riverrun - the course which a river shapes and follows through the landscape + The Letter: Reverend (letter start) + (Egyptian hieroglyphic) = 'rn' or 'ren' - name + Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan: "In Xanadu did Kubla Khan / A stately pleasure-dome decree: / Where Alph, the sacred river, ran / Through caverns measureless to man / Down to a sunless sea." (poem was composed one night after Coleridge experienced an opium influenced dream. Upon waking, he set about writing lines of poetry that came to him from the dream until he was interrupted. The poem could not be completed according to its original 200–300 line plan as the interruption caused him to forget the lines: "though he still retained some vague and dim recollection of the general purport of the vision, yet, with the exception of some eight or ten scattered lines and images, all the rest had passed away like the images on the surface of a stream into which a stone had been cast, but, alas! without the after restoration of the latter").

'Church of the Immaculate Conception', also known as Adam and Eve's, is located on Merchants Quay, Dublin (Franciscans secretly said Mass in the Adam and Eve Tavern, where the popular name of the present church comes from) + "Old as they were, her aunts also did their share. Julia, though she was quite grey, was still the leading soprano in Adam and Eve's, and Kate, being too feeble to go about much, gave music lessons to beginners on the old square piano in the back room." (The Dead); Miss Kate and Miss Julia, based on Joyce's grand aunts, the Misses Flynn who, as their great-nephew put it, 'trilled and warbled in a Dublin church up to the age of seventy'. This was the ancient Franciscan church on the south quays popularly known as Adam and Eve's (from Biography by Peter Costello).  

swerve - an abrupt change of direction, an erratic deflection from an intended course

bend - curve 

bay - a body of water partially enclosed by land but with a wide mouth, affording access to the sea + Dublin Bay.

commodious - roomy and comfortable + Commodus - Roman Emperor from 180 to 192. The son of Marcus Aurelius, he is often considered to have been one of the worst Roman Emperors, and his reign brought to a close the era of the 'five good emperors'. He had a twin brother, Antoninus, who died when he was about four years old, and a sister Lucilla who was implicated in plots to overthrow him.

vicus (l) - village, hamlet; row of houses, quarter of a city + Giambattista Vico + vicious circle - situation in which a cause produces a result that itself produces the original cause "The world of objects and solidity is a way of making our passage on earth convenient. It is only a description that was created to help us. Each of us, or rather our reason, forgets that the description is only a description, and thus we entrap the totality of ourselves in a vicious circle from which we rarely emerge in our lifetime." (Carlos Castaneda: Tales of Power)

recirculation - a renewed or fresh circulation

Howth - promontory and peninsula on the northern side of Dublin bay

environs - surroundings, outskirts + FDV (First Draft Version): brings us to Howth Castle & Environs!

Wsir (Osiris): - first sign, 'throne', usually used for writing the consonant st, mainly in the word 'place', is the sound ws. The 'eye', above, is the sound ir. Third sign denotes 'god' and is not pronounced. Legend of Wsir with its members scattered all over the Egypt (and first page of FW) is alegory of dismembered totality of the self. Diorite statue of Khafre (IV dynasty) depicts king with 'two faces' and not, as popularly accepted, 'God Horus who protects the king'.

Tristram - Tristan of Lyonnesse, hero of medieval romance, nephew of Mark of Cornwall, lover of Isolde of Ireland + Sir Tristrem - metrical romance by Thomas the Rhymer from 13. c. + Howth Castle is the ancestral home of the St Lawrence family, founded by Sir Amory Tristram, one of Ireland's Norman conquerors [Joyce: 'Sir Amory Tristram 1st earl of Howth changed his name to Saint Lawrence, in Brittany (North Armorica)'] + REFERENCE.

violer - a player of the viol, in early use esp. one attached to the household of the king, a noble, etc. + viola d'amore - a sweet-toned tenor viol (Italian, literally 'viol of love') + 'viola in all moods and senses' (Joyce's letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver).

d'amore (it) - of love + d'amores (Portuguese) - of loves + FDV (First Draft Version): Sir Tristram, viola d'amores, had not encore arrived passencore rearrived on a merry isthmus from North Armorica to wielder fight his peninsular war, nor stones sham rocks by the Oconee exaggerated theirselves in exaggerated themselse to Laurens county, Ga, doubling all the time, nor a voice redffire from afire answered bellowsed mishe mishe chishe to tufftuff thouartpatrick thouartpeatrick

A long sea implies an uniform and steady motion of long and extensive waves; on the contrary, a short sea is when they run irregularly, broken, and interrupted, so as frequently to burst over a vessel's side or quarter.

pas encore (fr) - not yet + 'passencore = pas encore and ricorsi storici of Vico' (Joyce's letter to HSW) + The Slavic antithesis is a stylistic device used in Serbian epic poetry: "Oh, dear God! A great Wonder! / Is it thunder, is it the earth quaking? / Is it the sea which clashes 'gainst the coastland? / is it the vilas fighting over Popine? / It isn't thunder, nor is the ground shaking, / nor is the sea clashing against the coast, / nor are the vilas fighting over Popine; / It is the cannons, fired at Zadar."

rearrive - to arrive again + FDV (First Draft Version): had not encore arrived passencore rearrived

Armorica - name of the north-western part of Gaul, now called Bretagne or Brittany + North America.

scraggy - rough, irregular or broken in outline or contour + scrag (Slang) - neck + FDV: on a merry isthmus

isthmus - a narrow portion of land, enclosed on each side by water, and connecting two larger bodies of land; a neck of land + isthmos (gr) - neck + 'Isthmus of Sutton a peck of land between Howth head and the plain' (Joyce's letter to HSW) + happy christmas.

minor - small

wielder - a ruler, governer; one who uses or acts skilfully + wieder (ger) - again + 'wielderfight = wiederfechten = refight' (Joyce's letter to HSW).

Arthur Wellesley (of Dublin) fought in the Peninsular war & Tristan et Iseult, passim (Joyce's letter to HSW) + Peninsular War - military conflict between France and the allied powers of Spain, the United Kingdom, and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars. In August 1808, British forces landed in Portugal under the command of Lieutenant-General Sir Arthur Wellesley, the future Duke of Wellington + penis + isolate + FDV: to wielder fight his peninsular war

top sawyer - a worker at a sawpit who stands above the timber; one who holds a superior position, a first-rate hand at something + Topsawyer's Rock - a rock formation on the Oconee river in Georgia, United States + Joyce's note, Scribbledehobble, Circe section: 'Peter Sawyer' + Tom Soyer

rocks (Slang) - testicles + FDV: nor stones sham rocks by the Oconee exaggerated theirselves in exaggerated themselse to Laurens county, Ga, doubling all the time,

Oconee - river in Georgia. The city of Dublin in Laurens County, Georgia, USA, was built on the banks of Oconee because the Middle Georgia piedmont reminded Irish settlers of terrain in their native country + ochone - exclamation of regret or grief.

exaggerate - to heap up + 'exaggerare = to mound up' (Joyce's letter to HSW).

themselves + 'themselse = another Dublin 5000 inhabitants' (Joyce's letter to HSW) + The Other Self: "Florinda explained that when she or her peers talked about time, they were not referring to something which is measured by the movement of a clock. Time is the essence of attention. The Eagle's emanations are made out of time, and properly, when one enters into any aspect of the other self, one is becoming acquainted with time." (Carlos Castaneda: The Eagle's Gift)

gorgio - designation given by gipsies to one who is not a gipsy (from Gipsy gorgio: a Gentile, a person who is not a Gypsy, one who lives in a house and not in a tent) + (notebook 1922-23): 'gorgios (Gentiles)' Daily Mail 28 Dec 1922, 6/5: 'Gipsies in Winter': 'gipsies of the true caste complained that the "giorgios" or "Gentiles" persisted in classing all kinds of tramps and beggars of the high road as "gipsies".' + Giorgio Joyce (1905-1976) - James Joyce's son + gorge (French) - throat + REFERENCE

Dublin (Geo) (Joyce's note, Scribbledehobble, Circe) Dublin, Georgia - town, Laurens County, Georgia, US, on Oconee River. Joyce explained to HSW that it was founded by a Dubliner named Peter Sawyer (actually it was Jonathan Sawyer), and that its motto was "Doubling all the time" + "As you know, Carlitos," don Genaro said with the air of an orator warming up, "the double begins in dreaming." He gave me a long look and smiled. His eyes swept from my face to my notebook and pencil. "The double is a dream," he said, scratched his arms and then stood up. (Carlos Castaneda: Tales of Power)  

mumper - beggar, a begging impositor; halfbred gipsy (slang) + (notebook 1922-23): 'mumper roadfolk who shelter' Daily Mail 28 Dec 1922, 6/5: 'Gipsies in Winter': 'the Romanichal, the true-bred gipsy, scorns the "mumpers" or road-folk who seek cover at night under house-roof' + number + Dublin: The Emerald City by Scott Thompson p. 7: "During the first decade of the 20th century, Dublin was the third fastest growing city in Georgia. Dublin grew so fast that boosters named it "The only town in Georgia, that's doublin all the time."

afire - flaming, on fire + a voice from afar + "For her domestic economy she [Izolde] cleaned the chimney flue by setting fire to an Irish Times and hooshing it blazing up the flue and she washed the hall by standing leaving her wet umbrella ?sweeping open in a corner." (an early Joyce's vignette)

bellows - to blow (with bellows) + bellow - to call, yell + 'bellowed = the response of the peatfire of faith to the windy words of the apostle' (Joyce's letter to HSW) + Joyce's note, Penelope: 'with bellows blows ashes in fire' + FDV: nor a voice redffire from afire answered bellowsed mishe mishe chishe to tufftuff thouartpatrick thouartpeatrick.

Mishe = I am (Irish) i.e. Christian (Joyce's letter to HSW) + mische (ger) - mix + Moshe (Hebrew) - Moses + Exodus 3:2: 'the bush burned with fire... God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I.'

mish, mi (Serbian, Russian) - mouse + Maurice [mouse] Behan [Bear, Typhon], man servant, slaying a dragon ("Over mantelpiece picture of Michael, lance, slaying Satan, dragon with smoke") + Typhon is Black Dragon [Black Snake], constellation of Great Bear; Draco is Red Dragon [Red Snake], constellation of Orion.

Tauf = baptize (German) (Joyce's letter to HSW) + Butt/Taff (Muladhara/Sahasrara) + Paul + "mishe mishe to tauftauf" is reminiscent of a walky-talky message, in which the operator identifies himself as well as the receiever so as to clarify the intention of a transmission in a crowded channel; it as though Issy and HCE are communicating with one another via the chimney flue.

In Greek petros, "Peter", is a masculine form of petra, which means "rock"; Jesus says: "Thou art Peter (petros), and upon this rock (petra) I will build my church → 'Thou art Peter and upon this rock etc (a pun in the original Aramaic)' & 'Lat: Tu es Petrus et super hane petram' (Joyce's letter to HSW) + "There's the tenant," he said as casually as if he had just spotted an old friend. (Carlos Castaneda: The Art Of Dreaming) WOMAN IN THE CHURCH

venison - any beast of chase or other wild animal killed by hunting + very soon + 'The venison purveyor Jacob got the blessing meant for Esau' (Joyce's letter to HSW).

scad - a dollar + cad + cadet - younger son (as Jacob was) + kidskin (which Jacob used to disguise himself) → "And Rebekah took goodly raiment of her eldest son Esau, which were with her in the house, and put them upon Jacob her younger son: and she put the skins of the kids of the goats upon his hands, and upon the smooth of his neck" + FDV: Not yet though venisoon after had a kidson kidscadet buttended an a bland old isaac not yet & all's fair in vanessy, had twin were sosie sesthers played siege to wroth with twone Jonathan jonathan.

buttend - to use the butt end (e.g. of a gun) + butt (Colloquial) - buttock + Butt/Taff + 'Parnell ousted Isaac Butt from leadership' (Joyce's letter to HSW).

bland - suave, dull, uninteresting + blind

Isaac - Isaac ben Abraham (known as Isaac the blind) + Joyce's note, Scribbledehobble, Circe: 'Isaac Butt' + Isaac Bickerstaff - pseudonym used by Jonathan Swift + REFERENCE

Thackery: Vanity Fair + all is fair in love and war (proverb) + Ecclesiastes 1.2: "Vanity of vanities, says the Preacher, all is vanity" + Vanessa - Jonathan Swift's name for Hester Vanhomrigh, one of his two mistresses + FDV: not yet & all's fair in vanessy,

sosie - double, twin esp. an identical twin + Joyce's note, Scribbledehobble, Circe section: 'Sosie Sizters' + saucy sisters + 'Sosie = double' (Joyce's letter to HSW) + FDV: had twin were sosie sesthers played siege to wroth with twone Jonathan jonathan.

sisters + Esther Van Homrigh (Vanessa) was the daughter of Bartholomew Van Homrigh (former Lord Mayor of Dublin), who had a love affair with Jonathan Swift and, when she found that 'The Reverend' was also playing with Esther Johnson (Stella), wrote to the latter to try to put her away from Swift who, in reaction, left Vanessa + 'Miss Vanhomrigh and Miss Johnson had the same christian name' (Joyce's letter to HSW).

wroth - to manifest anger, to become angry + "And Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell." (Genesis 4:6) + Roth, Samuel - piratically published some of "Work in Progress" in Two Worlds (New York, 1925-26), and in 1926-27 published more than half of Ulysses

twenty nine (a number associated with Issy, the 'leap-year girl') + Joyce's note, Scribbledehobble, Circe: 'Swift, Isaac' a two-in-one Jonathan Swift, "nathandjoe," and his amours with two girls, Esther Johnson (Stella) and Esther Van Homrigh (Vanessa) + nat (Dutch) - wet + FDV: played siege to wroth with twone Jonathan jonathan.

rot - to decompose + rota (l) - wheel + FDV: Not Rot a peck of pa's malt had Shem and Son Hem or Sen Jhem or Sen brewed by arclight & bad luck worse end bloody end rory end to the regginbrew regginbrow was to be seen on ringsun ringsome the waterface.   

peck - a liquid measure of two gallons; a considerable quantity or number, a 'quantity'

shen (Hebrew) - tooth + that Jim and John + that Shem and Shaun + FDV: had Shem and Son Hem or Sen Jhem or Sen brewed by arclight 

malt - barley or other grain prepared for brewing or distilling

brew - to concoct, to convert (barley, malt, or other substance) into a fermented liquor

arclight = arclamp - a lamp in which the light is produced by an electric arc.

rory - dewy, gaudy in colour; Joyce glosses the word (Letters, I, 248) thus: "rory = Irish = red"/ "rory = Latin, roridus = dewy"/ "At the rainbow's end are dew and the colour red: bloody end to the lie in Anglo-Irish = no lie." + FDV: & bad luck worse end bloody end rory end to the regginbrew regginbrow

regina (l) - a queen + Regen (ger) - rain + Joyce's note, Scribbledehobble, Circe: 'Guiness (Noah), rainbow' + Regenbogen (ger) - rainbow → 'regginbrow = German regenbogen + rainbow; At the rainbow's end are dew and the colour red: bloody end to the lie in Anglo-Irish = no lie; When all vegetation is covered by the flood there are no eyebrows on the face of the Waterworld' (Joyce's letter to HSW).

ringsum (ger) - all around + 'ringsome = German ringsum, around' (Joyce's letter to HSW) + FDV: regginbrew regginbrow was to be seen on ringsun ringsome the waterface.

aqua (l) - water + Genesis 1:2: 'And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters' + (Osiris' body was torn up into fourteen parts) + Genesis 9:12-17: "And God said, This [is] the token of the covenant which I make between me and you and every living creature that [is] with you, for perpetual generations: I do set my bow in the cloud, and it shall be for a token of a covenant between me and the earth. And it shall come to pass, when I bring a cloud over the earth, that the bow shall be seen in the cloud. And I will remember my covenant, which [is] between me and you and every living creature of all flesh; and the waters shall no more become a flood to destroy all flesh. And the bow shall be in the cloud; and I will look upon it, that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature of all flesh that [is] upon the earth. And God said unto Noah, This [is] the token of the covenant, which I have established between me and all flesh that [is] upon the earth."

FDV: The story tale of the fall is retailed early in bed and later in life throughout most christian minstrelsy. The great fall of the wall at once entailed at such short notice the fall of Finnigan, the solid man and that the humpty hill hillhead himself promptly prumptly sends an inquiring unquiring one well to the west in quest of his tumptytumtoes.

gaireachtach (garokhtokh) (gael) - boisterous + gargarahat, karak (Hindustani) - thunder + Joyce's note, Scribbledehobble, Circe: 'clap, Finnegan'.

"Joyce asked me 'Aren't there 4 terrible things in Japan, "Kaminari" being one of them?' I counted for him: 'Jishin (earthquake), kaminari (thunder), kaji (fire), oyaji (paternity).' & he laughed." (Takaoki Katta, "15 juillet, 1926.")

ukkonen (Finnish) - thunder

brontę (gr) - thunder

Donner (ger) = tonnerre (French) - thunder

tuono (Italian) - thunder

thunner (Dialect) - thunder

trovăo (Portuguese) - thunder

Varuna - Hindu creator and storm god 

åska (Swedish) - thunder.

torden (Danish) - thunder

tornach (tornokh) (gael) - thunder

Wallstreet - New York stock exchange (Wall Street Crash of 1929, but this sentence already appears in Transition #1, published in 1927) + strait - difficulty, crisis.

Parr, Thomas, "Old Parr" (1483-1635), lived in the reigns of ten princes, got a girl with child when over a hundred + parr - a young salmon before it becomes a smolt.

retell - to tell again + re- - 'again, 'anew' + tale - to discourse, talk, gossip.

minstrelsy - the singing and playing of a minstrel + Christy Minstrels - black face troop which came from America to London in 1857. Moore and Burgess were their rivals. 

oeuf (French) - egg → (eggshell is being broken, as Anna Livia makes breakfast for Earwicker, which is sequel of Ulysses where Bloom demanded breakfast in bad from Molly at the end of the novel. Earwicker, who is waking, identifies himself with egg, experiences fall, and instead of triumph, that act ends with disaster. Anna Livia and Earwicker will solve this conundrum only in sequel of FW, after the 'the' at the end; that sequel is scattered all over FW as parts of broken shell which finished in midden heap, itself a FW, where they are to be found by hen Biddy) + 'Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall, Humpty Dumpty had a great fall' + FDV: The great fall of the wall

entail - to bring on by way of necessary consequence

at short notice - with little time for action or preparation

pfui - an exclamation of contempt or disgust + chute (fr) - fall + "that fatal midden or chip factory or comicalbottomed copsjute (dump for short) afterwards changed into the orangery when in the course of deeper demolition unexpectedly one bushman's holiday its limon threw up a few spontaneous fragments of orangepeel," [110.25-29] + FDV: at once entailed at such short notice the fall of Finnigan,

Tim Finnegan - the Dublin hod-carrier who fell drunk from his ladder and apparently died in the popular Irish-American street ballad from the 1850s Finnegan's Wake. At his wake, a bottle of whiskey broke on his coffin and he "came back to life". Much of the text of the ballad is echoed in the first chapter of FW.

Erse - Irish + Erseman - a man who is Erse by birth or descent + else.

solid - acting together as a single undiversified whole; having high moral qualities; entirely of a single color throughout

humpty - humped, hump-backed + Humpty Dumpty - A short, dumpy, hump-shouldered person. In the well-known nursery rime or riddle commonly explained as signifying an egg (in reference to its shape); thence allusively used of persons or things which when once overthrown or shattered cannot be restored. (In the nursery rime or riddle there are numerous variations of the last two lines, e.g. 'Not all the king's horses and all the king's men Could [can] set [put] Humpty Dumpty up again [in his place again, together again]'.)

promptly + "...bed is almost entirely obscure to the formerly solid ("erst solid"), once upright ("once wallstrait") Irishman ("erse... man") who is laid to rest in it ("laid to rust") and who, no longer either solid or upright, seems to have sustained very serious fall ("The Fall," "the great fall," "the pftjschute [Fr. chute, "fall"]). Perhaps only a minute ago our rubbled hero could have identified his head and feet with as much proud precision as any wakeful rationalist, and in several languages too. Now he hasn't vaguest awareness of their location, of their relation either to each other or to himself, or quite fully of their existence; the paragraph resolves as a muddily blurred "humptyhihllhead" sends sensory inquiries outward in space in quest of the toes to which it is presumably attached." (John Bishop: Joyce's Book of the Dark).

inquiring - that inquires, inquisitive + FDV: the solid man and that the humpty hill hillhead himself promptly prumptly sends an inquiring unquiring one well to the west in quest of his tumptytumtoes.

quest - search + Dr. Heinrich Schliemann: 'I found in the Museum at St. Petersburg one of the oldest papyrus rolls in existence. It was written in the reign of Pharaoh Sent [Pharaoh Sendji (Sened) name appears in the Abydos kings list, the Saqqara Kings List, the Turin list], of the Second Dynasty, or 4,571 years B. C. It contains a description of how the Pharaoh sent out an expedition 'to the West' in search of traces of the 'Land of Atlantis,' whence '3,350 years ago the ancestors of the Egyptians arrived carrying with themselves all the wisdoms of their native lands.' The expedition returned after five years with the report that they had found neither people nor objects which could give them a clue as to the vanished land.'

Khenti-Amentiu means 'Foremost of the Westerners' or 'Chief or the Westerners', where 'Westerners' refers to the dead. As early as the Old Kingdom, Khenti-Amentiu is associated with Wesir (Osiris).

turnpike - a barrier placed across a road to stop passage till the toll is paid + turn up one's toes - to die + pike - medieval weapon consisting of a spearhead attached to a long pole or pikestaff + TURNPIKE - The Dublin turnpike system was introduced in the reign of George II. An 1821 map shows 10 Dublin turnpikes, almost all located on the North Circular Road and South Cicrcular Road at the crossing of main roads. The turnpike in Chapelizod was just East of the Phoenix Tavern (where the Mullingar House now stands) at the curve of the Dublin road to the bridge. It is described on the 1st page of Le Fanu's House by the Churchyard. The Dublin-Mullingar road was a turnpike road until 1853. 

palac (Serbian) - toe + HCE's five toes: up, turn, pike, point, place + FDV: Two facts have come down to us Their resting The upturnpikepoint for place is at the knock out in the park where there have always been oranges on laid on the green always & ever ever & evermore since the Devlin Devlins first loved liffey livy.

cnoc (knuk) (gael) - hill + Castleknock, in a cemetery west of Phoenix Park. Castleknock Hill and Windmill Hill (now Mount Hybla) are identified with Finn MacCool's (and HCE's) two feet + knock out - a knock-out blow.

rust - decompose + lay to rest - to put in the last resting-place, to bury + rust (Dutch) - rest + FDV: where there have always been oranges on laid on the green always & ever ever & evermore since the Devlin Devlins first loved liffey livy.

Liffey - river which flows through the centre of Dublin + ALP.