flap - to beat the wings, of a bird: To make way by flapping the wings.

kraai (Dutch) - crow + kraak (Dutch) - crash, crack + croaking.

debacle - a sudden breaking up or downfall; a confused rush or rout + the battle.

quarter - boundary or limit towards one of the cardinal points + kvarter (Danish) - district.


treisbous (gr) - three oxen + tribes + three boos (contrasted with three cheers).

niver - never + river. 

thon - the one yonder, that + Thonar or Thon - god worshipped in England and on the Continent, maybe a form of Thor because his name is that of the Teutonic word for "thunder".

nixie - a female water elf

crack of doom - the blast of the Last Trump on Judgment Day + FDV: She never comes out when Thon's there or on show shower or when Thon's a on flash with Thon's the tindergiris or when Thon's blowing thonders on Thon's gaelaboys gaelieboys down the gaels of Thon.

Nebo - Babybonian god whose name means "proclaimer," son of Merodach, introduced writing and general wisdom to the people + nubo (l) - to cover, to veil, to marry + nubes (l) - cloud.

nebla (Rhaeto-Romanic) - fog + nebula (l) - mist, vapor, fog.

liv (Danish) - life + not on your life - by no means, not on any account.

FDV: [Her is be too moochy afeerd [I do veer. [Now she comes, a peacefugle, picking here, pecking there - - -] Pussypussy plunderbussy plunderpussy, it all goes into her nabsack & she borrowed burrowed the coach coacher's lamp to see. Cartridges & ratlin buttins & nappy boots & flags flasks of all nations & clavicurds & scampulars & piles of pennies & [moonlit] brooches with [bloodstaned] breeks in em & maps & keys & the last sigh that came from the heart & the first sin the sun saw.

mooch - to pretend poverty, sneak, steal + muchly - much, exceedingly.

afreet - a powerful jinn or demon (in Arabian and Muslim mythology) + afraid

dead in the world + 'A bliss in proof, and proved, a very woe' (in Shakespeare's sonnet 129, of illicit sex).

In the English folktale Jack and the Beanstalk, when the giant smells Jack, he declares: "Fee-fi-fo-fum, I smell the blood of an Englishman. Be he alive or be he dead, I'll grind his bones to make my bread." The giant then tells his wife, "I smell an English man. I am sure I am right this time. Cook him for my supper" + fè (Rhaeto-Romanic) - faith + fö (Rhaeto-Romanic) - fire + fom (Rhaeto-Romanic) - hunger + William Shakespeare: King Lear III.4.174: 'Fie, foh, and fum'.

jist - just

hope - to expect with desire, or to desire with expectation; to look forward to

boys will be boys - an expression of resignation towards childish ways + let bygones be bygones (phrase).

Dear, and it goes on to... (The Letter)

peaceful + fugle - leader; a soldier who stands before a company at drill as an example + fugl (Danish) - bird.

paradise bird = bird-of-paradise + Most versions of the myth of Osiris relate that Isis took the form of a bird when she sought Osiris, and that she was accompanied by their shadowy sister, also a bird + Thomas Moore: Lalla Rookh: Paradise and the Peri.

peri - in Persian Mythology, one of a race of superhuman beings, originally represented as of evil or malevolent character, but subsequently as good genii, fairies, or angels, endowed with grace and beauty + very - possessing the true character of the person or thing named + perí (Czech) - feather + peri (Hebrew) - fruit.

godmother - a female sponsor considered in relation to her god-child + peri potmon (gr) - concerning fate, about death + Fairy Godmother (in pantomime Cinderella) + 'Mother of Pots' - epithet of Osiris's grave, so called from the broken pot fragments littering the area, the remnants of ancient offerings.

Pringle, Sin John (1707-82) - according to Mr Knuth, a Scottish doctor, author of Observations on the Diseases of the Army in Camp and Garrison. His biographer was Andrew Kippis + pinglopiki (Esperanto) - pinprick + pik (Dutch) - penis; peck.

i land (Danish) - on land + i skip (Danish) - on board ship + kip (Dutch) - hen + landscape

peewee - a lapwing, the thin wailing cry of this bird; applied to a small child; spec. A small marble.

powwow - the working of cures; 'medicine'

beag (Irish) - small. So 'beggybaggy' ~ small bag.

piggyback + bag on her back.

flick - any sudden movement, a jerk

flask - a bottle, usually of glass, of spheroidal or bulbous shape, with a long narrow neck

fleck - to flutter about, to jerk, to move with quick vibrations + fling - to throw, cast, toss, hurl.

pixilated - mentally somewhat unbalanced, confused, inchanted, bewitched; drunk; + pixillation - a method of animating human figures or animals by using, for example, stop-frame camera techniques.

pack - a package, parcel, esp. one of considerable size or weight + pax (l) - peace.

euhemerema (gr) - success, good luck + marama (Serbian) - kerchief + rainbows (pact of peace, Genesis 9:16). 

peck - Of birds: To take (food) with the beak.

plunder - robbery, pillage + blunderbuss - a short handgun with a wide bore.

armistice - a cessation from arms; a short truce + (notebook 1922-23): 'armitise'.

tonight + too nigh - too near.

milito (l) - to be a soldier + milito (Esperanto) - war + paco (Esperanto) - peace + pucas, or more properly, pucaš (Serbian) - (you) shoot.

tomorrow + to mourn.

merry Christmas + In the rest of the paragraph, there may be references to Santa Claus, reversing gender and behaviour, in the image of a woman going around and collecting "spoiled goods" in a "nabsack".

minutia - very small in size, extent, amount, or degree + (notebook 1922-23): 'minutiae' + munition.


truce - a suspension of hostilities for a specified period between armies at war, peace

childer - children

nebo (Serbian) - sky  → "You sing the ancient downfall of the Serbs. / "Which Kingdom is it that you long for most? / That's the question that the falcon asked the Tsar. / If you choose the earth, he said then saddle horses, / Tighten girths- have your knights put on / Their swords and make a dawn attack against / The Turks: your enemy will be destroyed. / But if you choose the skies then build a church- / O not of stone but out of silk and velvet- / Gather up your forces, take the bread and wine, / For all shall perish, perish utterly, / And you, O Tsar, shall perish with them." (Epic poem: The Downfall of the Kingdom of Serbia)  + 'Come unto me' Jesus says of the little children (Mark 10:14, Matt 19:14, Luke 18:16).

susurro (l) - I whisper + s-s-sing (stutter).

celebrate + Sally - one of the repressed personalities of Christine Beauchamp, the subject of a celebrated case of multiple personalities studied by the Boston neurologist Morton Prince in The Dissociation of a Personality.  

burrow - to construct by burrowing, to excavate + borrowed

coacher - the driver of a coach + FDV: Pussypussy plunderbussy plunderpussy, it all goes into her nabsack & she borrowed burrowed the coach coacher's lamp to see.

headlights - two powerful lamps carried on the front of a motor vehicle

pry - to look esp. to look closely or curiously

aroon (Anglo-Irish) - beloved (from Irish a rún) + Siul, siul, siul a run, Siul go socair Agus siul go ciuin (shul shul shul/arun/shul go sukir/ogus shul gu kyun) (gael) - Go, go, go my dear, Go securely And go calmly (Irish song).

knapsack - a bag or case of stout canvas or leather, worn by soldiers, strapped to the back and used for carrying necessaries; any similar receptacle used by travellers for carrying light articles + nab - to seize, snatch.

cartridge - the case in which the exact charge of powder for fire-arms is made up + FDV: Cartridges & ratlin buttins  

ratlins'(notebook 1923) → O. Henry: The Four Million 168: 'From the Cabby's Seat': 'Like a sailor shinning up the ratlins during a squall Jerry mounted to his professional seat' + ratlins (Nautical) - a series of small ropes fastened across a sailing ship's shrouds like the rungs of a ladder, used for climbing the rigging + rattling buttons.

nappy - having a nap, shaggy, fuzzy + nap - a special surface given to cloth of various kinds by artificial raising of the short fibres, with subsequent cutting and smoothing.

spattee - Formerly, an outer stocking or legging worn by women for protection against wet and cold + FDV: & nappy boots

flask - a bottle, usually of glass, of spheroidal or bulbous shape, with a long narrow neck, applied esp. to the bottles of this form, protected by a covering of wicker-work or plaited grass, etc. in which wines and olive oil are exported from Italy + FDV: & flags flasks of all nations

clavichord - a musical instrument with strings and keys + claviculer - a key keeper, turnkey + clavicula (l) - small key + FDV: & clavicurds & scampulars

scapular - a short cloak covering the shoulders; prescribed by the Rule of St. Benedict to be worn by monks when engaged in manual labour + ampulla - a small two-handled flask + clavicles and scapulas (bones).

woodpile - a pile of wood (as firewood) + FDV: & piles of pennies

hapenny - half penny + In 1724, copper coinage for Ireland was produced by William Wood, a swindle; Swift wrote tirades against 'Wood's halfpence' in The Drapier's Letters.

moonlet - a little moon + FDV: & [moonlit] brooches with [bloodstaned] breeks in em

brooch - an ornamental fastening, consisting of a safety pin, with the clasping part fashioned into a ring, boss, shield, or other device of precious metal or other material, artistically wrought, set with jewels, etc.

bloodstone - a green variety of jasper or quartz, with small spots of red jasper looking like drops of blood, supposed in former times to have the power of staunching bleeding, when worn as amulets + stane - stone + bloodstained.

breeks - breeches + break - something abruptly breaking the line, or level; an irregularity, roughness, knot, etc.

boaston = boston - a card game + BOSTON - Seaport city, capital of Mass, US, home of the former Boston Evening Transcript + Boston nightletters.

chaussettes (fr) - socks + Massachusetts - US state of which Boston is the capital + shoe sets - Boston was once a major shoe manufacturing centre.

nickel - a hard silvery-white lustrous mineral + knick knack - a light dainty article of furniture, dress or food; a trinket + Nick - Old Nick, the Devil.

nack - a toy, a plaything, a knickknack

foder (Portuguese) - to fuck + fodder + Father Michael - a curate or hermit who seduces ALP (FW 111.13-35) or is seduced by her (FW 203.17 - 204.05); he is based on Michael Bodkin (Nora Barnacle's dead lover, who provided the model for Michael Furey in The Dead) and a curate in Galway who supposedly abused Nora Barnacle when she was sixteen - he was model for Father Flynn (The Sisters). Conjugation of the last with the first story of Dubliners creates Father Michael; two sisters and two aunts combined (Joyce's four great aunts) are the legs of the horse i.e. Four Old Men.

cate - an article of food, choice food, delicacy; cat + poor Father Michael & lovely present of cakes (The Letter) + ugly parson of Kate's.

howitzer - a short piece of ordnance, usually of light weight, specially designed for the horizontal firing of shells with small charges, and adapted for use in a mountainous country + how are you (The Letter).

midge - a popular name loosely applied to many small gnat-like insects; an artificial fly for fishing; a diminutive person

magget = maggot + well Maggy/Majesty (The Letter)

il (fr) - he + ill, well + hills and wells.

ell - a measuring rod + elle (fr) - she + l's → a lone a last a loved a long.

loff - laugh; loaf; love; + lots of toffees.

toff - a person of superior social status and often fashionable [Werner: Barnum 87: (Barnum) 'believed that when in London he must do as the toffs did'] + lots of love (an expression commonly found at the end of a letter).

pleura (gr) - rib + pleur (fr) - tear + Plurabelle. 

boek (Dutch) - book + lied (Dutch) - song + Buckley + 'the'.

sin (Serbian) - son + Bédier: Le Roman de Tristan et Iseut 3: (Tristan's mother immediately after giving birth to him, while mourning for her recently-slain husband): '"Son, she said to him, I have long wished to see you; and I see the fairest thing that ever a woman bore... And as you came into the world through sadness, your name shall be Tristan." When she had said these words, she kissed him, and, as soon as she had kissed him, she died' + FDV: & the last sigh that came from the heart & the first sin the sun saw.

cearc (kark) (gael) - hen, chicken + ceart (kart) (gael) - correct.

criss-cross: the lines of ALP's letter run both horizontally and vertically across the page (FW 114.02-07); this reflects a common practice of Irish peasants in the 19th Century, which was designed to save paper. The criss-crossing of the lines also reflects the flagpatch quilt on HCE and ALP's bed (FW 559.13) + XXXX - four crosskisses at the end of a letter (The Letter)

unto life's end (The Letter) + typographical error for "undo lives' end"? or ' sign as a hat on tail of big white horse (instead of being on head - last joke of HCE)?

slain - p. p. od slay; smut in grain + slán (Irish) - farewell, goodbye (literally: 'safe') + stain (The Letter) + slainte (slant'i) (gael) - Health! → Nut the sky and Geb the earth, separated by their father Shu, the air, had to resort to special measures to start a family, namely and to wit: passing semen mouth to mouth in a kiss. Nut produced four children (Osiris, Isis, Seth and Nephthys) or, in some versions, five (fifth child was Horus the Elder).

beautiful + (notebook 1924): 'booty & beauty' Gwynn: The History of Ireland 9: 'The rulers of Ireland, whose wars with one another for land and for booty are described in the romances, were Gaelic by blood'.

true to - consistent with, exactly agreeing with + true to life.

strongly + streng verboden (Dutch) - strictly forbidden + In Irish mythology Sreng (often misinterpreted as Streng) was a champion of the Fir Bolg or Men of Bolg. In the first Battle of Magh Tuiredh he faced Nuada, king of the Tuatha Dé Danann, and with one great blow he cut off half his shield and severed Nuada's arm at the shoulder.
Although nearing defeat, Sreng and the three hundred surviving Fir Bolg vowed to fight to the last man. The Tuatha Dé Danann invaders, however, considered them so noble that they offered them one fifth of Ireland. They agreed, and stood down from the conflict. The Fir Bolg chose Connacht, where men traced their descent from Sreng until the 17th century.

historic present (tense) - grammarians' term for Latin historians' use of present tense to vivify narrative of past actions + FDV: She brings us her We know all men by these her presents from the goneaway past how there'll be eggs for the brekkers come to mourning. For where there's a there's wherever the gale find seek guess find [the] gall & wherethen whenthere's a hind seek hunt seek the hun.]]

post prophesy - to prophesy after the event

to will make (grammar) - future infinitive

lordy - exp. of surprise or astonishment + heir - inheritor + Lord Mayors.

lady's maid - a woman servant whose special duty it is to attend to the toilet of a lady + Lady Mayoresses.

a nice or pretty kettle of fish - an awkward state of things, a 'muddle'

debt - the state of owing money (this paragraph abounds with financial terms) + In the midst of life we are in death (from the 'Order for the Burial of the Dead').

laff - laugh

plore - to weep, wail

mirth + birth control.

naperon - apron

sabots (fr) - wooden shoes + Sabeans.

aria - a connected succession of musical sounds in expressive rhythmical arrangement + airs

sair - sore + sa sær (Danish) - so odd + Sarah - Biblical character, the wife of the patriarch Abraham, and the mother of Isaac ("I saack"). Sally is diminutive for Sarah, but Sally is also the name of Christine Beauchamp's repressed personality, as explored by the Boston neurologist in The Dissociation of a Personality, a key text for FW.

solly - solely; strange, marvellous, wonderful + sorry

sage (ger) - (I) say, tell + Isaac [and Sarah, mother of Isaac (in previous line)]

Grick - Greek + pricks may rise (erection), and Troysirs (trousers) fall.

Trojan - an inhabitant or native of Troy

two sides to every story