry Finn').


Lafayette - the name of the French general; a city in Louisiana (Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 31: 'the road to Lafayette') + Liffey river.


track - a bar or bars of rolled steel making a track along which vehicles can roll + Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 31: 'I most dropped in my tracks I was so scared'.


unrested - thrown out of the rest; not laid to rest, not refreshed by rest + onrustig (Dutch) - disturbed, restless.


bottlewasher + canopic jars with heads resembling the king's were found in Tut-ankh-amen's tomb.  


chapel of ease - a chapel built for the convenience of parishioners who live far from the parish church + Temple of Isis + Chapelizod.  


Tutankahmen - king of Egypt (reigned 1333-23 BC), known chiefly for his intact tomb discovered in 1922. During his reign, powerful advisers restored the traditional religion and art style. A curse was laid on those who moved his bones + totally calm. 

saith - 3d. sing of say + Budge: The Book of the Dead ch. XL: 'Osiris Ra, triumphant, saith: "Get thee back, Hai... Thoth hath cut of thy head, and I have performed upon thee all the things which the company of the gods ordered concerning thee in the matter of the work of thy slaughter. Get thee back, thou abomination of Osiris... I know thee, I know thee, I know thee, I know thee... Thou shalt not come to me, O thou that comest without being invoked, and whose [time of coming] is unknown"'.


Methyr - name of Isis in Plutarch + mether, medher (Anglo-Irish) - wooden drinking vessel (from Irish: meadar) + jar (Anglo-Irish) - a pint of stout; a drink (in general) + Netjer (ntrw) - 'Gods' + messenger.


salvation - the action of saving or delivering; the saving of the soul


The words of this Chapter shall be said after [the deceased] is laid to rest in Amentet; by means of them the region Tenn-t shall be contented with her lord. And the Osiris, the royal scribe, Nekhtu-Amen, whose word is truth, shall come forth, and he shall embark in the Boat of Ra, and [his] body upon its bier shall be counted up, and he shall be established in the Tuat. (THE EGYPTIAN BOOK OF THE DEAD).


abomination - an object that excites disgust and hatred + abram (Slang) - naked + Abraham (Genesis) + Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 31: 'The man that bought him is named Abram Foster -- Abram G. Foster -- and he lives forty mile back here in the country, on the road to Lafayette.'


precentor - a cleric who directs the choral services of a church or cathedral; a person, usually a clergy member, who is in charge of preparing worship services


grammarian - a specialist in grammar or linguistics


Christ Church and Saint Patrick's - Dublin cathedrals  


tomb - to bury, entomb


howe - tumulus, barrow, burial mound + THING MOTE - The assembly place, usually on a mound, established by the Vikings whenever they settled. In Dublin, the Thing Mote was on a low hill South of the present Dame Street. The hill of the Thing Mote was called the Howe, Haugh, or "Howe over the Stein" (Steyne), from haugr, Old Danish "hill, sepulchral mound."  


shipman - sailor, seaman

steep - precipitous + sleep well.


TDV: Everything's going on the same. Coal's short but we've plenty of bog in the yard. And barley's up again. The boys is attending school regular, sir. Hetty Jane's a child of Mary. And Essie Shanahan has let down her skirts. 'Twould delight your heart to see. Aisy now, you decent man, with your knees and lie quiet and repose your honour's lordship! I've an eye on queer Behan and Old old Kate and the milk buttermilk butter, trust me. And we put on your clock again, sir, for you. And it's herself that's fine too, don't be talking, and fond of the concertina of an evening: Her hair's as brown as ever it was. And wivvy and wavy. Repose you now! Finn no more!




holmsted (Danish) - homestead (a house with its dependent buildings and offices; esp. a farm-stead)


sanctuary - a holy place; a churchyard, cemetery


screain (skran) (gael) - bad luck! + bad scran to you (Anglo-Irish) - bad luck to you, an evil wish.


Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 35: 'we heard the breakfast-horn blowing'


William I, "The Conqueror" 


keng = king


member - an external body part that projects from the body + Aesop's fable of the Belly and the Members.


shop slop - Used contemptuously for shop medicine + slop shop - a shop where slops or ready-made clothes, are sold.


Jacob's Biscuits - manufactured in Dublin. It was a Jacob's biscuit tin that the Citizen throws at Bloom. In FW they are the mess of pottage for which Esau sold his birthright to Jacob. 


tipple - an intoxicating beverage; to indulge habitually to some excess in taking strong drink + Ulysses (619): "Dr Tibble's Vi-Cocoa." 


Edwards - brand of "desiccated soup", mentioned in Ulysses (173)


dissipated - dispersed, scattered; dissolute


seagull - gull + Mother Seigel's Syrup - digestive tonic, sold in the British Isles. 


Persse O'Reilly


bog - peat bog, marsh, swamp


barley - a hardy awned cereal, cultivated in all parts of the world; used partly as food, and largely (in Britain and the United States, mainly) in the preparation of malt liquors and spirits.


begrine - to dye in the grain, colour permanently

lessons + Nessans, St - to him, the Book of Howth is attributed + Church of the Three Sons of Nessan, Ireland's Eye, Ireland (ruins) + TDV: The boys is attending school regular, sir. 

business + bee's knees (Slang) - acme of perfection.


hesitancy - the quality or condition of hesitating, indecision, vacillation + athanasia (gr) - immortality.


turn out - to result, to come about in the end + table-turning - the action of moving or turning a table without the application of force, such as by a group of people placing their hands on it in a spiritual gathering.


turn the tables - to cause a complete reversal of the state of affairs + tables - the common arithmetical tables, as the multiplication table and those of money, weights, and measures, esp. as learnt at school.




all for - entirely in favor of, on the side of


peg - to aim (a missile) at


smasher - something very large or fine or extraordinary of its kind; a large marble


toss (Slang) - masturbate


Saint Patrick + Roman Catholic - a member or adherent of the Roman Church.


double jointed - having joints that permit exceptional degrees of freedom. People use the term double jointed to describe people who can bend their joints excessively + double joyed.


janitor - a door-keeper, porter, ostiary + progenitor + Janus geminus - double Janus or two headed Janus; old Italian deity, god of beginnings and passages. 


grandfer - grandfather


someone's right hand does not know what his left hand is doing - one part of organization or group does not know what another part is doing and because of this difficulties arise + William Shakespeare: Venus and Adonis 158: 'Can thy right hand seize love upon thy left?' + Matthew 6:3: 'let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth'.


Caoimhghein (kivgin) (gael) - Comely-birth; anglic. Kevin


doat - imbecile; to be infatuatedly fond of + dote (Anglo-Irish) - a term of endearment (especially for a child; also spelled 'doat').


cherub - an angel of high rank


chalk - to draw with a chalk


ogre - a man-eating monster, usually represented as a hideous giant (in folk-lore and fairy tales) + ancient Irish Ogham alphabet.

tricks + knick knacks - a trinket + bag of tricks - stock of resources.


Postman's Knock - a simple game played by groups of children or teenagers in which one person is chosen to be the "postman", goes outside and knocks on the door. Another person is chosen by the rest of the group to answer the door, and pays for the "letter" with a kiss. Then another person is chosen to be postman, etc.


diggings - lodgings, quarters + (midden heap).


seep - moisture that drips or oozes out; a sip of liquor + zeep (Dutch) - soap + milksop - a weak or effeminate person + sleep.

lieve = lief - gladly; dear, beloved + leave + Thomas Moore, song: Lay His Sword by His Side [air: If the Sea Were Ink] + (leave Isolde by his side).


laus (l) - thanks, gratitude + Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 32: 'law sakes' (interjection).


Knirps (ger) - kid


Diairmin (d'irmin) (gael) - little Diarmaid, anglic. Jerry

tartan - a kind of woollen cloth woven in stripes of various colours crossing at right angles so as to form a regular pattern; worn chiefly by the Scottish Highlanders + tar - asphalt + tan - to make dark or tawny in colour + tarrantach (tarontokh) (gael) - attractive.

playboy + plaid - a woolen fabric with a tartan pattern.


incostive = costive - confined in the bowels, constipated; slow or reluctant in action + encaustum (l) - purple red ink used by later Roman emperors. 

ink + dinkum - work; esp. hard work; dinkum oil (the honest truth, true facts) + income.


laving - washing, bathing


blue streak - something resembling a flash of lightning in speed, vividness, etc.; a constant stream of words


birthday suit - bare skin + bourse - the money-market.


Children of Mary - Catholic girls' association + "It was always a great affair, the Misses Morkan's annual dance. Everybody who knew them came to it, members of the family, old friends of the family, the members of Julia's choir, any of Kate's pupils that were grown up enough, and even some of Mary Jane's pupils too." (The Dead)


torch - a light carried in the hand + touch + Litany of Blessed Virgin Mary: 'House of Gold, Tower of Ivory' (associated with Eileen in A Portrait I) + tour (French) - tower.


rekindle - to kindle again, arouse again


felix (l) - happy + O felix culpa! + Phoenix.


*J* (Vanessa) [note the similarity of names with Hetty Jane (*I*)] 


let down - to lenghten (a garment) + TDV: And Essie Shanahan has let down her skirts. 'Twould delight your heart to see.


Luna (l) - moon + Our Lady's.


convent - monastery + Thomas Moore: You Remember Ellen (song): 'You remember Ellen, our hamlet's pride' [air: Were I a Clerk].

ruddy - red, reddish + red berry - any of several N. American plants.


pia (l) - tender + pia e pura bella - Vico's Latin catch-phrase for holy wars: 'pious and pure wars' + Anna Livia Plurabelle.


riot - disorder, tumult, esp. on the part of the populace; (orig. Theatr.) som. extremely successful or amusing; spec. an uproariously successful performance or show, a 'smash hit'.


Thomas Moore: You Remember Ellen (song): 'You remember Ellen, our hamlet's pride' [air: Were I a Clerk]


designate - marked out for office or position, appointed or nominated, but not yet installed


WILLIAMS AND WOODS, LTD - Manufacturing confectioners and preserve makers, 204-206 Great Britain (now Parnell) Street. It advertised its preserves as "Purity Jams." 


poster - to affix poster to

pouter - one who pouts + pout - to thrust out or protrude the lips + (pouting lips, red from jam).


jamb - each of the side posts of a doorway, window, or chimney-piece, upon which rests the lintel

rep - reputation; repertoar


leannoir (lanor) (gael) - brewer + Katti Lanner - famous 19th century Austrian-British ballet dancer and choreographer (Ulysses.15.4044: 'The Katty Lanner step').


taborin - a small drum + Tabarin was the street name assumed by the most famous of the Parisian street charlatans, Anthoine Girard (c. 1584 – 1633), who amused his audiences in the Place Dauphine by farcical dialogue with his brother Philippe (as Mondor), with whom he reaped a golden harvest by the sale of quack medicines for several years after 1618. Street theatre was popular theatre, on an improvised stage with a curtain backdrop, to the music of a hurdy-gurdy and a set of viols.


tam tam - tom tom + tom tommer - one who beats tom-tom or drum.


whirligig - a fickle, inconstant, giddy, or flighty person + whirligigs (Slang) - testicles + 'Mr Whirligig Magee' or song 'The Ball of Whirligig Magee'.


cachucha - a gay Andalusian solo dance done with castanets


flat - absolute, downright, plain

dilate - expand + delight


aisy (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - easy + TDV: Aisy now, you decent man, with your knees and lie quiet and repose your honour's lordship!


Zekiel Irons - parish clerk and fisherman in Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu's The House by the Churchyard


spoor - to track by a spoor (the trace, track, or trail of a person or animal, esp. of wild animals pursued as game)


McCarthy, Demetrius O'Flanagan - subject of a song. He took the floor at Enniscorthy.  


cork - to stop (a bottle, cask, etc.) with a cork; and so to confine or shut up (the contents of a bottle, etc.)


swamp - to swallow up


Portobello - a street in Dublin (Grand Canal flows alongside it); a seaport in Panama


float - to flood


Pomeroy - town, County Tyrone


fetch - to draw forth + veèni pokoj, veènaja pamjet → Mr Skrabanek says, Russian 'vechnyi pokoi, na vechnuyu pamyat' is "eternal peace, for eternal memory."


nayther (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - neither + Binn Éadair (Irish) - Howth.


angst - anxiety, anguish + Angst (ger) = angst (Dutch) - fear.


Avramovich (Russian) - son of Abraham  


lumbus (l) - hip, loin + limbo - the abode of the souls of unbaptized infants, and of the just who died before Christ's coming + he slumbers.

mist - fog


swaddle 'em


misch- (ger) - mix + mish or, more correctly, mi¹ (Serbian) - mouse.  


lodge - to reside as an inmate in another person's house, paying a sum of money periodically in return for the accommodation afforded




pour on - to overspread with something poured, to suffuse fully


sleepy - inclined to sleep, somnolent


so be it - formerly used as a rendering of amen


Maurice Behan, Man Servant, *S* + TDV: I've an eye on queer Behan and Old old Kate and the milk buttermilk butter, trust me.


*K* + Miss Kate and Miss Julia from Joyce's story The Dead are based on his great aunts, the Misses Flynn. Word "tip" which accompanies Kate's appearances in Finnegans Wake and the sound of a branch hitting the bedroom windowpane signaling the coming morning is connected with word 'tap' from The Dead, sound of the gravel Michael Furey throws against Gretta's bedroom window and the snow coming against the hotel window: "Gabriel's warm, trembling fingers tapped the cold pane of the window. How cool it must be outside! How pleasant it would be to walk out alone, first along by the river and then through the park! The snow would be lying on the branches of the trees and forming a bright cap on the top of the Wellington Monument."... "A few light taps upon the pane made him turn to the window. It had begun to snow again. He watched sleepily the flakes, silver and dark, falling obliquely against the lamplight."  

burial - funeral + memorial - a structure erected to commemorate persons or events + muria (l) - salt liquor, brine, pickle.


tipper - one who tips (to render unsteady, make drunk, intoxicate; to drink off) + Tip (motif).


as sure as you're  


put on - to push forward (the hands of a clock, the time) so as to make it appear later; Also in fig. allusion.


up a stump - blocked in one's efforts, nonplussed, perplexed [Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 32: 'up a stump']


shed - to rid oneself of (something not wanted or needed), cast off hair, skin, horn, or feathers → Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 20: 'The duke shed his coat and said he was all right now.'


remnant - that which remains or is left of a thing or things after the removal of a portion; a piece of cloth that is left over after the rest has been used or sold


sternwheel - a paddle-wheel placed at the stern of a small river or lake steamer → Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 19: 'and maybe see a steamboat coughing along up-stream, so far off towards the other side you couldn't tell nothing about her only whether she was a stern-wheel or side-wheel.


crawl - to move or progress very slowly, to drag along

missus - wife, mistress


Guinevere - Arthur's queen, Lancelot's mistress + queen of Eire. 


arrah - an expletive expressing emotion or excitement + TDV: And it's herself that's fine too, don't be talking, and fond of the concertina of an evening: Her hair's as brown as ever it was. And wivvy and wavy. Repose you now! Finn no more! 

shirk - to evade (a person, his conversation, acquaintance, etc.) + shake hands


longa (Beche-la-Mar: Melanesian pidgin) - to


grass widow - a woman who has been deserted by her husband


plenty + healthy.


dibble - to make holes in the ground + devil a hap'orth (Anglo-Irish) - not a halfpennyworth.


hayfork - a long-handled fork used for turning over hay to dry, or in pitching and loading it


lex - law + lek (Serbian) - medicine (i.e. 'presents' which ALP gives her children in ch 8) + "The 'Lex Salica', the Frankish Salic Law, is pertinent in the context (widowhood) because of its pronouncements on male and female rights of descent (the passing of property (in England only of real property) to the heir or heirs without disposition by will). The syntactic echo, however, is 'her leg's selig' (German: 'happy'). That is to say, she is not sufficiently grave, as would become a recent widow. We may also find the Dutch zalig, meaning delicious, or blessed, but the word most clearly fitting the reservation of the earlier part of the sentence is Irish salach, 'dirty'. Devil a hayfork's wrong with her only her leg's dirty." (McHugh, Roland / The sigla of Finnegans wake)


bald + old.


tib cat - a female cat


does be (Anglo-Irish) - habitual present tense of 'to be'


smirk - to smile; in later use, to smile in an affected, self-satisfied, or silly manner, to simper


pollock - an highly esteemed marine food fish; Polack (a person of Polish descent: a disparaging or derisive term) + Castor and Pollux.


woolly - a woollen garment or covering


tabouret - a low seat or stool


stitch - a single movement with the needle + to stick to one's last - to keep to that work, field, etc., in which one is competent or skilled.


enchantment - alluring or overpowering charm; enraptured condition


nester - one that nests (as a bird)

flue - chimney, a smoke-duct in a chimney


avalanche (Issy’s room is under the pitched roof at the top of the inn, as though it is up in the Alps) + Avalon: the Otherworld of Arthurian legend.


"It's an ill wind that blows no good" (proverb)


best of men - an epithet of the Buddha


gulden - any of various silver coins + gulden (Dutch) - golden; florin + gold and silver.


findrinny - white bronze + James Joyce, Letters I.348: letter 16/10/34 to Giorgio and Helen Joyce: 'A 30-year wedding should be called a 'findrinny' one. Findrinny is a kind of white gold mixed with silver'.


rein -  one of a pair of long straps (usually connected to the bit or the headpiece) used to control a horse + reins (Archaic) - kidneys, loins.


ribbons (Colloquial) - reins (for driving)


swoop - to move rapidly


fluttersome - given to or characterised by fluttering


second - to give support to, back up, assist, accompany


last post - bugle call at a burial or at the end of day


concertina - a portable musical instrument invented by Sir Charles Wheatstone in 1829, consisting of a pair of bellows, usually polygonal in form, with a set of keys at each end, which on being pressed admit wind to free metallic reeds.


forty winks - a short nap, esp. after dinner


colcannon - a traditional Irish dish mainly consisting of mashed potatoes with kale or cabbage + Cain and Abel.

dimpling - making of dimples + apple dumpling - a kind of pudding consisting of a mass of paste or dough, more or less globular in form, inclosing apple fruit, and boiled or baked.


Merlin - Arthurian sorcerer + Merlin chair - an invalid wheelchair invented by J.J. Merlin.

assotted - infatuated (i.e. under a spell such as might have been cast by Merlin) + asit - to sit, settle; remain sitting.


Evening World - a New York City newspaper, 1887-1931  


smart - stylish in dress, showing careful attention to details of appearence + short - short clothes.


A full-length coat or skirt is long enough to reach the lower part of a person's leg, almost to the ankles. A full-length sleeve reaches a person's wrist.   


swagger - fashionable, posh, smart + swagger coat - a type of three-quarter-length woman's coat (fashionable in the 1930's).


fellah - a peasant in Arabic-speaking countries; fellow


Fez - town in Morocco


Stormont - suburb of Belfast, the site of the Parliament of Northern Ireland


stilla (it) - drop + stella (it) - star.


going away - (of clothes) designed for wear when leaving on honeymoon


Vanity Fair - a place or scene where all is frivolity and empty show


rosy - healthy, blooming, tending to promote optimism


Ding (ger) - thing + Dick, Tom, Harry.


noise - to report, rumour, to spread rumours; to make a noise, to talk loudly


chuckle - quiet laugh


Selskar Gunn (1883-1944) - son of Michael Gunn and Bessie Sudlow, friend of Joyce. In Danish, elskere means "lovers."


pervenche (fr) - periwinkle 


viv (Danish) - wife


bluebell - a plant with flowers shaped like bells


salty - containing or impregnated with salt


sepulchre - grave

zee - "z" + the end + zee (Dutch) - sea + see (i.e. cross-reference to the end of the book).


silver ash - a tall perennial woody plant having a main trunk and branches forming a distinct elevated crown


switch - a coil of false hair, worn by women as a hair-supplement


flare - to burn with a spreading, unsteady flame, as when blown by the wind


anastasis (gr) - resurrection


how are you! (Anglo-Irish phrase) - don't be absurd! + The Letter: how are you.


Worth, Charles (1825-95) - dressmaker, born in Lincolnshire + Worter (ger) - words + worther = comp. of worth (worthy of, having a value of).


waist - the portion of the trunk of the human body that is between the ribs and the hip-bones + worth her weight.

noblest - superl. of noble + noble - illustrious by rank, title, or birth.


James Adam - auctioneer, had offices at 17 Merrion Row and 19 Stephen's Green. The only auctioneer on Wood Quay in the early 20th century was John Bentley. 


actionnaire (French) - shareholder ('sharestutterers' FW 027.35) + would-be auctioneers.

John 8:11: 'sin no more'


be = by + TDV: And be the hooky salmon sammon there's a big rody lad now at random on the premises, I am as it's told me, flourishing like a lord mayor (on for show), the height of a brewer's Brewster's chimpney, humphing his showlders like he's such a grandfallar with a pockedwife in pickle that's a flyfire and three sly little lice nittle clinkers, two twin twilling bugs and one midget pucell pucelle, and either he did what you know or he did not what you know with weep the clouds alone for [weeping smiling] witnesses and that'll do now but however that may be 'tis sure for one thing that he, overseen as we thought him, came to at this place some time or another in a hull of a wherry and has been repeating himself like fish ever since an as also for all batin the bulkihead, [he bloats about, the that innebbiate,] that he was of humile commune & ensectuous from nature, as his you may guess from after his byname, & that he is he & no other he who is primarily responsible will be ultimendly respunchable for the high hall cost of everything.


namesake (a namesake is named for someone else; a same-sake is named for himself or herself)


sib - sibling + sibling substitute (i.e. a twin or doppelganger) + (stutter).

hooky - covered with hooks + hook - a fish-hook, an angle + holy sermon


rody = ruddy - having a fresh red complexion + TDV: there's a big rody lad


ram - a male sheep; a sexually aggressive man, a lecher + ram (Hebrew) - high, tall + Shakespeare, Othello 1.1.88-9: "an old black ram / is tupping your white ewe" + (Tristram).


at random - without restraint, at great speed, without consideration, care, or control; at any range other than point-blank (obs.)


premise - a proposition upon which an argument is based or from which a conclusion is drawn; (Business/Commerce) pl.: a piece of land together with its buildings, esp considered as a place of business.

hundred + Conn of the Hundred Battles - a legendary High King of Ireland, grandfather of Cormac mac Airt.


bordel - a house of prostitution, a brothel + (Joyce's note): 'the story of the house of the 100 bottles'.


illicit - not authorized or allowed, unlawful, forbidden + Chapelizod + (illicit drink shop).


lord mayor - the mayor of the large city


Baum (German) = boom (Dutch) - tree + baobab (stuttering).

litting - dyeing + let off - to discharge with an explosion. Hence fig. To fire off (a joke, speech, etc.); to allow to go or escape.


flop - failure; a place to sleep, a cheap rooming house


dollop - large quantity of any thing; an untidy woman, a slattern, trollop + dead loop.

aloose - to loosen + alas!


lee - lie + the lee side and the weather side of a ship + Benjamin Lee Guinness - first Baronet Guinness, 19th century brewer and philanthropist (father of Arthur Edward and Edward Cecil)


benn - the Horse-radish tree + The Bennu-bird was supposed to have rested on a sacred pillar that was known as the benben-stone. The Egyptian priests showed this pillar to visitors, who considered it the most holy place on earth. The Bennu-bird The Book of the Dead says, "I am the Bennu bird, the Heart-Soul of Ra, the Guide of the Gods to the Tuat." While Bennu is the common name given to the bird in English, the original vowels of the name spelled as bnn by Egyptian scribes are uncertain, although it may have been pronounced something like bānana.


ARDILAUN - Island at North end of Lough Corrib, County Galway, near the Guinness family estates at Cong. Arthur Edward Guinness was Lord Ardilaun; his brother Edward Cecil Guinness was Lord Iveagh + a yard long.


evoe - shout of joy (the Bacchanalian exclamation ''Evoe!'')


breezy - windy + on the windy side of - so as not to be 'scented' and attacked by, out of the reach of; away from, clear of.


for show - for the sake of mere appearence or display


brewster = brewer - the owner or manager of a brewery + Humphrey Chimpden + TDV: I am as it's told me, flourishing like a lord mayor (on for show), the height of a brewer's Brewster's chimpney,

Barnum (Joyce's note, Circe) → Barnum, Phineas T. (1810-91) - American showman, remembered for founding the circus that became the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus. Barnum's personal aims were "to put money in his own coffers." During 1844–45, Barnum toured with Tom Thumb (dwarf "General Tom Thumb", "the Smallest Person that ever Walked Alone") in Europe. A command performance was arranged for Queen Victoria, who was amused and saddened by the little man, and the event was a publicity coup. It opened the door to visits from royalty across Europe. In the early 1860s General Tom Thumb met a small woman who was also in Barnum’s employ, Lavinia Warren, and the two became engaged + Could it be that John Murray, Joyce's maternal gradfather, visited "Findrinny Fair"? or P.T. Barnums circus? this happened in John Murray's time → "In about 1856 another of the sisters, Margaret (Maggy?) Theresa Flynn - then about 23 years old - had married in her turn a John Murray who introduced into this long line of Dubliners a new and rural strain." (From Biography by Peter Costello)  

humph - to utter an inarticulate 'h'mf!' + hump - to hoist or carry (a bundle) upon the back + TDV: humphing his showlders like he's such a grandfallar


shoulders + show there.


senken (ger) - submerge, lower + shekhem (Hebrew) - a shoulder + "SEKHEM means "Power" or "Might" and, in the case of SAHU, is also the Force which animates the SAHU's body and provides it with special powers not possessed by the less subtle bodies... SEKHEM is present, too, in the "bodies" of the Gods." (Robert Masters: The Goddess Sekhmet)


farfalla (Italian) - butterfly + grand faller/fellow.


pocket knife - a knife with one or more blades which fold into the handle, for carrying in the pocket + pock - to mark with pocks (a pustule or spot of eruption in any eruptive disease, esp. in small-pox); syphilis (Slang) + pocket wife - a woman who is much smaller than her husband.


in pickle - in reserve or use on occasion, in readiness; in an awkward or difficult situation; venereally infected (Slang) + pig in a poke (phrase).


firefly - a lampyrid or elaterid insect which has the property of emitting phosphorescent light + TDV: with a pockedwife in pickle that's a flyfire  

nittle - a string or cord + TDV: and three sly little lice nittle clinkers,

clinker - pl. Fetters (slang); a very hard kind of brick of a pale colour, made in Holland, and used for paving + kliker (Serbian) - taw, marble.

twill - pattern of diagonal lines, to make a cloth with a twill weave + twilling (Danish) - twin + TDV: two twin twilling bugs and one midget pucell pucelle


bug - schoolboys slang for ''boy''


midget - an extremely small person + P T Barnum displayed midgets in his shows.


pucelle - a girl, a maid + pucelle (French) - virgin + puce (French) - flea.


aither - either + aithêr (gr) - ether.


curse - to utter obscenities or profanities + cursare (l) - to run about + cruised.


ricorso (Italian) - recurring (Vico) + recourse + cursed again.


fourfooter - a creature having four feet; 1.2 m + footle (Slang) - to talk or act foolishly + *X*.


stool pigeon - a police informer + Issy is often personified by a dove.


aboon - above + TDV: and either he did what you know or he did not what you know with weep the clouds alone for [weeping smiling] witnesses


that'll do - that is sufficient


shee (Anglo-Irish) - fairy (from Irish: sídhe) + TDV: and that'll do now but however that may be 'tis sure for one thing that he,


Aesop - the supposed author of a collection of Greek fables + Isis or more likely Aset. The Egyptian name was recorded as ỉs.t and meant "(She of the) Throne". The true Egyptian pronunciation remains uncertain, however, because hieroglyphs do not have vowels. Based on recent studies which present us with approximations based on contemporary languages (specifically, Greek) and Coptic evidence, the reconstructed pronunciation of her name is Usat. Osiris's name—that is, Usir "Osiris" (ws-ỉr) also starts with the throne glyph.


fable + fib (Colloquial) - a trivial lie.

sephiroth - any of the 10 emanations, or powers, by which God the Creator was said to become manifest (Kabbala) + zephyr - the west wind, esp. as personified, or the god of the west wind.


artsa (Hebrew) - to the earth (form of Hebrew erets: earth, country) + astra (l) - star + Asar, Usir, Wesir, Osiris (Aset is "he" and Asar is "she").


zoom - to travel or move (as if) with a 'zooming' sound; to move at speed, to hurry


Ancient obelisks were often monolithic + White dwarfs are thought to be the final evolutionary state of all stars whose mass is not high enough to become a neutron star—over 97% of the stars in our galaxy.


theatrocracy - government by the people assembled in their theater (as in Athenian democracy) + theocracy - priest-rule + A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–10 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.


qoheleth (Hebrew) - Ecclesiastes (literally 'preacher') + coalescing + (red + white = pink).


saraph (Hebrew) - poisonous snake; angel, seraph + sheriff.


torah - law; especially the first five books of the Old Testament (Pentateuch) + Toraigh (tori) (gael) - Towery; island off N.W. Irish coast, Fomorian stronghold; anglic. Tory.


vouch - to cite, quote, to put in evidence, to announce + vouches for.


mappiq (Hebrew) - a dot in the letter 'heh' at the end of a word to ensure its full pronunciation


put out - to utter, pronounce


hamma (Hebrew) - sun + HCE.


Esq. - the common abbreviation of Esquire


overseen - supervised (as a person or work), esp. in an official capacity; somewhat drunk (Slang

name + nayim (Arabic) - asleep + nayim (Hebrew) - pleasant + mayim (Hebrew) - water.


parochial - of a parish + raqia (Hebrew) - firmament.

firmament - the arch or vault of heaven overhead, in which the clouds and the stars appear, the sky or heavens

bum's rush - forcible ejection + get the bum's rush (Slang) - to be forcibly turned out + bulrush - a name applied in books to Scirpus lacustris, a tall rush growing in or near water; but in modern popular use, more usually, to Typha latifolia, the 'Cat's Tail' or 'Reed-mace'. In the Bible applied to the Papyrus of Egypt.

hull - the body or frame of a ship, apart from the masts, sails, and rigging + TDV: 'tis sure for one thing that he, overseen as we thought him, came to at this place some time or another in a hull of a wherry and has been repeating himself like fish ever since

wherry - a large boat of the barge kind (PICTURE) + hell of a hurry (phrase).

turbine + turban - a head-dress of Muslim origin.

dhow - a native vessel used on the Arabian Sea, generally with a single mast, and of 150 to 200 tons burden (PICTURE)

Dublin Bay - a C-shaped inlet of the Irish Sea on the east coast of Ireland. The bay is about 10 kilometres wide along its north-south base, and 7 km in length to its apex at the centre of the city of Dublin; stretching from Howth Head in the north to Dalkey Point in the south + Joyce's note, Penelope: 'boydobelong (Gods)'.

archipelago - any sea, or sheet of water, in which there are numerous islands; and transf. a group of islands

schooner - a small sea-going fore-and-aft rigged vessel, originally with only two masts, now often with three or four masts and carrying one or more topsails (PICTURE).

willow pattern - a pattern of blue-white English crockery, depicting willow-trees as a prominent feature + County Wicklow.

waxen - made of wax; grown up (obs) + wench - a girl, maid, young woman.

prow - the fore-part of a boat or ship

figurehead - a piece of ornamental carving, usually a bust or full-length figure, placed over the cut-water of a ship

dugong - a large aquatic herbivorous mammal inhabiting the Indian seas + Dublin Historical and Topographical 7: [...] in 938, at the great battle of Burnanburh (Brumby, near Beverley), Aulaf suffered a signal defeat. Five kings and seven earls were amongst the slain, and Aulaf, son of Godfrey, fled to Ireland with the remnant of his followers, as graphically described in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle [...] "Departed the Northmen in nailed ships / Drear remnant of darts on the sea of Dyng, / O'er the waters deep Dublin to seek, / Back to land of the Erse, depressed in mind."

up dip - situated in a direction upwards along the dip (depth of a vessel)

repreach - to preach again + reproaching + TDV: and has been repeating himself like fish ever since

Holland 58: The mountains on the eastern side of Meccah rise very steeply, like cliffs. Quite close to the town, and between their spurs are long narrow ravines called Shebs. The word Sheb means, in Arabic, a rock + shebi (Turkish) - likeness + shevi (Hebrew) - captivity + sheva (Hebrew) - seven + Sheba (i.e. wife).

mummer - an actor in a pantomime; someone who communicates entirely through gesture and facial expression

16 + soixante-dix (French) - seventy (literally 'sixty-ten')

shide (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - side

adi (Hebrew) - ornament + adi (Turkish) - ordinary + Adam and aid (Eve).

hoarish - somewhat hoary + (notebook 1924): 'grow old under turban' + Horus and Set (in next line)

sugar cane - a tall stout perennial grass, cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical countries, and forming the chief source of manufactured sugar + Cain and Seth (Genesis 4:25: 'And Adam knew his wife again; and she bare a son, and called his name Seth: For God, said she, hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew').

cellulose - a polysaccharide found in the cell walls of plants + Set.

starch - an odorless tasteless white substance occurring widely in plant tissue and obtained chiefly from cereals and potatoes + (notebook 1924): 'plants turn sugar into starch & cellulose' → Haldane: Daedalus or Science and the Future 37: 'the average plant turns most of its sugar not into starch which is digestible, but into cellulose which is not, but forms its woody skeleton'.

tuttut - exp. of disapproval or disbelief + Tut's curse Tutankhamen - Egyptian whose resplendent tomb was opened in the 1920s and the king "resurrected." A curse was laid on those who moved his bones.

cess - luck + bad cess to - bad luck to + tutto cessa (it) - everything ends + tutto un cesso (Italian Colloquial phrase) - a real dump, a complete mess (literally 'all a latrine').

batin (Turkish) = beten (Hebrew) - belly, abdomen + bating (Scottish) - with the exception of + TDV: an as also for all batin the bulkihead, [he bloats about, the that innebriate,]

bulkhead - one of the upright partitions serving to form the cabins in a ship or to divide the hold into distinct water-tight compartments, for safety in case of collision or other damage + batten the bulkhead - on a boat, to seal a compartment with a strip of wood (batten) to prevent leakage.

bloat - to swell, become swollen or turgid + float

inebriated - intoxicated, drunken + annebbiato (it) - clouded, foggy.

offender - one who offends, who transgresses a law, or infringes a rule or regulation

commune - to receive communion, to communicate intimely; common + TDV that he was of humile commune & ensectuous from nature,

insect + incestuous.

gauge - to 'take the measure' of (a person, his character, etc.) + TDV: as his you may guess from after his byname, & that he is he & no other he 

byname - a secondary name, nickname

lashings (Anglo-Irish) - plenty + lashon (Hebrew) - tongue, speech, language.

khanneni (Hebrew) - pity me + Honi soit qui mal y pense (Med. Fr.) - 'evil be [to him] who evil thinks of this'; the motto of the Order of the Garter.

"What matters is that a warrior be impeccable," he finally said. "But that's only a way of talking; a way of beating around the bush. You have already accomplished some tasks of sorcery and I believe this is the time to mention the source of everything that matters. So I will say that what matters to a warrior is arriving at the totality of oneself." (Carlos Castaneda: Tales of Power)

khamishim (Hebrew) - fifty + khamisha khumshey (Hebrew) - five fifths, i.e. Pentateuch.

sober serious (Joyce's note) → Evans: My People, Stories of the Peasantry of West Wales 25: 'A Heifer Without Blemish': 'What nonsense you talk out of the back of your head! Sober serious, mouth not that you have thrown gravel at Sara Jane's window!'

ee - eye; ye + Pigott's forged Parnell letter begins 'Dear E!... let there be an end of this hesitency' + he is he and no other he + "After pondering for a long time what to say next, I asked, "Is the other like the self?" "The other is the self," don Juan replied." (Carlos Castaneda: Tales of Power)

ultimately + timendum (l) - to be feared.

responsible + TDV: who is primarily responsible will be ultimendly respunchable for the high hall cost of everything.

hubbub - noisy turmoil; confusion, disturbance + khibbubh (Hebrew) - fondness.

Edinburgh - Scottish Gaelic DUNEIDEANN, city, district of the Lothian region, and capital of Scotland + Eden and Burgh Quays, Dublin, face one another across the Liffey river + eden - paradise + (Garden of Eden).