punned - p. of pun (to beat, to pound; to make puns) + pound + FDV: Royally? _____ A sovereign punned to paltry pence. Regally?

Peter's penny - an annual tax or tribute of a penny from each householder having land of a certain value, paid before the Reformation to the papal see at Rome

fake - an act of 'faking'; a contrivance, 'dodge', trick, invention + feach! (Irish) - look! + (Finnegans) Wake + FDV: A silence makes a scene. Behold! / Hush! Caution! Echoland!  

Dublin + {dreamer (reader) wakes and in silence looks around him; he, in fact, looks at the FW text engraved in the walls around him. But is it real or fake? → "I asked don Juan what exactly the nagual Rosendo did to send his disciples to that world [of inorganic beings]... "The steps are simplicity itself," he said. "He put his disciples inside a very small, closed space, something like a closet. Then he went into dreaming, called a scout from the inorganic beings' realm by voicing his intent to get one, then voiced his intent to offer his disciples to the scout. The scout, naturally, accepted the gift and took them away, at an unguarded moment, when they were making love inside that closet. When the nagual opened the closet, they were no longer there."... "Did he find them?" "He did, after untold struggles. However, he could not totally bring them out. So the two young people were always semiprisoners of that realm." (Carlos Castaneda: The Art of Dreaming) → pursuit of Tristan and Isolde by king Mark, and Gráinne and Diarmuid by Fionn mac Cumhail?    

It has been known for centuries that the King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid has special acoustic properties. A Frenchman who visited the Great Pyramid in 1581 reported that when struck, the granite sarcophagus 'sounded like a bell'. Other travellers used the same phrase, and it became a favourite trick of the local Arab guides to hit the coffer and make it ring. But it wasn't just the sarcophagus. Every transient sound, be it a murmur or a footstep, can make the room resonate in harmony throughout its 34ft length. Experts such as English acoustics engineer John Reid have speculated that the stone was deliberately chosen 'as an experimentation in reverberation enhancement'. His own theory is that it was intended to enrich the chanting of priests interring the dead king. Some scholars go as far as to argue that the sort of vibrations the stones give out can induce an altered state of consciousness, and that the chanting was used in a mind-bending religious initiation ritual. However, the frequencies the chamber responds to most strongly are far below those of the human voice... The planet we live on resonates and vibrates, though at an extremely low frequency that none of us notices. As the American engineer Christopher Dunn has observed, the Pyramid, covering such a large land area, would have acted as an acoustic horn like an old fashioned wind-up gramophone for collecting and replaying what amounts to the heartbeat of the world...

outwash - material carried out from the glacier by melt water + wash out - to obliterate.

engravure - an egraving (identified by John Gordon with a picture of the Battle of Waterloo, with Wellington or Napoleon sitting on a big white horse in front of a battle-scene) + FDV: How charmingly exquisite! It reminds you of the fading engraving engravure that used to be blurring on the blotchwall of his innkempt house. Used they? (I am sure that [tiring] tramp [with the chocolate box [, Miny Mitchel,]] was listening.) I say, the remains of the famous gravemures where used to be blurried the Tollmens of the Incabus. Used he we? (He is only pretending to be sounding his tugging at the box harp from a second tired listener. Fiery Phil Fergus Farrelly) It is well known. Look for himself. See? By the mausoleme mausolime wall. Finnfinn Fimfim Fannfann fimfim. With with a grand funferall. Fumfum fumfum! 

blur - to make blurs in writing; to obscure or sully (what has been fair) by smearing with ink or other colouring liquid

blotch - a large irregular spot or blot of ink, colour, etc. (a blotch of ink on ALP's letter) + back wall.

unkempt = illkempt - neglected, not cared for + ill kept + HCE is the innkeeper and the Mullingar Hotel (now the Mullingar House) is the house. Primary temple of god Atum, in Iunu (Heliopolis) was known by the names Per-Aat (pr-at; "Great House") and Per-Atum (pr-ỉtmw; "Temple [lit. "House"] of Atum"). Text on this picture reads: (‘I)tm nb t3wy nb ‘Iwnw ntr c3 nb t3 dsr: Atum, Lord of the Two Lands, Lord of Iunu, the Great God, Lord of the Sacred Land.

chapel + shoveller - one who walks lazily with, or as if with, a shovel + FDV: I am sure that [tiring] tramp [with the chocolate box [, Miny Mitchell,]] was listening.

mujik - a Russian peasant + music box - a mechanical musical instrument consisting of a revolving toothed cylinder working upon a resonant comb-like metal plate, a barrlel organ + magic box - applied colloq. to various, esp. electronic, devices + magical = magic + Chris Dunn remarked that the stone box in the King's Chamber (erroneously referred to as a "sarcophagus") is today a chocolate brown color, not the original rose color of the Aswan granite it is from.

miry - resembling a mire, stained with mire + mir (Serbian, Russian) - peace + Mary Matchwell/Mary Duncan, a professional con artist and schemer who infiltrates the Nutter household by offering to tell Mrs Nutter's fortune. Mrs Matchwell accuses Nutter of bigamy, having married her long ago; he sets off to attempt to prove that she herself was already married at the time and that her husband is still living. Unfortunately, he ends up in the Park just at the time of Sturk's meeting with Dangerfield, and when he hears the sounds of the attack he runs to the scene; his footprints are thus later found at the scene of the crime and he becomes a suspect. Nutter disappears (after anonymously reporting the crime) and for a long time is assumed to have committed suicide, especially after a body is pulled from the river; but he is eventually discovered and put in jail, pending trial for the attack on Sturk. (Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu: The House by the Churchyard)

Michael the Archangel. Decription of HCE's bedroom at FW 558.35 - FW 559.16 includes the sentence: "Over mantelpiece picture of Michael, lance, slaying Satan, dragon with smoke". Fiery Farrelly is the dragon.

outworn - obliterated by the action of time + FDV: I say, the remains of the famous gravemures where used to be blurried the Tollmens of the Incabus. Used he we?

mure - a wall; mire (a mass of dirt); moor (uncultivated ground covered with heather) + gravure (French) - engraving, illustration.

buried + blurred.

dolmen - a prehistoric megalith typically having two upright stones and a capstone + Ptolemy - 2d-century Alexandrian mathematician, astronomer, geographer. In Geographike syntaxis, he gives an inaccurate description of Ireland, calls Dublin "Eblana," and Howth an island + Ptolemies - a Macedonian dynasty that ruled Egypt from 323 to 30 BC + ptôma (gr) - corpse + tall men (giants, who supposedly inhabited the world in the prehistoric era). 

incubus - a feigned evil spirit or demon (originating in personified representations of the nightmare) supposed to descend upon persons in their sleep, and especially to seek carnal intercourse with women + Incas - a Peruvian people who built up a great empire in Pre-Columbian South America.

pretendent - pretender, claimant, one who lays a claim at something, one who simulates

stug - to stab, pierce + struggling + FDV: (He is only pretending to be sounding his tugging at the box harp from a second tired listener. Fiery Phil Fergus Farrelly)

jubilee - a special anniversary + Jubal and Tubal Cain - Jubal was "father of all such as handle the harp and organ"; Tubal was "instructor of every artificer in brass and iron" (Genesis, 4.) Their brother Jabal was father of those who live in tents and have cattle + In a 1997 video, JJ Hurtak said "this chord (F-sharp) is the harmonic of planet Earth to which native Americans still tune their instruments, and is in perfect harmony with the human body." According to Tom Danley, even the type of stone [in King's Chamber] was selected to enhance these vibrations."

exhausted ("outworn" two lines above)

fiery - burning, blazing, red, full of spirit, emotion, etc. + Feardorcha O'Farrelly - 18th century Irish poet. In Irish, an Fear Dorcha, "the Dark Man", refers to the Devil (dragon with smoke in the picture over the mantelpiece in HCE's bedroom: Shem) + The color change of the sarcophagus in the King's Chamber could be due to tremendous heat, which could indicate it was chemically altered by an explosion or fire in the chamber in antiquity.

lokk - to lock + Loki - Norse god of mischief and evil; in Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen, he appears as Loge, god of fire + FDV: It is well known. Look for himself. See?

butte - an isolated hill with steep sides + old but new + Old Bridge, Butt Bridge, New Bridge - bridges over the River Liffey (first two are in Dublin, third is in Leixlip).

W.K.O.O. - call signs for American radio stations east of the Mississippi generally consist of four letters beginning with "W" + Well-Known Optophone which Ontophanes.

mausoleum - the magnificent tomb of Mausolus + By the Magazine Wall, zinzin, zinzin (motif) + FDV: By the mausoleme mausolime wall.

funfair - a fair which is devoted to amusements + fanfare + The Letter: grand funeral/fun-for-all + FDV: Finnfinn Fimfim Fannfann fimfim. With with a grand funferall. Fumfum fumfum!

fumfum - expressing the sound of a stringed instrument; a thumping or beating

optophone - an instrument by which light variations are converted into sound variations so that blind person is enabled to locate and estimate varying degrees of light

onto- (gr) - being, reality + phaino (gr) - show.

list - listen + Shakespeare, Hamlet 1.5.22: "List, list, O list!" (spoken by the ghost of Hamlet's father to the Prince).

Wheatstone - English physicist, inventor of a lyre-shaped instrument, the acoucrytophone, which picked up vibrations from a piano being played in another room, appearing to play itself; he also invented a mouthorgan and concertina + whitestone.

lyer - liar (Wheatstone's acoucryptophone, which resembled a lyre, only appeared to play itself; 'Fake!' and 'pretendant' are other instances of deception in this section. Miry Mitchel is only pretending to play the Jew's-harp while Fiery Farrelly is the real source of the "music") + magic eye - a miniature cathode-ray tube used as a tuning indicator on a radio receiver, or to indicate the correct adjustment of other electrical equipment. 

tuggle - to struggle, labour, to drag about

foriver (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - forever + struggling for Ivor.

lichen - to cover with or as if with lichens + listening for Olaf.

forover (Danish) - forwards + FDV: They will be tuggling forever. They will be listling forever. They will be pretumbling forever.  

discord - disagreement or want of harmony between two or more musical notes sounded together; dissonance + FDV: The Their harpsichord harpsdischord will be theirs forever. 

ollave - a learned man in ancient Ireland + always + 2 Olafs ("O's") and 2 Ivors ("I's").  

Herodotus - Greek historian of the fifth century b.c. + hereditary + FDV: And four Four things therefore these four, saith Mamalu Mamalujius in his Grand Old Historiorum writ by Boriorum, sall ne'er fail in to Dyfflinarsky till [the] heathersmoke & the cloudweed Eire's isle Sall hide. [And here now they are the four of them four Erins.]  

mammon - wealth, money + Titus Livius - Roman historian, traditionally known as Livy + Mark, Mathew, Luke, John.

historiarum (l) - of histories, of inquiries (used in the Latin titles of historical works, e.g. Historiarum adversum paganos libri VII: 'Seven Books of History Against the Pagans' by Orosius)

Annals of the Four Masters were written in Donegal, which was called Boreum by Ptolemy.

best + blue - depressing, boring; indecent, pornographic + The first edition of James Joyce's Ulysses was published in Paris on 2 February 1922 by Shakespeare and Company. The book had a blue cover with a white title.

baile - dance, a social gathering for dancing + baile (Irish) - town (as in Irish 'Baile Atha Cliath': Dublin).

annals - historical records generally + Annals of the Four Masters.

f.t. (Norwegian) = 'for tiden' - at present + four things (abbreviation by initialising was common in medieval Irish chronicles).

Dyfflinarsky - territory around Norse Dublin 

sall - shall

til - till 

heather - native species of the genus Erica (bot.)

Eire - Ireland isle

ile - isle

pall - to cover with a pall (burial garment in which a corpse is wrapped); something, such as a cloud, that extends over a thing or region and produces an effect of gloom + FDV: sall ne'er fail in to Dyfflinarsky till [the] heathersmoke & the cloudweed Eire's isle Sall hide.

fear (Irish) - man + the four of them (list of the four things that have been predicted to occur by the four historians) + FDV: [And here now they are the four of them four Erins.]

toties (l) - so many times, as many times + teetotum - four-sided disk with letter on each side. In game of chance spun to see which side finished uppermost (originally written as 'T. totum').

unum (l) - one

adar - the 6th month of civil and 12th month of ecclestiastical year in Jewish calendar + Adar = Eadair (Irish) - Howth.

boss - spec. A hump or hunch on the back (obs.) + Ben Bulben - a mountain in County Sligo, Ireland, widely known in the poem Under Ben Bulben by William Butler Yeats; said to be the resting place of Gráinne, the bride of Fionn mac Cumhail, and Diarmuid + burning bush.

surmount - to stand or be placed on top of + FDV: A swellhead swelledhead bulbenhead on surmounting surmounted an alderman. Ay, ay! A shoe on a poor old woman. Ah, ho! An auburn maid, a bridabride, to be deserted. Adear, adear! A pen no weightier than a polepost. And so. And all.

alderman - a noble or person of high rank

ay (dialect) - yes + "Ay, ay" is sigh associated with Matthew Gregory; "Oh dear" is Mark's; "Ah, ho" Luke's; "Ah dearo dear" is John's.

duum (l) - of two

nizam (arab) - order + nisan - 7th month of c. year and 1. of ecc. year (jew.); it is the month that follows Adar (or Adar II in leap years).

puir - poor + Poor Old Woman or Shan Van Vocht - Ireland (poetically) + FDV: A shoe on a poor old woman. Ah, ho! 

trium (l) - of three

tamuz - tenth month of the civil year and the fourth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. It is a summer month of 29 days + Tammuz - Babybonian slain god, called Adonis by Phoenicians. Tammuz is the 6th month in the Babylonian calendar. The Annals, 13-14, are zodiacal (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake).

auburn - of a golden-brown or ruddy-brown colour + Oliver Goldsmith, The Deserted Village: "Sweet Auburn, loveliest village of the plain".

brine - the water of the sea; the sea + O'Brien - the ruling sept of Thomond (now County Clare), which took its name from the High King Brian Boru + Biddy O'Brien - a character in the ballad Finnegan's Wake; she weeps over Tim's corpse, so the brine could allude to her salt tears.

desart = desert - to abandon, forsake + Oliver Goldsmith, The Deserted Village + FDV: An auburn maid, a bridabride, to be deserted. Adear, adear!

quodlibet (l) - as many as one pleases, what you please + quodlibet - 1) a philosophical argument or debate, especially as an exercise; 2) a humorous medley of tunes + quadri- (prefix) - four. 

marcheshvan - second month of the civil year and the eighth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar; an autumn month which occurs in October–November in the Gregorian calendar. The Great Flood, which supposedly wiped out the world, started in Marcheshvan. + Joyce's note, Circe: 'Tamuz (June) Marchesvan (Oct) Adar (Nov) Nizam (Dec)'.

penn - pen (obs.) + Bulwer-Lytton: 'The pen is mightier than the sword' + penna (l) - feather (in the Egyptian Book of the Dead or 'boke of the deeds' two lines below, during the Judgment of the Dead by Osiris, the heart of the deceased (actually "ba", one of the subtle bodies, for which heart is hieroglyphic sign) is weighed in a balance against a feather to see if it is heavy with sin).

succoth = sukkoth - Jewish Harvest Festival, sometimes called the Feast of Tabernacles. It begins on the 15th day of Tishri (roughly late September). The celebration lasts for 7 days, during which the Jews commemorate the wandering in the wilderness + (notebook 1923): 'Succoth (Patrick)' → Flood: Ireland, Its Saints and Scholars 10: 'King Niall of the Nine Hostages went on successive expeditions against the peoples of Gaul and Britain. Amongst the captives... was Succoth, a lad of sixteen... afterwards called Patricius, probably in allusion to his noble birth' + suck at (Ass).

idler - one who is idle

wind turns over pages (notebook 1924) → Schuré: Les Grandes Légendes de France 162: 'a hurricane passed over the book and turned all the pages. It remained open on the XIIth chapter of the Apocalypse'.

innocent + innocens (l) - harmless + Innocent - thirteen popes, one antipope; the most relevant one here is Innocent II, who opposed Anacletus, the antipope, in 1132.

"The Heathen Priests and Philosophers hailed him [Julian the Apostate] the divine Anaclete (the Recalled), the re-ascending Apollo." + Anacletus II - antipope (1130-38) opposed to Innocent II.

popeye - a staring bulging eye + Pope + Popeye - of "Thimble Theatre", American comic strip, a popular version of Sindbad and Ulysses. Other references in FW: 'appop pie' (FW 067), 'popeyed' (FW 189), 'poopive' (FW 282), 'Olive d'Oyly and Winnie Carr', 'D'Oyly Owens' (other characters from the comic, FW 279, FW 574), 'I yam as I yam, I am yam' (his theme song, FW 604, FW 481).

antipope - one claiming to be pope in opposition to the pope chosen + 'Pop' was early name of HCE; so, antipop is HCE's rival.

boke - vomit, belch + "The first version [of the Book of the Dead] was edited by the priests of the college of Annu (Heliopolis), which was based upon a series of texts now lost, but which had passed through a series of revisions or editions as early as the period of the Vth dynasty. This, Heliopolitan version, is known from five copies which are inscribed upon the walls of the chambers and passages in the pyramids of kings of Vth and VIth dynasties at Sakkara... The evidence derived from the enormous mass of new material which we owe to the all-important discoveries of mastaba tombs and pyramids by M. Maspero, and to his publication of the early religious texts, proves beyond all doubt that the greater part of the texts comprised in the Book of the Dead are far older then the period of Mena (Menes), the first historical king of Egypt. Certain sections indeed appear to belong to an indefinitely remote and primeval time. The earliest texts bear within themselves proofs, not only of having been composed, but also of having been revised, or edited, long before the days of king Meni, and judging from many passages in the copies inscribed in hieroglyphics upon the pyramids of Unas (the last king of the Vth dynasty, about B.C. 3333), and Teta, Pepi I, Mer-en-Ra, and Pepi II. (kings of the VIth dynasty, about B.C. 3300-3166), it would seem that, even at that remote date, the scribes were perplexed and hardly understood the texts which they had before them." (Wallis Budge: The Egyptian Book of the Dead)

The Annals of the Four Masters - a collection of annals covering Irish prehistory and history from earliest times to the 17th century; they were compiled in the 17th century by four Irish scholars who are among the principal models for Joyce's Four Old Men; other, even more principal, models for Four Old Men were Joyce's grand aunts.

timed his cycle (notebook 1924)

Irish Grand National - a classic Irish steeplechase horse race, held annually at Fairyhouse, County Meath + The Palermo Stone is a large fragment of a stele known as the Royal Annals of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. It contains records of the kings of Egypt from the first dynasty through the fifth dynasty. The stela is a hieroglyphic list—formatted as a table, or outline, of the kings of ancient Egypt before and after Menes, with regnal years and notations of events up until the time it was created, likely sometime during, or up until, the fifth dynasty since that is when its chronology ends. The text begins by listing several thousands of years of rulers — presumed by many to be mythical — predating the rise of the god Horus, who, according to the text, conferred the kingship on Menes, the first human ruler listed.

fossil - fosil

emmet - A synonym of ant (chiefly dial., but often used poet. or arch.) + Robert Emmet - Irish patriot (1778–1803) who said at his trial, after being sentenced to death for treason: "When my country takes her place among the nations of the earth, then, and not till then, let my epitaph be written. I have done." + FDV: The Annals tell bring how 1132 AC AB Men like gnats to ants wondern all over on a groot Wide Wallfisch that lay in a Runnel.

wandern (ger) - wander

groot - mud, soil, earth + groot (Dutch) - great, large.    

hwide - hide + hvid (Danish) - white + white

whalefish - a whale + whall - wall + fisk (Danish) - fish + Walfisch (ger) - whale + Annals of Dublin record: 'A great famine relieved by a prodigious shoal of fish, called Turlehydes, being cast on shore at the mouth of the Dodder. They were from 30 to 40 feet long, and so thick that men standing on each side of one of them, could not see those on the other. Upwards of 200 of them were killed by the people'.

runnel - a small watercourse or channel; a small stream of water, rivulet

bloody + blub - swollen, puffed + FDV: Bloaty Blubber Blubby wares in upat Eblanium.  

ware - seaweed; esp. large drift seaweed used as manure; A collective term for: Articles of merchandise or manufacture; vessels, etc., made of baked clay.

Eblana - the Latin name appears on Ptolemy's map of Ireland around the North part of what appears to be Dublin Bay. There is no evidence that it refers to an ancient settlement on the site of Dublin, but it has been so often cited as the Latin name of Dublin + Dublinium (l) - Dublin.

Baal - Chief male deity of Phoenicia and Canaan + Beltane (Irish) - ancient Celtic May Day celebration, on which large bonfires were lit on the hills (Irish Bealtaine, etymol. 'Baal's fire') + baal (Danish) - bonfire + FDV: 566 A.C. B.A. On Bell Baalfirenacht Ballfireeve of this year a crone that hadde a wickered kish for to hale dead turves from the bog lookit under the blay of her kish as she ran & found herself full rich sackvulle of swalle swart goody shoon quickenshoon & smalle illigant brogues.  

crone - a withered old woman