James Joyce

Book I
chapter 2
30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42
43 44 45 46 47                


    Now (to forebare for ever solittle of Iris Trees and Lili O'Ran-
gans), concerning the genesis of Harold or Humphrey Chimp-
den's occupational agnomen (we are back in the presurnames
prodromarith period, of course just when enos chalked halltraps)
and discarding once for all those theories from older sources which
would link him back with such pivotal ancestors as the Glues, the
Gravys, the Northeasts, the Ankers and the Earwickers of Sidles-
ham in the Hundred of Manhood or proclaim him offsprout of
vikings who had founded wapentake and seddled hem in Herrick
or Eric, the best authenticated version, the Dumlat, read the
Reading of Hofed-ben-Edar, has it that it was this way. We are
told how in the beginning it came to pass that like cabbaging
Cincinnatus the grand old gardener was saving daylight under his
redwoodtree one sultry sabbath afternoon, Hag Chivychas Eve,
in prefall paradise peace by following his plough for rootles in the
rere garden of mobhouse, ye olde marine hotel, when royalty was
announced by runner to have been pleased to have halted itself on
the highroad along which a leisureloving dogfox had cast fol-
lowed, also at walking pace, by a lady pack of cocker spaniels. For-
getful of all save his vassal's plain fealty to the ethnarch Humphrey
or Harold stayed not to yoke or saddle but stumbled out hotface
as he was (his sweatful bandanna loose from his pocketcoat) hast-
ing to the forecourts of his public in topee, surcingle, solascarf and
plaid, plus fours, puttees and bulldog boots ruddled cinnabar with

flagrant marl, jingling his turnpike keys and bearing aloft amid
the fixed pikes of the hunting party a high perch atop of which a
flowerpot was fixed earthside hoist with care. On his majesty, who
was, or often feigned to be, noticeably longsighted from green
youth and had been meaning to inquire what, in effect, had caused
yon causeway to be thus potholed, asking substitutionally to be
put wise as to whether paternoster and silver doctors were not
now more fancied bait for lobstertrapping honest blunt Harom-
phreyld answered in no uncertain tones very similarly with a fear-
less forehead: Naw, yer maggers, aw war jist a cotchin on thon
bluggy earwuggers. Our sailor king, who was draining a gugglet
of obvious adamale, gift both and gorban, upon this, ceasing to
swallow, smiled most heartily beneath his walrus moustaches and
indulging that none too genial humour which William the Conk
on the spindle side had inherited with the hereditary whitelock
and some shortfingeredness from his greataunt Sophy, turned to-
wards two of his retinue of gallowglasses, Michael, etheling lord
of Leix and Offaly and the jubilee mayor of Drogheda, Elcock,
(the two scatterguns being Michael M. Manning, protosyndic of
Waterford and an Italian excellency named Giubilei according to
a later version cited by the learned scholarch Canavan of Can-
makenoise), in either case a triptychal religious family symbolising
puritas of doctrina, business per usuals and the purchypatch of
hamlock where the paddish preties grow and remarked dilsydul-
sily: Holybones of Saint Hubert how our red brother of Pour-
ingrainia would audibly fume did he know that we have for sur-
trusty bailiwick a turnpiker who is by turns a pikebailer no sel-
domer than an earwigger! For he kinned Jom Pill with his court
so gray and his haunts in his house in the mourning. (One still
hears that pebble crusted laughta, japijap cheerycherrily, among
the roadside tree the lady Holmpatrick planted and still one feels
the amossive silence of the cladstone allegibelling: Ive mies outs
ide Bourn.) Comes the question are these the facts of his nom-
inigentilisation as recorded and accolated in both or either of the
collateral andrewpaulmurphyc narratives. Are those their fata
which we read in sibylline between the fas and its nefas? No dung

on the road? And shall Nohomiah be our place like? Yea, Mulachy
our kingable khan? We shall perhaps not so soon see. Pinck
poncks that bail for seeks alicence where cumsceptres with scen-
taurs stay. Bear in mind, son of Hokmah, if so be you have me-
theg in your midness, this man is mountain and unto changeth
doth one ascend. Heave we aside the fallacy, as punical as finikin,
that it was not the king kingself but his inseparable sisters, un-
controllable nighttalkers, Skertsiraizde with Donyahzade, who
afterwards, when the robberers shot up the socialights, came down
into the world as amusers and were staged by Madame Sudlow
as Rosa and Lily Miskinguette in the pantalime that two pitts
paythronosed, Miliodorus and Galathee. The great fact emerges
that after that historic date all holographs so far exhumed ini-
tialled by Haromphrey bear the sigla H.C.E. and while he was
only and long and always good Dook Umphrey for the hunger-
lean spalpeens of Lucalizod and Chimbers to his cronies it was
equally certainly a pleasant turn of the populace which gave him
as sense of those normative letters the nickname Here Comes
Everybody. An imposing everybody he always indeed looked,
constantly the same as and equal to himself and magnificently well
worthy of any and all such universalisation, every time he con-
tinually surveyed, amid vociferatings from in front of Accept these
few nutties!
and Take off that white hat!, relieved with Stop his Grog
and Put It in the Log and Loots in his (bassvoco) Boots, from good
start to happy finish the truly catholic assemblage gathered together
in that king's treat house of satin alustrelike above floats and foot-
lights from their assbawlveldts and oxgangs unanimously to clap-
plaud (the inspiration of his lifetime and the hits of their careers)
Mr Wallenstein Washington Semperkelly's immergreen tourers
in a command performance by special request with the courteous
permission for pious purposes the homedromed and enliventh
performance of problem passion play of the millentury, running
strong since creation, A Royal Divorce, then near the approach
towards the summit of its climax, with ambitious interval band
selections from The Bo' Girl and The Lily on all horserie show
command nights from his viceregal booth (his bossaloner is ceil-

inged there a cuckoospit less eminent than the redritualhoods of
Maccabe and Cullen) where, a veritable Napoleon the Nth, our
worldstage's practical jokepiece and retired cecelticocommediant
in his own wise, this folksforefather all of the time sat, having the
entirety of his house about him, with the invariable broadstretched
kerchief cooling his whole neck, nape and shoulderblades and in
a wardrobe panelled tuxedo completely thrown back from a shirt
well entitled a swallowall, on every point far outstarching the
laundered clawhammers and marbletopped highboys of the pit
stalls and early amphitheatre. The piece was this: look at the lamps.
The cast was thus: see under the clock. Ladies circle: cloaks may
be left. Pit, prommer and parterre, standing room only. Habituels
conspicuously emergent.
    A baser meaning has been read into these characters the literal
sense of which decency can safely scarcely hint. It has been blur-
tingly bruited by certain wisecrackers (the stinks of Mohorat are
in the nightplots of the morning), that he suffered from a vile
disease. Athma, unmanner them! To such a suggestion the one
selfrespecting answer is to affirm that there are certain statements
which ought not to be, and one should like to hope to be able to
add, ought not to be allowed to be made. Nor have his detractors,
who, an imperfectly warmblooded race, apparently conceive him
as a great white caterpillar capable of any and every enormity in
the calendar recorded to the discredit of the Juke and Kellikek
families, mended their case by insinuating that, alternately, he lay
at one time under the ludicrous imputation of annoying Welsh
fusiliers in the people's park. Hay, hay, hay! Hoq, hoq, hoq!
Faun and Flora on the lea love that little old joq. To anyone who
knew and loved the christlikeness of the big cleanminded giant
H. C. Earwicker throughout his excellency long vicefreegal exis-
tence the mere suggestion of him as a lustsleuth nosing for trou-
ble in a boobytrap rings particularly preposterous. Truth, beard
on prophet, compels one to add that there is said to have been
quondam (pfuit! pfuit!) some case of the kind implicating, it is
interdum believed, a quidam (if he did not exist it would be ne-
cessary quoniam to invent him) abhout that time stambuling ha-

round Dumbaling in leaky sneakers with his tarrk record who
has remained topantically anonymos but (let us hue him Abdul-
lah Gamellaxarksky) was, it is stated, posted at Mallon's at the
instance of watch warriors of the vigilance committee and years
afterwards, cries one even greater, Ibid, a commender of the
frightful, seemingly, unto such as were sulhan sated, tropped head
(pfiat! pfiat!) waiting his first of the month froods turn for
thatt chopp pah kabbakks alicubi on the old house for the charge-
hard, Roche Haddocks off Hawkins Street. Lowe, you blondy
liar, Gob scene you in the narked place and she what's edith ar
home defileth these boyles! There's a cabful of bash indeed in
the homeur of that meal. Slander, let it lie its flattest, has never
been able to convict our good and great and no ordinary Southron
Earwicker, that homogenius man, as a pious author called him, of
any graver impropriety than that, advanced by some woodwards
or regarders, who did not dare deny, the shomers, that they had,
chin Ted, chin Tam, chinchin Taffyd, that day consumed their
soul of the corn, of having behaved with ongentilmensky im-
modus opposite a pair of dainty maidservants in the swoolth of
the rushy hollow whither, or so the two gown and pinners plead-
ed, dame nature in all innocency had spontaneously and about the
same hour of the eventide sent them both but whose published
combinations of silkinlaine testimonies are, where not dubiously
pure, visibly divergent, as wapt from wept, on minor points touch-
ing the intimate nature of this, a first offence in vert or venison
which was admittedly an incautious but, at its wildest, a partial ex-
posure with such attenuating circumstances (garthen gaddeth green
hwere sokeman brideth girling) as an abnormal Saint Swithin's
summer and, (Jesses Rosasharon!) a ripe occasion to provoke it.
    We can't do without them. Wives, rush to the restyours! Of-
man will toman while led is the lol. Zessid's our kadem, villa-
pleach, vollapluck. Fikup, for flesh nelly, el mundo nov, zole flen!
If she's a lilyth, pull early! Pauline, allow! And malers abushed,
keep black, keep black! Guiltless of much laid to him he was
clearly for once at least he clearly expressed himself as being with
still a trace of his erstwhile burr and hence it has been received of

us that it is true. They tell the story (an amalgam as absorbing as
calzium chloereydes and hydrophobe sponges could make it) how
one happygogusty Ides-of-April morning (the anniversary, as it
fell out, of his first assumption of his mirthday suit and rights in
appurtenance to the confusioning of human races) ages and ages
after the alleged misdemeanour when the tried friend of all crea-
tion, tigerwood roadstaff to his stay, was billowing across the
wide expanse of our greatest park in his caoutchouc kepi and
great belt and hideinsacks and his blaufunx fustian and ironsides
jackboots and Bhagafat gaiters and his rubberised inverness, he
met a cad with a pipe. The latter, the luciferant not the oriuolate
(who, the odds are, is still berting dagabout in the same straw
bamer, carryin his overgoat under his schulder, sheepside out, so
as to look more like a coumfry gentleman and signing the pledge
as gaily as you please) hardily accosted him with: Guinness thaw
tool in jew me dinner ouzel fin? (a nice how-do-you-do in Pool-
black at the time as some of our olddaisers may still tremblingly
recall) to ask could he tell him how much a clock it was that the
clock struck had he any idea by cock's luck as his watch was
bradys. Hesitency was clearly to be evitated. Execration as cleverly
to be honnisoid. The Earwicker of that spurring instant, realising
on fundamental liberal principles the supreme importance, nexally
and noxally, of physical life (the nearest help relay being pingping
K. O. Sempatrick's Day and the fenian rising) and unwishful as
he felt of being hurled into eternity right then, plugged by a soft-
nosed bullet from the sap, halted, quick on the draw, and reply-
in that he was feelin tipstaff, cue, prodooced from his gunpocket
his Jurgensen's shrapnel waterbury, ours by communionism, his
by usucapture, but, on the same stroke, hearing above the skirl-
ing of harsh Mother East old Fox Goodman, the bellmaster, over
the wastes to south, at work upon the ten ton tonuant thunder-
ous tenor toller in the speckled church (Couhounin's call!) told
the inquiring kidder, by Jehova, it was twelve of em sidereal and
tankard time, adding, buttall, as he bended deeply with smoked
sardinish breath to give more pondus to the copperstick he pre-
sented (though this seems in some cumfusium with the chap-

stuck ginger which, as being of sours, acids, salts, sweets and
bitters compompounded, we know him to have used as chaw-
chaw for bone, muscle, blood, flesh and vimvital,) that where-
as the hakusay accusation againstm had been made, what was
known in high quarters as was stood stated in Morganspost, by
a creature in youman form who was quite beneath parr and seve-
ral degrees lower than yore triplehydrad snake. In greater sup-
port of his word (it, quaint anticipation of a famous phrase, has
been reconstricted out of oral style into the verbal for all time
with ritual rhythmics, in quiritary quietude, and toosammen-
stucked from successive accounts by Noah Webster in the re-
daction known as the Sayings Attributive of H. C. Earwicker,
prize on schillings, postlots free), the flaxen Gygas tapped his
chronometrum drumdrum and, now standing full erect, above
the ambijacent floodplain, scene of its happening, with one Ber-
lin gauntlet chopstuck in the hough of his ellboge (by ancientest
signlore his gesture meaning: !) pointed at an angle of thirty-
two degrees towards his duc de Fer's overgrown milestone as
fellow to his gage and after a rendypresent pause averred with
solemn emotion's fire: Shsh shake, co-comeraid! Me only, them
five ones, he is equal combat. I have won straight. Hence my
nonation wide hotel and creamery establishments which for the
honours of our mewmew mutual daughters, credit me, I am woo-
woo willing to take my stand, sir, upon the monument, that sign
of our ruru redemption, any hygienic day to this hour and to
make my hoath to my sinnfinners, even if I get life for it, upon
the Open Bible and before the Great Taskmaster's (I lift my hat!)
and in the presence of the Deity Itself andwell of Bishop and
Mrs Michan of High Church of England as of all such of said
my immediate withdwellers and of every living sohole in every
corner wheresoever of this globe in general which useth of my
British to my backbone tongue and commutative justice that
there is not one tittle of truth, allow me to tell you, in that purest
of fibfib fabrications.
    Gaping Gill, swift to mate errthors, stern to checkself, (diag-
nosing through eustacetube that it was to make with a markedly

postpuberal hypertituitary type of Heidelberg mannleich cavern
ethics) lufted his slopingforward, bad Sweatagore good mur-
rough and dublnotch on to it as he was greedly obliged, and
like a sensible ham, with infinite tact in the delicate situation seen
the touchy nature of its perilous theme, thanked um for guilders
received and time of day (not a little token abock all the same that
that was owl the God's clock it was) and, upon humble duty to
greet his Tyskminister and he shall gildthegap Gaper and thee his
a mouldy voids, went about his business, whoever it was, saluting
corpses, as a metter of corse (one could hound him out had one
hart to for the monticules of scalp and dandruff droppings blaze
his trail) accompanied by his trusty snorler and his permanent 
reflection, verbigracious; I have met with you, bird, too late,
or if not, too worm and early: and with tag for ildiot repeated
in his secondmouth language as many of the bigtimer's verbaten
words which he could balbly call to memory that same kveldeve,
ere the hour of the twattering of bards in the twitterlitter between
Druidia and the Deepsleep Sea, when suppertide and souvenir to
Charlatan Mall jointly kem gently and along the quiet darkenings
of Grand and Royal, ff, flitmansfluh, and, kk, 't crept i' hedge
whenas to many a softongue's pawkytalk mude unswer u sufter
poghyogh, Arvanda always aquiassent, while, studying castelles
in the blowne and studding cowshots over the noran, he spat in
careful convertedness a musaic dispensation about his hearthstone,
if you please, (Irish saliva, mawshe dho hole, but would a respect-
able prominently connected fellow of Iro-European ascendances
with welldressed ideas who knew the correct thing such as Mr
Shallwesigh or Mr Shallwelaugh expectorate after such a callous
fashion, no thank yous! when he had his belcher spuckertuck in his
pucket, pthuck?) musefed with his thockits after having supped
of the dish sot and pottage which he snobbishly dabbed Peach
Bombay (it is rawly only Lukanpukan pilzenpie which she knows
which senaffed and pibered him), a supreme of excelling peas,
balled under minnshogue's milk into whitemalt winesour, a pro-
viant the littlebilker hoarsely relished, chaff it, in the snevel season,
being as fain o't as your rat wi'fennel; and on this celebrating

occasion of the happy escape, for a crowning of pot valiance,
this regional platter, benjamin of bouillis, with a spolish olive to
middlepoint its zaynith, was marrying itself (porkograso!) ere-
busqued very deluxiously with a bottle of Phenice-Bruerie '98,
followed for second nuptials by a Piessporter, Grand Cur, of
both of which cherished tablelights (though humble the bounquet
'tis a leaman's farewell) he obdurately sniffed the cobwebcrusted
    Our cad's bit of strife (knee Bareniece Maxwelton) with a quick
ear for spittoons (as the aftertale hath it) glaned up as usual with
dumbestic husbandry (no persicks and armelians for thee, Pome-
ranzia!) but, slipping the clav in her claw, broke of the matter
among a hundred and eleven others in her usual curtsey (how
faint these first vhespers womanly are, a secret pispigliando, amad
the lavurdy den of their manfolker!) the next night nudge one
as was Hegesippus over a hup a ' chee, her eys dry and small and
speech thicklish because he appeared a funny colour like he
couldn't stood they old hens no longer, to her particular reverend,
the director, whom she had been meaning in her mind primarily
to speak with (hosch, intra! jist a timblespoon!) trusting, between
cuppled lips and annie lawrie promises (mighshe never have
Esnekerry pudden come Hunanov for her pecklapitschens!) that
the gossiple so delivered in his epistolear, buried teatoastally in
their Irish stew would go no further than his jesuit's cloth, yet
(in vinars venitas! volatiles valetotum!) it was this overspoiled
priest Mr Browne, disguised as a vincentian, who, when seized
of the facts, was overheard, in his secondary personality as a
Nolan and underreared, poul soul, by accident — if, that is, the
incident it was an accident for here the ruah of Ecclectiastes
of Hippo outpuffs the writress of Havvah-ban-Annah
pianissime a slightly varied version of Crookedribs confidentials,
(what Mere Aloyse said but for Jesuphine's sake!) hands between
hahands, in fealty sworn (my bravor best! my fraur!) and, to the
strains of The Secret of Her Birth, hushly pierce the rubiend
aurellum of one Philly Thurnston, a layteacher of rural science
and orthophonethics of a nearstout figure and about the middle

of his forties during a priestly flutter for safe and sane bets at the
hippic runfields of breezy Baldoyle on a date (W. W. goes
through the card) easily capable of rememberance by all pickers-
up of events national and Dublin details, the doubles of Perkin
and Paullock, peer and prole, when the classic Encourage Hackney
Plate was captured by two noses in a stablecloth finish, ek and nek,
some and none, evelo nevelo, from the cream colt Bold Boy
Cromwell after a clever getaway by Captain Chaplain Blount's
roe hinny Saint Dalough, Drummer Coxon, nondepict third, at
breakneck odds, thanks to you great little, bonny little, portey
little, Winny Widger! you're all their nappies! who in his never-
rip mud and purpular cap was surely leagues unlike any other
phantomweight that ever toppitt our timber maggies.
    'Twas two pisononse Timcoves (the wetter is pest, the renns are
overt and come and the voax of the turfur is hurled on our lande)
of the name of Treacle Tom as was just out of pop following the
theft of a leg of Kehoe, Donnelly and Packenham's Finnish pork
and his own blood and milk brother Frisky Shorty, (he was, to be
exquisitely punctilious about them, both shorty and frisky) a tip-
ster, come off the hulks, both of them awful poor, what was out
on the bumaround for an oofbird game for a jimmy o'goblin or
a small thick un as chanced, while the Seaforths was making the
colleenbawl, to ear the passon in the motor clobber make use of
his law language (Edzo, Edzo on), touchin the case of Mr Adams
what was in all the sundays about it which he was rubbing noses
with and having a gurgle off his own along of the butty bloke in
the specs.
    This Treacle Tom to whom reference has been made had
been absent from his usual wild and woolly haunts in the land
of counties capalleens for some time previous to that (he was, in
fact, in the habit of frequenting common lodginghouses where
he slept in a nude state, hailfellow with meth, in strange men's
cots) but on racenight, blotto after divers tots of hell fire, red
biddy, bull dog, blue ruin and creeping jenny, Eglandine's choic-
est herbage, supplied by the Duck and Doggies, the Galop-
ping Primrose, Brigid Brewster's, the Cock, the Postboy's Horn,

the Little Old Man's and All Swell That Aimswell, the Cup and
the Stirrup, he sought his wellwarmed leababobed in a hous-
ingroom Abide With Oneanother at Block W.W., (why didn't
he back it?) Pump Court, The Liberties, and, what with
moltapuke on voltapuke, resnored alcoh alcoho alcoherently to
the burden of I come, my horse delayed, nom num, the sub-
stance of the tale of the evangelical bussybozzy and the rusinur-
bean (the 'girls' he would keep calling them for the collarette
and skirt, the sunbonnet and carnation) in parts (it seemed he
was before the eyots of martas or otherwales the thirds of fossil-
years, he having beham with katya when lavinias had her mens
lease to sea in a psumpship doodly show whereat he was looking
for fight niggers with whilde roarses) oft in the chilly night (the
metagonistic! the epickthalamorous!) during uneasy slumber in
their hearings of a small and stonybroke cashdraper's executive,
Peter Cloran (discharged), O'Mara, an exprivate secretary of no
fixed abode (locally known as Mildew Lisa), who had passed
several nights, funnish enough, in a doorway under the blankets
of homelessness on the bunk of iceland, pillowed upon the stone
of destiny colder than man's knee or woman's breast, and
Hosty, (no slouch of a name), an illstarred beachbusker, who,
sans rootie and sans scrapie, suspicioning as how he was setting
on a twoodstool on the verge of selfabyss, most starved, with
melancholia over everything in general, (night birman, you served
him with natigal's nano!) had been towhead tossing on his shake-
down, devising ways and manners of means, of what he loved
to ifidalicence somehow or other in the nation getting a hold of
some chap's parabellum in the hope of taking a wing sociable
and lighting upon a sidewheel dive somewhere off the Dullkey
Downlairy and Bleakrooky tramaline where he could throw true
and go and blow the sibicidal napper off himself for two bits to
boldywell baltitude in the peace and quitybus of a one sure shot
bottle, he after having being trying all he knew with the lady's
help of Madam Gristle for upwards of eighteen calanders to get
out of Sir Patrick Dun's, through Sir Humphrey Jervis's and
into the Saint Kevin's bed in the Adelaide's hosspittles (from

these incurable welleslays among those uncarable wellasdays
through Sant Iago by his cocklehat, good Lazar, deliver us!)
without after having been able to jerrywangle it anysides. Lisa
O'Deavis and Roche Mongan (who had so much incommon,
epipsychidically; if the phrase be permitted hostis et odor insuper
) as an understood thing slept their sleep of the
swimborne in the one sweet undulant mother of tumblerbunks
with Hosty just how the shavers in the shaw the yokels in the
yoats or, well, the wasters in the wilde, and the bustling tweeny-
dawn-of-all-works (meed of anthems here we pant!) had not been
many jiffies furbishing potlids, doorbrasses, scholars' applecheeks
and linkboy's metals when, ashhopperminded like no fella he go
make bakenbeggfuss longa white man, the rejuvenated busker (for
after a goodnight's rave and rumble and a shinkhams topmorning
with his coexes he was not the same man) and his broadawake
bedroom suite (our boys, as our Byron called them) were up
and ashuffle from the hogshome they lovenaned The Barrel, cross
Ebblinn's chilled hamlet (thrie routes and restings on their then
superficies curiously correspondant with those linea and puncta
where our tubenny habenny metro maniplumbs below the ober-
flake underrails and stations at this time of riding) to the thrum-
mings of a crewth fiddle which, cremoaning and cronauning, levey
grevey, witty and wevey, appy, leppy and playable, caressed the
ears of the subjects of King Saint Finnerty the Festive who, in
brick homes of their own and in their flavory fraiseberry beds,
heeding hardly cry of honeyman, soed lavender or foyneboyne
salmon alive, with their priggish mouths all open for the larger
appraisiation of this longawaited Messiagh of roaratorios, were
only halfpast atsweeeep and after a brisk pause at a pawnbroking
establishment for the prothetic purpose of redeeming the song-
ster's truly admirable false teeth and a prolonged visit to a house
of call at Cujas Place, fizz, the Old Sots' Hole in the parish of
Saint Cecily within the liberty of Ceolmore not a thousand or one
national leagues, that was, by Griffith's valuation, from the site
of the statue of Primewer Glasstone setting a match to the march
of a maker (last of the stewards peut-être), where, the tale rambles

along, the trio of whackfolthediddlers was joined by a further —   
intentions — apply — tomorrow casual and a decent sort of the
hadbeen variety who had just been touching the weekly insult,
phewit, and all figblabbers (who saith of noun?) had stimulants
in the shape of gee and gees stood by the damn decent sort after
which stag luncheon and a few ones more just to celebrate yester-
day, flushed with their firestufffostered friendship, the rascals came
out of the licensed premises, (Browne's first, the small p.s. ex-ex-
executive capahand in their sad rear like a lady's postscript: I want
money. Pleasend), wiping their laughleaking lipes on their sleeves,
how the bouckaleens shout their roscan generally (seinn fion,
seinn fion's araun.) and the rhymers' world was with reason the
richer for a wouldbe ballad, to the balledder of which the world
of cumannity singing owes a tribute for having placed on the
planet's melomap his lay of the vilest bogeyer but most attrac-
tionable avatar the world has ever had to explain for.
    This, more krectly lubeen or fellow—me—lieder was first
poured forth where Riau Liviau riots and col de Houdo humps,
under the shadow of the monument of the shouldhavebeen legis-
lator (Eleutheriodendron! Spare, woodmann, spare!) to an over-
flow meeting of all the nations in Lenster fullyfilling the visional
area and, as a singleminded supercrowd, easily representative,
what with masks, whet with faces, of all sections and cross sections
(wineshop and cocoahouse poured out to brim up the broaching)
of our liffeyside people (to omit to mention of the mainland mino-
rity and such as had wayfared via Watling, Ernin, Icknild and
Stane, in chief a halted cockney car with its quotal of Hardmuth's
hacks, a northern tory, a southern whig, an eastanglian chroni-
cler and a landwester guardian) ranging from slips of young
dublinos from Cutpurse Row having nothing better to do than
walk about with their hands in their kneepants, sucking air-
whackers, weedulicet, jumbobricks, side by side with truant
officers, three woollen balls and poplin in search of a croust of
pawn to busy professional gentlemen, a brace of palesmen with
dundrearies, nooning toward Daly's, fresh from snipehitting and
mallardmissing on Rutland heath, exchanging cold sneers, mass-

going ladies from Hume Street in their chairs, the bearers baited,
some wandering hamalags out of the adjacent cloverfields of
Mosse's Gardens, an oblate fater from Skinner's Alley, brick-
layers, a fleming, in tabinet fumant, with spouse and dog, an aged
hammersmith who had some chisellers by the hand, a bout of
cudgel players, not a few sheep with the braxy, two bluecoat
scholars, four broke gents out of Simpson's on the Rocks, a
portly and a pert still tassing Turkey Coffee and orange shrub in
tickeyes door, Peter Pim and Paul Fry and then Elliot and, O,
Atkinson, suffering hell's delights from the blains of their annui-
tant's acorns not forgetting a deuce of dianas ridy for the hunt, a
particularist prebendary pondering on the roman easter, the ton-
sure question and greek uniates, plunk em, a lace lappet head or
two or three or four from a window, and so on down to a few good
old souls, who, as they were juiced after taking their pledge over at
the unkle's place, were evidently under the spell of liquor, from the
wake of Tarry the Tailor a fair girl, a jolly postboy thinking off
three flagons and one, a plumodrole, a half sir from the weaver's
almshouse who clings and clings and chatchatchat clings to her, a
wholedam's cloudhued pittycoat, as child, as curiolater, as Caoch
O'Leary. The wararrow went round, so it did, (a nation wants
a gaze) and the ballad, in the felibrine trancoped metre affectioned
by Taiocebo in his Casudas de Poulichinello Artahut, stump-
stampaded on to a slip of blancovide and headed by an excessively
rough and red woodcut, privately printed at the rimepress of
Delville, soon fluttered its secret on white highway and brown
byway to the rose of the winds and the blew of the gaels, from
archway to lattice and from black hand to pink ear, village crying
to village, through the five pussyfours green of the united states
of Scotia Picta and he who denies it, may his hairs be rubbed
in dirt! To the added strains (so peacifold) of his majesty the
floote, that onecrooned king of inscrewments, Piggots's purest, ciello
alsoliuto, which Mr Delaney (Mr Delacey?), horn, anticipating
a perfect downpour of plaudits among the rapsods, piped
out of his decentsoort hat, looking still more like his purseyful
namesake as men of Gaul noted, but before of to sputabout, the

snowycrested curl amoist the leader's wild and moulting hair,
'Ductor' Hitchcock hoisted his fezzy fuzz at bludgeon's height
signum to his companions of the chalice for the Loud Fellow,
boys' and silentium in curia! (our maypole once more where he rose
of old) and the canto was chantied there chorussed and christened
where by the old tollgate, Saint Annona's Street and Church.
    And aroud the lawn the rann it rann and this is the rann that
Hosty made. Spoken. Boyles and Cahills, Skerretts and Pritchards,
viersefied and piersified may the treeth we tale of live in stoney.
Here line the refrains of. Some vote him Vike, some mote him
Mike, some dub him Llyn and Phin while others hail him Lug
Bug Dan Lop, Lex, Lax, Gunne or Guinn. Some apt him Arth,
some bapt him Barth, Coll, Noll, Soll, Will, Weel, Wall but I
parse him Persse O'Reilly else he's called no name at all. To-
gether. Arrah, leave it to Hosty, frosty Hosty, leave it to Hosty
for he's the mann to rhyme the rann, the rann, the rann, the king
of all ranns. Have you here? (Some ha) Have we where? (Some
hant) Have you hered? (Others do) Have we whered (Others dont)
It's cumming, it's brumming! The clip, the clop! (All cla) Glass
crash. The (klikkaklakkaklaskaklopatzklatschabattacreppycrotty-



Ardite, arditi!

Music cue.    



"The Ballad of Persse O'Reilly."




Have you heard of one Hump-ty Dump-ty how he


fell with a roll and a rumble and curled up like Lord  O-la-fa


Crum-ple by the butt of the Mag-a-zine Wall of the


Mag-a-zine Wall Hump hel-met and all

Have you heard of one Humpty Dumpty
How he fell with a roll and a rumble
And curled up like Lord Olofa Crumple
By the butt of the Magazine Wall,
     (Chorus) Of the Magazine Wall,
                    Hump, helmet and all?
He was one time our King of the Castle
Now he's kicked about like a rotten old parsnip.
And from Green street he'll be sent by order of His Worship
To the penal jail of Mountjoy
     (Chorus) To the jail of Mountjoy!
                    Jail him and joy
He was fafafather of all schemes for to bother us
Slow coaches and immaculate contraceptives for the populace,
Mare's milk for the sick, seven dry Sundays a week,
Openair love and religion's reform,
     (Chorus) And religious reform,
                    Hideous in form.
Arrah, why, says you, couldn't he manage it?
I'll go bail, my fine dairyman darling,
Like the bumping bull of the Cassidys
All your butter is in your horns.
     (Chorus) His butter is in his horns.
                    Butter his horns!
(Repeat) Hurrah there, Hosty, frosty Hosty, change that shirt
                                                                                     [on ye,
Rhyme the rann, the king of all ranns!
                               Balbaccio, balbuccio!
We had chaw chaw chops, chairs, chewing gum, the chicken-
                                                         [pox and china chambers
Universally provided by this soffsoaping salesman.

Small wonder He'll Cheat E'erawan our local lads nicknamed him
When Chimpden first took the floor
    (Chorus) With his bucketshop store
                   Down Bargainweg, Lower.
So snug he was in his hotel premises sumptuous
But soon we'll bonfire all his trash, tricks and trumpery
And'tis short till sheriff Clancy'll be winding up his unlimited
With the bailiff's bom at the door,
    (Chorus) Bimbam at the door.
                   Then he'll bum no more.
Sweet bad luck on the waves washed to our island
The hooker of that hammerfast viking
And Gall's curse on the day when Eblana bay
Saw his black and tan man-o'-war.
    (Chorus) Saw his man-o'-war.
                   On the harbour bar.
Where from? roars Poolbeg. Cookingha'pence, he bawls Donnez-
                                           [moi scampitle, wick an wipin'fampiny
Fingal Mac Oscar Onesine Bargearse Boniface
Thok's min gammelhole Norveegickers moniker
Og as ay are at gammelhore Norveegickers cod.
    (Chorus) A Norwegian camel old cod.
                   He is, begod.
Lift it, Hosty, lift it, ye devil ye! up with the rann, the rhyming
It was during some fresh water garden pumping
Or, according to the Nursing Mirror, while admiring the mon
That our heavyweight heathen Humpharey
Made bold a maid to woo
    (Chorus) Woohoo, what'll she doo!
                   The general lost her maidenloo!

He ought to blush for himself, the old hayheaded philosopher,
For to go and shove himself that way on top of her.
Begob, he's the crux of the catalogue
Of our antediluvial zoo,
    (Chorus) Messrs. Billing and Coo.
                   Noah's larks, good as noo.
He was joulting by Wellinton's monument
Our rotorious hippopopotamuns
When some bugger let down the backtrap of the omnibus
And he caught his death of fusiliers,
    (Chorus) With his rent in his rears.
                    Give him six years.
'Tis sore pity for his innocent poor children
But look out for his missus legitimate!
When that frew gets a grip of old Earwicker
Won't there be earwigs on the green?
    (Chorus) Big earwigs on the green,
                   The largest ever you seen.
Suffoclose! Shikespower! Seudodanto! Anonymoses!
Then we'll have a free trade Gaels' band and mass meeting
For to sod the brave son of Scandiknavery.
And we'll bury him down in Oxmanstown
Along with the devil and Danes,
    (Chorus) With the deaf and dumb Danes,
                    And all their remains.
And not all the king's men nor his horses
Will resurrect his corpus
For there's no true spell in Connacht or hell
    (bis) That's able to raise a Cain.


FDV: Concerning the genesis of his Harold or Humphrey Coxon's agnomen and discarding finally those theories which would link him either with the Glues & Gravys & Earwickers of Sidleham [in the hundred of manhood] or proclaim him a descendant of vikings who had settled in Herwick (?) or Erwick (?) the most authentic version has it that it was this way.

forebar - to hinder, prevent, prohibit

Tree, Iris - English actress whom John Quinn called "a fine wench with pink hair." 

The Orange Lily, O! (song): Then come brave boys, and share her joys, And toast the health of Willy, O! / Who bravely won, on Boyne's red shore, The Royal Orange Lily, O!

genesis - origin, mode of formation or production

harold - a species of sea duck + Harold II, "last of the Saxons" (1022-66) - English king, defeated and killed at Hastings, fighting William I, the Conqueror. It was after the Norman Conquest that surnames were introduced into England. 

dine with Duke Humphrey - to go dinnerless + nursery rhyme Humpty Dumpty + FDV: Concerning the genesis of his Harold or Humphrey Coxon's agnomen

occupational - rel. to occupation (employment, vocation)

agnomen - an additional name or epithet (generally on account of some exploit)

presurnames period - a period in Irish history (before the 10th century) when men bore essentially one name, usually composed of two yoked elements (e.g. Conchobhar, 'high-will'), sometimes complemented by a patronymic ('Mac' plus genitive of father's name) or an agnomen.

prodromatic - of or pertaining to a prodromus; forerunning, introductory, preliminary + prodromarithmos (Greek Artificial) - what comes before numbers (from Greek prodromos: forerunner and arithmos: number)

Enos - biblical name. He is the son of Seth, father of Kenan, and grandson of Adam (Gen. 5:6-11; Luke 3:38). He supposedly lived nine hundred and five years. The Sabeans, who worshipped the "regents of the Seven planets" held Seth and his son Hermes (Enoch or Enos) as the highest among the planetary gods. Seth and Enos were borrowed from the Sabeans and then disfigured by the Jews (exoterically) [Fulcanelli]; Enos was regarded by the kabbalists as a greater magician than any before him + enosh (Hebrew) - man.

chalk - to write with a chalk

from older sources (Joyce's note) → Fitzpatrick: Ireland and the Making of Britain 29: 'an Irish historical tract, written about 721 A. D., and copied from older sources, gives the definite Gaelic monarchy as beginning contemporaneously with Alexander the Great in the fourth century B. C.'

pivotal - being that on which anything turns or depends; central, cardinal, vital + Joyce's note: pivotal ancestor Ireland and the Making of Britain 141: Cormac, the descendent of Lethain [...] was of the line of Olliol Olum, King of Munster and pivotal ancestor of its nobility (MS 47472-98, LMA: those theories ^+from older sources+^ which would link him either with ^+Such pivotal ancestors as+^ the Glues | JJA 45:004 | late Aug-Sep 1923 | )

Anker (ger) - anchor

Joyce visited the graveyard at St Mary's Our Lady in Sidlesham in southern England, and had in his possession A Pictorial & Descriptive Guide to Bognor &c. Chichester 54 in which we can read: 'Sidlesham Church is an Early English structure worthy of notice, and an examination of the surrounding tombstones should not be omitted if any interest is felt in deciphering curious names, striking examples being Earwicker, Glue, Gravy, Boniface, Anker, and Northeast' (Sidlesham is in the Hundred of Manhood, the extreme southwestern Hundred (county division) of Sussex; Joyce stayed in Bognor, a few miles from there, in summer 1923).

hundred - a subdivision of a county or shire (in England); Manhood is in south-west Sussex and contains the town of Sidlesham. 

offspring - the progeny which springs or is descended from some one

wapentake - a subdivision of some english shires; (on.) - to take a weapon

settled + or proclaim him a descendant of vikings who had settled in Herwick (?) or Erwick (?) the most authentic version has it that it was this way.

hem - them

Herrick - the maiden name of Swift's mother (F. Elrington Ball [055.36]: The Correspondence of Jonathan Swift, D.D., vol. I, 37 (1910): 'the name is spelt variously Herrick and Erick')

authenticate - to make authentic or autoritative

Talmud (read backward) - commentary on the Pentateuch (Hebrew is written from right to left).

hoofd (Dutch) - head + (a parody of a rabbi's name).

Ben Edar - anciently Howth, said to be named for Edar, a Dedanaan chief, buried on the hill + Binn Éadair (Irish) - Howth Head + ben (Hebrew) - son of. 

'In the beginning' (Genesis 1:1, John 1:1)

cabbaging - pilfering, purloining (mostly of tailors stealing pieces of cloth).

Cinncinatus - Roman emperor, who was said to have laid down his plow on his tiny farm to serve as dictator in 458 BC and then immediately returned to plough his farm after danger passed.

Alfred Lord Tennyson: Lady Clara Vere de Vere: 'The grand old gardener and his wife Smile at the claims of long descent' (the first verse was changed to 'The gardener Adam and his wife' because of frequent letters to Tennyson from friends asking for an explanation).

save the day - to bring success when failure seems certain + daylight saving time schemes were implemented in Europe since 1916.

redwood - mahagony, scotch pine, etc. + Chevy Chase (song): 'Under the greenwood tree'.

sabbath - in the original use: The seventh day of the week (Saturday); since the Reformation, often applied to 'the Lord's day', i.e. the first day of the week (Sunday); transf. and fig. A time or period of rest.

khag (Hebrew) - feast, holiday + hagios (gr) - saint

The Ballad of Chevy Chase - The ballad tell the story of a large hunting party ("chase") in the Cheviot Hills, hence 'the chevy chase'. The chase is led by Percy, the English Earl of Northumberland. The Scottish Earl Douglas had forbidden this hunt, and interprets it as an invasion of Scotland. In response he attacks, causing a bloody battle which only 110 people survived. 

follow the plough - to plough (said of the ploughman) + FDV: Like Cincinnatus he the G.O.G. (grand old gardener) was one sabbath day at following his plough [for rootles] in the rear garden of his Royal Marine Hotel when royalty was announced by runner to have been pleased to halt on the highroad along which a dogfox had cast.

rootles (notebook 1922-23) → rootle (vb.) - root (to dig with the snout: "the pig was rootling for truffles").

rere - rear, the back or back part of anything

mug house - an ale-house, beer-house. ? (obs. or arch.) + madhouse.

ye - the

marine - of or belonging to the sea, a sailor, mariner + A Pictorial & Descriptive Guide to Bognor &c. Hotel Ads 7: 'SELSEY, near Chichester. THE MARINE HOTEL. ONLY HOTEL ON SEA FRONT'.

royalty - a person of royal rank

runner - one that delivers messages, reports, etc. + (notebook 1922-23): 'by runner to Luxor (mail)' Irish Times 30 Nov 1922, 7/3: 'Egyptian Treasure': 'The Cairo Correspondent of The Times yesterday telegraphed a long message, dated from the Valley of the Kings (by runner to Luxor)... the most sensational Egyptological discovery of the century'.

highroad - a chief or main road, a highway

leisure - time which one can spend as one pleases, free or unoccupied time.

dog fox - a small fox + (notebook 1922-23): 'dogfox' Quarterly Review Oct 1922, 270: 'Reynard the Fox': 'It is hard to understand why dog-foxes are so often seen about earths which contain cubs'.

cast - to turn in one's course, to veer; to spread out the pursuing dogs (in search of a lost scent) + (notebook 1922-23): 'casts along shore (fox)' + Quarterly Review Oct 1922, 267: 'Reynard the Fox': 'The fox had vanished... exhaustive casts upon the shore failed to recover the line' (i.e. foxhunt).

lady pack - a pack of female hounds + Joyce's note: 'lady pack' Quarterly Review Oct 1922, 271: 'Reynard the Fox': 'A late snowfall having prevented hunting, we had taken the lady-pack out for road exercise'.

cocker spaniel - a small spaniel

vassal - in the feudal system, one holding lands from a superior on conditions of homage and allegiance, a tenant in fee.

FDV: Forgetful of all but his fealty he stayed not to saddle or yoke but he hastened stumbled hotface out of his forecourts on to the road in his [surcingle [plus fours] &] bulldog boots [coated with red clay marl [jingling the his turnpike keys a sweatdrenched bandana hanging from his coat pocket]] holding aloft among the fixed bayonets pikes [of the royal hunting party] a long perch atop of which a flowerpot was affixed.

fealty - the obligation of fidelity on the part of a feudal tenant or vassal to his lord.

ethnarch - a governor of a nation or people; a ruler over a province [Joyce's note: 'ethnarch']

yoke - to attach a draft animal to something (by yoke)

sweatful - full of or abounding in sweat

bandanna - a large handkerchief


forecourt - the front court of a building

public - Short for public house. colloq. Cf. pub

topee - a helmetlike hat with curved brim worn esp. for protection from the sun.

surcingle - a girdle or belt which confines the cassock (a kind of long loose coat or gown worn by rustics, shepherds, or sailors) + Joyce's note: 'surcingles' Leader 11 Nov 1922, 327/1: 'Our Ladies' Letter': 'Mrs Joe was out last Sunday, and if you heard her about the military weddings! The officers "with their surcingles!" that kill her'.

sola - a tall swamp-plant, the pith of which is used in making topees

plaid - a rectangular length of tartan worn over the left shoulder as a part of the scottish national costume.

plus fours (shoes) [notebook 1922-23]

putee - a covering for the leg from ankle to knee consisting of a spirally wrapped narrow cloth.

ruddle - to redden, flush, to color with red ocher + FDV: coated with red clay marl

cinnabar - a red colour like that of vermilion

flagrant - blazing, burning, flaming, glowing

marl - a kind of soil consisting principally of clay mixed with carbonate of lime, forming a loose unconsolidated mass, valuable as a fertilizer.

turnpike - a barrier placed across a road to stop passage till the toll is paid; a toll-gate + The Dublin turnpike system was introduced in the reign of George II. An 1821 map shows 10 Dublin turnpikes, almost all located on the North Circular Road and South Cicrcular Road at the crossing of main roads. The turnpike in Chapelizod was just East of the Phoenix Tavern (where the Mullingar House now stands) at the curve of the Dublin road to the bridge. It is described on the 1st page of Le Fanu's House by the Churchyard. The Dublin-Mullingar road was a turnpike road until 1853. 

fixed - stationary, permanently placed

perch - a pole, rod, stick, or stake, used for various purposes, e.g. for a weapon, a prop, etc.

flower pot - a vessel, most commonly of red earthenware and slightly tapering downwards, to contain soil in which flowers may be planted.

earthside - earthward side or aspect + Earwigs like dark, humid places. They are easy to trap. Place an inverted flowerpot stuffed with newspaper or peat moss and prop it on a stick. The morning after you set your traps, shake the captured earwigs into some hot water to kill them.

hoist - to raise aloft; to set or put up; to place on high + 'this side up with care': notice on a box or a package.

FDV: On his majesty, who was rather noticeably longsighted from his early youth, inquiring whether he had been engaged in lobstertrapping honest Humphrey bluntly answered very similarly: 'No, my liege, I was only a cotching of them bluggy earwigs'.

feign - to make a show of, put on an appearance of, put on, pretend, simulate, sham.

Majesty = JFX Reserved Coppinger (Joyce's list of characters in I.2)  

noticeably - remarkably

in fact - in reality + cause and effect

yon - that

causeway - a highway; usually a paved way, such as existed before the introduction of macadamization.

potholed - having a pot holes (a deep hole of more or less cylindrical shape).

put (one) wise (to) - to inform one (of), enlighten one (concerning) + (notebook 1923): 'put me wise' → O. Henry: The Four Million 234: 'By Courier': 'Den he's goin' to shoot snow-birds in de Klondike. He says yer told him not to send 'round no more pink notes nor come hangin' over de garden gate, and he takes dis means of puttin' yer wise'.

paternoster - to fish with paternoster; a line used in fishing, to which hooks or groups of hooks are attached at intervals, and also weights to sink it; lord's prayer (our father) + (notebook 1923): 'paternoster (bait)' A Pictorial & Descriptive Guide to Bognor &c. Bognor 12: 'Fishing with "Paternoster" is recommended from the Pier, as various depths of the bait will suit the habits of different fish'.

silver doctor - an artificial fishing fly

fancied - artistically designed

lobster trap - a basket or similar structure serving as a trap to catch lobsters + A Pictorial & Descriptive Guide to Bognor &c. Bognor 21: 'Wicker Traps, or "Pots," in which lobsters, crabs and prawns are taken'.

blunt - abrupt of speech or manner; plain-spoken; curt; without delicacy; unceremonious.

harom (Hungarian) - three

fearless forehead (Joyce's note) → Fitzpatrick: Ireland and the Making of Britain 48: (citing Eriugena) '"I am not so browbeaten by authority nor so fearful of the assault of less able minds as to be afraid to utter with fearless forehead what true reason clearly determines and indubitably demonstrates"'.

naw - no

yer - your

magger - maggot + majesty

aw - awe; owe; ought + I

jist - just

cotch - catch

thon - that + ton (ton) (gael) - bottom, arse.

bluggy - bloody

earwig - an insect, Forficula auricularia, so called from the notion that it penetrates into the head through the ear.

William IV, "The Sailor King" (1765-1837) - king of England + Joyce's note: 'our sailor king'.

drain - to drink (a liquid) off or to the last drops + FDV: The king who held a draught of obvious water in his hand upon this smiled heartily beneath his walrus moustaches and, giving way to that none too genial humour which he William the Conk had inherited from his great aunt Sophy, turned towards two gunmen of his retinue, the lord of Offaly and the mayor of Waterford (the second gun being syndic of Drogheda according to a later version cited by the learned Kanavan) remarking 'Holybones, How our brother of Burgundy would fume did he know that he have this for trusty vassal who is a turnpiker who is also an earwicker'.  

gugglet = guglet - a long necked water vessel of earthware + Joyce's note: 'gugglet of water' The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night, vol. I, 35: The Third Shaykh's Story: 'she rose and came hurriedly at me with a gugglet of water; and, muttering spells over it, she besprinkled me... and I became on the instant a dog' (glossed in a footnote: 'wide-mouthed jug... They are used either for water or sherbet and, being made of porous clay, "sweat," and keep the contents cool').

adam's ale - water

Gift (ger) - poison

corban - among the ancient Hebrews, an offering given to God, esp. in performance of a vow + gorb (Anglo-Irish) - ravenous eater, glutton (from Irish: gorb) + gorban (Ruthenian) - hunchback.

walrus moustache - a large moustache which overhangs the lips (thus resembling the whiskers of a walrus) + Joyce's note: 'walrus'.

genial - sympathetically cheerful, jovial, kindly; of or pertaining to genius

conk - nose, head, to knock + William I, "The Conqueror" (1028-87) - Norman duke who defeated Harold at Hastings, 1066, and became king of England. He did not himself mess with Ireland, but his descendants, the Anglo-Normans, ravaged Ireland in Henry II's time, and William III ravaged, too. I think all the English King Williams merge into William the Conk on FW 31 and stay merged (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake) + Joyce's note: 'William the Conk' Sunday Pictorial 29 Oct 1922, 9/1: 'Review of "The Nine O'Clock Revue" at the Little': 'Who can resist Beatrice Lillie? I can't. Hear her sing her ancestry in "William the Conk!" with moustache and bowler hat'.

spindle side - the female line of descent

lock - one of the portions into which a head of hair, a beard, etc., naturally divides itself.

great aunt - the aunt of one's father or mother

sophy - a wise man, sage + Parnell's great-aunt Mrs Sophia Evens, a practical joker + Aunt Sophy = Long Laddy Cumager [?].

retinue - a number or company of persons retained in the service of some one, or attached to and following one, esp. a sovereign, noble, or person in authority; a train or suite.

gallowglasses - heavily armed Irish soldiers formerly maintained by Irish chiefs.

Michael (Manning) = Assailant on Heath (Joyce's list of characters in I.2)

etheling = atheling - a member of a noble family, a prince, lord, baron

Leix - county in Ireland + Leix and Offaly - the first Irish plantation (was devastated by Mountjoy).

Offaly - county in Ireland, Leinster province + FDV: turned towards two gunmen of his retinue, the lord of Offaly and the mayor of Waterford (the second gun being syndic of Drogheda according to a later version cited by the learned Kanavan).

jubilee - the fiftieth anniversary of an event; the celebration of the completion of fifty years of reign.

Droghheda - port town in County Louth on the east coast of Ireland, 56 km (35 mi) north of Dublin. The town was besieged twice during the Irish Confederate Wars. On the second occasion it was taken by Oliver Cromwell in September 1649, as part of the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland and it was the site of an infamous massacre of the Royalist defenders.

Elcock, Nicholas - Mayor of Drogheda in 1592 and in 1607 + Elcock (Giubilei) = McPartland (Joyce's list of characters in I.2)

scattergun - a shot gun [Joyce's note: 'scattergun' → O. Henry: The Four Million 253: 'The Brief Début of Tildy': 'And every smile that she sent forth lodged, like pellets from a scatter-gun, in as many hearts'] + (notebook 1922-23): '2 guns (2 men)' Quarterly Review Oct 1922, 274: 'Reynard the Fox': 'rabbiting in one of his own woods with a couple of companions - quite an informal party, just the two guns and a dog'.

manning - the act of supplying man

proto - - first in time, earliest, original + syndic - an officer of government having different powers in different countries; a civil magistrate, or one of several such, entrusted with the affairs of a city or community + prôtosyndikos (gr) - first advocate.

Waterford - city in SE Ireland

excellency - title of honour, eminence( title of honour, now borne only by Cardinals) + (notebook 1923): 'an Italian Excellency'.

giubilei (it) - jubilees

cite - to quote

scholarch - the head or ruler of a school; spec. The leader of an Athenian school of philosophy + Joyce's note: 'save perhaps scholarchs' → Fitzpatrick: Ireland and the Making of Britain 3: 'In that age there had been nothing comparable with this sustained continuity in any land, save perhaps the wonderful succession of scholarchs in the groves of Academe from the time of Plato to the time of Justinian'.

Cluain maca Nois (klun moko nosh) (gael) - Meadow of the sons of Nos (famous Irish monastic settlement); anglic. Clonmaknoise.

typical + triptych - a picture or carving (or set of three such) in three compartments side by side.

puritas (l) - purity

doctrina (l) - teaching

business as usual - things proceeding normally in spite of disturbing circumstances.

hemlock - the common name of Conium maculatum, a poisonous umbelliferous plant, having a stout branched stem with purplish spots, finely divided leaves, and small white flowers; it is used medicinally as a powerful sedative.

paddy - an informal, often derogatory, name for an Irishman

preti (it) - priests + praties (Anglo-Irish) - potatoes (from Irish: prátai) + song The Garden Where the Praties Grow.

dilsy dulsy office (Joyce's note) O. Henry: The Four Million 175: 'An Unfinished Story': 'Dulcie worked in a department store'.

holy bones! (notebook 1922-23)

St. Hubert - the Patron Saint of Hunters

William II or William Rufus (1056-1100) - king of England and a villain + (notebook 1922-23): 'red mother' Quarterly Review Oct 1922, 270: 'Reynard the Fox': 'Particularly when studying cubs... is one liable to encounter disappointment... For, should the red mother's suspicion once be aroused, all is over'.

Pomerania - a German province

audibly - in audible manner, aloud

fume - to give way to or exhibit anger or irritation + FDV: Holybones, How our of Burgundy would fume did he know that he have this for trusty vassal who is a turnpiker who is also an earwicker.

for sure - for certain, undoubtedly + sur- (prefix) - over, above, upon (as in: surprint) + trusty - trustworthy, that may be trusted upon.

bailiwick - the office or jurisdiction of a bailiff

turnpike - to erect turnpikes on (a road)

by turns - time after time, turn after turn

seldom - not often, rarely + other

kin - a group of persons descended from a common ancestor + kennt (ger) - knows.

Peel, John - English hunting song. His "View Halloo would waken the dead" + REFERENCE

haunt - habit, wont, custom

crusted - covered with a crust, hardened on the surface


cheery - abounding in cheerfulness, lively

roadside - the side of the road

Thom's Directory of Ireland/Dublin (1903), 352: 'Holmpatrick, Baron... (Son of... Victoria, dau. of late Maj. Gen'l Lord Charles Wellesly, M.P. and sister of the 3rd Duke of Wellington). Res. Abbotstown House, Castleknock, Dublin' + holm (Middle English) - holly.

amusive - deceitful, illusive; affording pleasing entertainment + ammos (gr) - sand + proverb A rolling stone gathers no moss.

Gladstone + clad - p.p. od clothe.

nomination - the action of naming, specifying, or appointing + nomen gentile (l) - clan name; second of the three names borne by freeborn Romans. 

bourn - stream, rivulet; goal destination; boundary, limit; domain.

Comes the question (Joyce's note) → Mordell: The Erotic Motive in Literature 228: (of Edgar Allan Poe) 'Now comes a question that has always puzzled his critics'.

accolated - wreathed, conjoined, united + accolade - technical name of the salutation marking the bestowal of knighthood, applied at different times to an embrace, a kiss, and a slap on the shoulders with the flat blade of a sword.

collateral - placed side by side, parallel, coordinate

anthropomorphic - having a human form, described in a human form or with human attributes + Andrew, Paul, Murphy.

narrative - story, narration + FDV: whether are these the True facts are recorded in as this legend? maybe We shall perhaps see. But it is certain that from that historic date all documents initialled by Humphrey bear the sigla. H.C.E. and whether he was always Coxon for his cronies and good duke Humphrey for the ragged tiny folk of Lucalizod it was certainly a pleasant turn of the populace which gave him as sense of these initials the nickname 'Here Comes Everything Everybody'.

fata (l) - destiny + fata (Rumanian) - face.

sibylline - rel. to Sibyl; prophetic, mysterious, cryptic

fas (l) - law, right, possible + phrase read between the lines.

nefas (l) - sin, wrong, impossible + fas et nefas (l) - destiny and counter-destiny; law and crime.

Nehemiah ("comfort of Jehovah") - (1) Jewish leader, empowered by Artaxerxes to rebuild Jerusalem after captivity, (2) book of the Old Testament + no home-iah + song Home, Sweet Home: 'There's no place like home'. 

yea - yes, more than this, not only so but

melekh (Hebrew) - king + two Irish high kings were named Malachy.

khan - a title (now of slight import) commonly given to rulers, officials, or men of rank in Central Asia, Afghanistan, etc.

bell + Motif: Pingpong, the bell for Sechseläuten, and concepit de Saint-Esprit (Sechseläuten: Zurich spring festival, celebrating the burial of winter; Saint-Esprit (French): Holy Ghost).

cum sceptris (l) - with sceptres + concepta (l) - conceived + Angelus: 'et concepit de Spiritus Sancto' (l) - 'and she conceived of the Holy Ghost'.

centaur - Mythol. A fabulous creature, with the head, trunk, and arms of a man, joined to the body and legs of a horse; an unnatural hybrid creation; an intimate union of two diverse natures.

Hokmah - Hebrew "divine wisdom" + (the name of the second Sephira).

metheg (Hebrew) - bit (for a horse); a typographical mark (used in the bible)

''Though this be madness, yet there is method in 't.'' (William Shakespeare: "Hamlet", Act 2 scene 2) [Lord Polonius: What do you read, my lord? Hamlet:
Words, words, words. Lord Polonius: What is the matter, my lord? Hamlet: Between who? Lord Polonius: I mean, the matter that you read, my lord. Hamlet: Slanders, sir: for the satirical rogue says here that old men have grey beards, that their faces are wrinkled, their eyes purging thick amber and plum-tree gum and that they have a plentiful lack of wit, together with most weak hams: all which, sir, though I most powerfully and potently believe, yet I hold it not honesty to have it thus set down, for yourself, sir, should be old as I am, if like a crab you could go backward. Lord Polonius: [Aside] Though this be madness, yet there is method in 't. Will you walk out of the air, my lord?
Hamlet: Into my grave.]

heaven + Genesis 3:19: 'unto dust shalt thou return'.

doth - do

heave - to throw, cast, fling, toss, hurl (esp. something heavy, that is lifted and thrown with effort).

fallacy - deceptiveness, aptness to mislead, unreliability

punical - faithless, treacherous

finikin - over-delicately wrought or finished; also, insignificant, paltry, trifling.


Scheherazade and Dunyazad - sisters from 'The Thousand and One Nights' (regaling King Shahryar with their endless night-time story-cycle, thus distracting him from his design to ravish and slay a maiden a night) + scherzi (it) - jokes.

stage - to represent (a character, an incident) on the stage

Sudlow, Bessie - Dublin actress and wife of Michael Gunn, the manager of the Gaiety Theatre, Dublin.

Mistinguette - French dancer (d. 1956). In silver, Mistinguette descended a gold staircase. 

pantaloon - in modern harlequinade or pantomime, a character represented as a foolish and vicious old man, the butt of the clown's jokes, and his abettor in his pranks and tricks.

Pitt, William (1759-1806) - English prime minister during the Napoleonic Wars. His father, William Pitt the Elder, was also prime minister. 

patronize - to favour or support with one's expenditure or custom; to frequent as a customer or visitor + pay through the nose - to pay an excessive price ("They patronize small and exclusive shops where they cheerfully pay through the nose.")

miliodôros (gr) - of a thousand gifts + meli (gr) - honey

Galatea - (1) nymph loved by Polyphemus and slain by him because she loved Acis; (2) Pygmalion's statue, animated by Venus + gala (gr) - milk

holograph - a document wholly in the handwriting of the person whom it proceeds + Joyce's note: 'holograph'.

exhume - to dig out or remove (something buried) from beneath the ground

sigla - letters (esp. initials) or other characters used to denote words; abbreviations or marks of abbreviation.

dine with Duke Humphrey - to go dinnerless + dook - duck.

spalpeen - a common workman, itinerant farm labourer; Used contemptuously: A low or mean fellow, a scamp, a rascal; a youngster, a boy.

Lucalizod (Joyce's note) Lucan - Dublin environ on the Liffey. Two earls of Lucan may have interested Joyce: (1) Patrick Sarsfield, a Wild Goose, who fought under James II, died in 1693, saying, "O that this were for Ireland!"; (2) Lord Lucan, who commanded cavalry at Balaclava and is associated by Joyce with the Light Brigade. In FW, Lucan is often linked with its neighboring environ, Chapelizod, usually as "Lucalizod," which links Issy and the two Isoldes to Lucia Joyce and Alice. (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake.)

In 1886, the British Home Secretary was named HCE Childers, nicknamed 'Here Comes Everybody' because of his girth + FDV: and whether he was always Coxon for his cronies and good duke Humphrey for the ragged tiny folk of Lucalizod it was certainly a pleasant turn of the populace which gave him as sense of these initials the nickname 'Here Comes Everything Everybody'.

crony - an intimate friend or associate, a 'chum'

populace - the common people

normative - establishing or setting up a norm or standard

imposing - that impresses by appearance or manner

FDV: An Imposing enough everybody indeed he looked and worthy of that title as he sat surveyed the playhouse on gala nights in from the royal booth where he sat with all his house with broadstretched kerchief cooling neck & shoulders & wardrobepanelled coat clawhammer tuxedo thrown back from a shirt wellnamed a swallowall far outstarching the laundered lordies clawhammers and marbletopped highboys of the pit.

magnificently well (Joyce's note)

survey - to look at from, or as from, a height or commanding position

vociferate - to utter with a loud voice

White Head, White Hat - Finn MacCool is often said to mean "white head" on "white hat"; "head" identifies him with "Howth", which is Danish "head" + Moore and Burgess Minstrels used the catch-phrase 'take off that white hat!' (Ulysses.8.605).

relieve - to make less tiring, tedious, monotonous, or disagreeable, by the introduction of variety or of something striking or pleasing.

grog - a drink consisting of spirits (originally rum) and water, to drink grog.

log - any record in which facts about the progress or performance of something are entered in the order in which they become known; log-book.

loot - money

bassa voce (it) - low voice + voco (l) - call, shout + basvoco (Ido - an artificial language) - bass.

treating house - a house of entertainment or refreshment, an eating-house + The Gaiety Theatre is in Dublin's King Street.

satin - resembling satin in texture or surface + Satan - a Puritan term for the theatre (Puritanism was Shakespeare's life-long enemy, and he struggled against it brilliantly, with humor as one of his most potent weapons. Puritanism nursed a deadly animus against the theatre and all dramatic art, viewing them as Satan's hotbed of temptation. Shakespeare recognized that he was in what he called in Love's Labour's Lost, a "civil war of wits." [Act II, Scene I]).

lustre - sheen, gloss, luminosity

floats = footlights - a row of lights on a stage floor, the stage as a profession.

veldt (Afrikaans) - open bushy country in South Africa

oxgang - an old english unit of land area, varying from ten to eighteen acres

unanimously - with unanimity; with agreement in aim, opinion, or action.


semper (l) - always + W. W. Kelly - manager of the Evergreen Touring Company of Liverpool, which toured the British Isles before 1914. performing W.G. Wills's A Royal Divorce, about Napoleon's divorce. Mr Atherton says a real white horse was brought on stage. 

evergreen - always fresh, never-failing + immer (ger) - always, ever.

tourer - one who tours or goes on tour

command performance - a theatrical, musical, etc. performance given by royal command.

courteous - gracious, gentle


millenary - a continuous period of one thousand years + century

ambitious - thirsting after honour or advancement; rising, swelling, towering.

bo - fellow + BOHEMIA - Province, West Czech, subject of Balfe's opera, "The Bohemian Girl." Arlene, heroine of the opera is a high-born girl, stolen by gypsies, who dreams she dwells in marble halls and is restored to high place and faithful lover.

Lily of Killarney - Benedict's opera, based on The Colleen Bawn or "Fair Girl." 

command night - the night on which a theatrical performance, etc. is given by (royal) command.

viceregal - of or pertaining to, associated with, a viceroy

booth - a temporary structure covered with canvas, or the like, a tent + Booth - Lincoln's assassin (shot him in an theatre).

Borsalino is the name of a hat company known particularly for its fedoras (a felt hats creased lengthwise down the crown and pinched in the front on both sides) + Joyce wore a Borsalino hat .

ceilinged - having a ceiling

cuckoospit - a frothy secretion of spittle of insects on plants, an insect secreting this + cockpit - that part of the auditorium of a theatre which is on the floor of the house.

Red Riding Hood - eaten by a wolf in a nursery tale and pantomime. 

MacCabe, Edwand - 19th-century Dublin archbishop, cardinal, succeeded Cullen as Archbishop of Dublin; MacCabe and Cullen were 19th century anti-nationalistic cardinals (who have red hats and are addressed 'your Eminence').

Cullen, Paul, Cardinal (1803-78) - archbishop of Dublin, bitter enemy of the Fenians, execrated at Christmas dinner in Portrait.  

nth - n-th number

'All the world's a stage' (William Shakespeare: As You Like It II.7.139)

in one's own way - within the limitations of one's character

forefather - ancestor + folkeforfatter (Danish) - popular author.

invariable -  remaining ever the same, unchanging, constant

kerchief - handkerchief

shoulderblade - each of the two flat triangular bones articulated with the humerus, and lying over the ribs in the upper part of the back in all mammals.

wardrobe - a room in which theatrical costumes and properties are kept

panel - to ornament (a piece of drapery) with a panel or panels (a panel-shaped piece of embroidery or appliqué work for insertion in any drapery).

outstretch - to stretch beyond (a limit, etc.) + starch - to stiffen (linen, etc.) with starch; to make rigid, formal, or precise.

launder - to wash and 'get up' (the clothes)

claw hammer - a tail coat for evening dress

marbletopped - designating a piece of furniture the top of which is covered with marble.

highboy - a tall chest of drawers; one who lives 'high'; a 'fast' man, libertine, gallant.

pit - the ground floor of the theater

stall - a seat in the forward part of the main level of a theater

cast - example; Theat. The assignment of the parts in a play to the several actors; the part assigned to any actor (obs.); the set of actors to whom the parts of a particular play are assigned [Levey & O'Rorke: Annals of the Theatre Royal, Dublin 104: 'The cast was thus:'].

parterre - the part of the ground-floor of the auditorium of a theatre behind the orchestra.

standing room - a space for spectators after all seats are filled

habitual - an habitual drunkard + habitue - a habitual visitor or resident.

conspicuous - clearly visible, easy to be seen, obvious or striking to the eye.

emergant - suddenly appearing, arising as a logical outcome

base - low in the moral scale; without dignity of sentiment; despicably mean.

"This is a sensible limitation which can easily be read into deed or will".

blurting - the uttering of words abruptly and heedlessly

bruit - to tell or spread rumors, to spread news of; Med: an abnormal sound heard within the body during auscultation, esp a heart murmur + FDV: A baser meaning has been read into these letters, the literal sense of which decency can dare but touch. It has been suggested that he suffered from a vile disease. To such a suggestion the only selfrespecting answer is to affirm that there are certain statements which ought not to be, and one would like to be able to add, ought not to be allowed to be made.

wisecracker - one who makes clever remarks

mokhorath (Hebrew) - tomorrow, morrow

vase de nuit (French) - chamberpot (literally 'night-pot')

vile - physically repulsive, esp. through filth or corruption; horrid, disgusting.

atman (ind) - the supreme principle of life in the universe + ethmol (Hebrew) - yesterday.

unmanner - destroy

Quarterly Review Oct 1922: 'Ulysses' (review of Ulysses by Shane Leslie): 'The practice of introducing the names of real people into circumstances of monstrous and ludicrous fiction seems to us to touch the lowest depth of Rabelaisian realism. When we are given details of the skin disease of an Irish peer, famous for his benefactions, we feel a genuine dislike of the writer. There are some things which cannot and, we should like to be able to say, shall not be done' (refers to Bloom's reflections in Ulysses: 'lord Ardilaun has to change his shirt four times a day. Skin breeds lice or vermin') (Deming: The Critical Heritage 209).

detractor - a defamer, traducer, calumniator, slanderer

imperfectly - incompletely, defectively

warmblooded - ardent, fervent, passionate + Joyce's note: 'imperfectly warmblooded' Daily Mail 15 Nov 1922, 8/4: 'The Wild Things in Winter': 'hedgehog, dormouse and bat are examples of creatures which have only... reached an imperfectly warm-blooded state... So at... cold weather they... lapse into a state of unconsciousness'.

caterpillar - a rapacious person; an extortioner; one who preys upon society + Great White Caterpillar - Oscar Wilde reminded Lady Colin Campbell of one.  

enormity - a breach of law or morality, a transgression, crime; in later use, a gross and monstrous offence. 

discredit - impaired reputation; disrepute, reproach

juke - to mess around + Juke family, descendendants of Ada Juke, of 1000 - 280 paupers, 60 thieves, 7 murderers, 40 other criminals, and other deviants.

Goddard - Kallikak family - Revolutionary War - Rev Martin - by 1912, of 480: 280 feebleminded, illegitmates births, alcoholics, prostitutes, of wife-none + (notebook 1922-23): 'Juke & Kellikek family - bred 250 criminals'.

mend - to correct (what is faulty), to improve by correction or alteration

alternately - by taking the alternate terms; by permutation

lay under - to put into a condition (usually one of exposure to view or danger).

ludicrous - foolish, absurd + FDV: Nor have his detractors who [an imperfectly warmblooded race] apparently think him capable of any or every enormity [recorded to the discredit of the Juke & Kellikek families] mended their case by insinuating that he was at one time under the ludicrous imputation of annoying soldiers in the park rushes.

imputation - the action of imputing or attributing something, usually a fault, crime, etc., to a person + (notebook 1923): 'It is not true that Pop was homosexual he had been arrested at the request of some nursemaids to whom he had temporarily exposed himself in the Temple gardens'.

3 Fusiliers = Roaring Peter (Joyce's list of characters in I.2)

PEOPLE'S FLOWER GARDENS, PEOPLE'S PARK - A scenic area at the East end of the Phoenix Park, near the Main Gate, surrounded by oak trees and walkways, with lakes at the center. Bishop's Wood lies at the North side of the area, near the NCR Gate + Harris: Oscar Wilde, His Life and Confessions II.608: (comment by Robert Ross concerning the father of Constance Wilde, Oscar's wife) 'The charge against Horatio Lloyd was of a normal kind. It was for exposing himself to nursemaids in the gardens of the Temple' (i.e. 'normal' as opposed to homosexual). 

lea - a tract of open ground, either meadow, pasture, or arable land

joque - joke + Little Brown Jug (song): 'Ho, ho, ho. He, he, he, Little brown jug don't I love thee'.

Christlikeness - likeness to Christ + FDV: To anyone who knew and loved H. C. E. this suggestion is preposterous.

thoroughout - through or during the whole of (a period of time or course of action); from beginning to end of + (notebook 1923): 'throughout my existence'.

excellency - high degree of skill, proficiency; As a title of honour


sleuth - to track, to investigate, to act as a detective; the track or trail of a person or animal; a detective.

boobytrap - a trap for a careless or unwary person

preposterous - absurd

quondam - at a certain time, formerly

pfui - an exclamation of contempt or disgust + Cicero: Oratio In Catilinam I: 'Fuit, fuit ista quondam' (Latin 'There was, there was once').

interim - time between events + interdum (l) - sometimes, occasionally. 

quidam (l) - someone, somebody, a certain one + Quidam = O'Donnell = Maurice (Joyce's list of characters in I.2)

quoniam (l) - since now; because, whereas, seeing that + (notebook 1930): '*C* if he did not exist it wd be necesse to invent him' → Voltaire: Epîtres XCVI: A L'Auteur du Livre des Trois Imposteurs: 'Si Dieu n'existait pas, il faudrait l'inventer' (French 'If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him').

stumble - to walk unsteadily and with frequent stumbles + Stamboul - older form of Istanbul + Joyce's note: now walking / about Dublin MS 47472-98v, ILA: a man named Lyons ^+quidam+^ ^+then walking about Dublin ^+with a bad record+^+^ | JJA 45:007 | Aug-Sep 1923 |

Harun al-Rashid - Caliph of Baghdad in 'The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night' + around.

leaky - giving passage to water or other fluid through a hole or fissure.

sneaker - a soft-soled, noiseless slipper or shoe [(notebook 1930): 'sneakers (white shoes)'].

track record - the total number of a person's successes esp. in his work or job + Sturk - occupant of LeFanu's House by the Churchyard, he is attacked in Butcherswood in the Phoenix Park. Sturk is "resurrected" by Black Dillon + tearc (t'ark) (gael) - scant + Joyce's note: 'with a bad record -' + dark record.

to pan (gr) - the whole, completely + tô panti (gr) - in every respect + romantically.

anônymos (gr) - anonymous, nameless

Abdullah - father of Mohammed

gammellax (Norwegian) = gammel lax (Danish) - old salmon + (notebook 1924): 'Let us call him Otto Chorzel (spy)'. 

post - to place, station, stop; Mil. and Naval. To appoint to a post or command + (notebook 1922-23): 'posted at Lloyd's as missing' Irish Times 9 Jan 1923, 4/5: 'Toll of the Sea': 'In the year 1922 twenty-one ships have been posted at Lloyds as "missing" and a ship "missing" at Lloyds seldom reappers'.

Mallon, John - superintendent of Dublin police at the time of the Phoenix Park assassinations + FDV: There was a case of the kind implicating man named Lyons [who was posted at Mallon's and] who years afterward dropped dead whilst waiting for a chop in Hawkins street.

instance - urgent or earnest solicitation, instigation, request

Vigilance Cie Watch & Ward (Joyce's note)

Vigilance Committee (notebook 1923) + Anyone wanting seriously to read Finnegans Wake must at some point go to "nightschool" (430.02), take a few "Night Lessons" (II.ii), do a little "nightwatch service" (576.30), exercise some "night duty" (429.23), serve on "vigilance committee", and, above all, "sleep on it" (445.22-23). All of the characters inside the book do these things, and so did Joyce himself: "I am at present attending night school," he wrote jokingly to his son and daughter-in-law in 1934. (John Bishop: Joyce's Book of the Dark)

ibid - in the same place

commend - extol + commander of the faithful - a title of the caliphs.

sultan - the sovereign or chief ruler of a Muslim country + sulth (sulh) (gael) - sensual pleasure + shulkhan (Hebrew) - table, table spread with food.

sate - satisfy + seated

trop - turn, change + drop dead - to die very suddenly + (notebook 1922-23): 'whilst waiting for chop he dropped dead'.

fiat (l) - let there be, so be it + pfui! (German) - shame!

chop and cabbage

alicubi (l) - somewhere, anywhere, wherever

Old House - Theatre Royal, Hawkins Street, Dublin  

charge hand - a workman who is in charge of a particular piece of work + Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu: The House by the Churchyard (set in Chapelizod).

roche - any of various rocks + Father Roach - a parish priest in Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu's "The House by the Churchyard" + roach, haddock (fish) → fishmarket in Dublin between Hawkins Street and D'Olier Street. 

lowe - flame, blaze, to glow; laugh; lie + Oliver Lowe - a magistrate in Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu's "The House by the Churchyard" + Thom's Directory of Ireland/Dublin (1903), 1923: 'J. Lowe. Chief Inspector, Detective Department'.

gob - mouth, sailor + Ibsen + God

nark - informer; to watch, look after + marketplace

ar (Irish) - on + Psalms 68:12: 'Kings of armies did flee apace: and she that tarried at home divided the spoil' (tarry - to remain or stay temporarily, as in a place).

defile - pollute, debase + Matthew 15:11: 'but that which cometh out of the mouth, this defileth a man'.

cabful - as much or as many as cab will hold + cupful + calabash - name of various gourds.

bash - a good time, entertainment

The Encyclopædia Britannica vol. XII, 'Greek Literature', 507d: 'Homer himself is called "son of Meles" - the stream which flowed through old Smyrna' + omer (Hebrew) - measure of capacity.

slander - the utterance or dissemination of false statements or reports concerning a person, or malicious misrepresentation of his actions, in order to defame or injure him.

flat - clear and unmistakable, exact

southron - native of Southern Great Britain, an Englishman as opposed to a Scotsman [Joyce's note: 'Southron'].

homogenous - congruous, befitting + Souvenir of the Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Opening of The Gaiety Theatre 34: 'it is only necessary to mention Edward Terry and "Sweet Lavender" to conjure up remembrances of a delightful experience of that - as "Jeames" would say - most "homogeneous" actor'.

grave - highly serious, formidable + FDV: Slander, let it do its worst, has never been able to convict that good and great man of any greater worse misdemeanour impropriety than that of an incautious exposure and partial at that having behaved in an ungentlemanly manner in the presence of certain two a pair of nursemaids maidservants in the rushy hollow whither nature as they alleged had spontaneously & at the same time sent them both [but each of] whose testimony testimonies is are, if not dubious, at any rate slightly divergent in on minor points [touching what was certainly an incautious, but at the most, a partial exposure [with attenuating circumstances. [during an exceptional abnormal S Martin's summer.]]]

impropriety - unbecomingness, unseemliness, indecency; morally improper conduct.

woodward - an english forest officer charged with guarding a wood

regarder - an officer who inspects royal forests and ascertain trespasses of the law + Woodwards and Regarders were forest officers who saw no hurt was done to vert or venison. 

shomer - guardian, watchman

chin - to talk idly, chatter + (onomat.)

chinchin - to talk casually, trivial talk


ungentlemanly + on- (Dutch) - un- + (notebook 1922-23): 'behaved in a gentlemanly manner'.

immodest - improper, indelicate, indecent, lewd, unchaste + modus (l) - manner.

dainty - of delicate or tender beauty or grace, delicately pretty

maidservant - a female servant + 2 Slavies = Festus King (Joyce's list of characters in I.2).

swelth - a swelling; a whirlpool + FDV: in the rushy hollow whither nature as they alleged had spontaneously & at the same time sent them both [but each of] whose testimony testimonies is are, if not dubious, at any rate slightly divergent in on minor points [touching what was certainly an incautious, but at the most, a partial exposure [with attenuating circumstances. [during an exceptional abnormal S Martin's summer.]]]

rushy - made of or resembling rushes, abounding in rushes; quick, hurried, in a rush + In ancient Egyptian mythology, the fields of Aaru (alternatives: Yaaru, Iaru, Aalu) or the Egyptian reed fields, are the heavenly paradise, where Osiris ruled after he became part of the Egyptian pantheon and displaced Anubis in the Ogdoad tradition. It has been described as the ka (a part of the soul) of the Nile Delta. Only souls who weighed exactly the same as the feather of the goddess Ma'at were allowed to start a long and perilous journey to Aaru, where they would exist in pleasure for all eternity. The ancient Egyptians believed that the soul resided in the heart. Those whose heart did not match the weight of the feather of Ma'at due to their sins were excluded. They were said to suffer a second death when devoured by another being, Ammit, while still in Duat for judgment. The souls who did qualify had to undergo a long journey and face many perils before reaching Aaru. Once they arrived, they had to enter through a series of gates. The exact number of gates varies according to sources; some say 15, some 21. They are however uniformly described as being guarded by evil demons armed with knives. Aaru usually was placed in the east, where the sun rises, and is described as eternal reed fields, very much like those of the earthly Nile delta: an ideal hunting and fishing ground, and hence, those deceased who, after judgment, were allowed to reside there, were often called the eternally living. More precisely, Aaru was envisaged as a series of islands, covered in "fields of rushes" (Sekhet Aaru), Aaru being the Egyptian word for rushes. The part where Osiris later dwelt was sometimes known as the "field of offerings", Sekhet Hetepet in Egyptian.

hollow - a hollow or concave formation or place, which has been dug out, or has the form of having so been + The Hollow, Phoenix Park + (notebook 1922-23): 'the rushy hollow'.

whither - where

pinner - a woman's cap

Nature sends me to do so (piss) W (notebook 1922-23)

eventide - evening

laine (French) - wool  

testimony - personal or documentary evidence or attestation in support of a fact or statement; hence, any form of evidence or proof.

warp - the lengthwise threads in a weaving loom

weft - the crosswise threads in a weaving loom  

first offender - one who has committed a first offence, and obtains the conditional remission of punishment provided by the 'First Offenders' Act' of 1888. ("Keepers are punished for this by a fine for the first offence; and for the second by stripes").

vert and venison - the green vegetation and the deer in a forest or wood + vert - green vegetation growing in a wood or forest and capable of serving as cover for deer.

venison - any beast of chase or other wild animal killed by hunting, esp. one of the deer kind.

incautious - unwary

attenuate - to weaken or reduce in force, effect, or amount; to become slender, thinner, or weaker.

gad (Archaic) - (of plants) to straggle, to spread + gad (Pan-Slavonic) - snake.

hwere (Middle English) - where

sokeman - a man under the jurisdiction of another, a tenant holding land in socage.

bride (obs) - marry + rideth

Saint Martin's summer - Indian summer when occuring in november

Jesse - father of David; also a genealogical tree, tracing the descent of Christ from "the root of Jesse." (jesen is Slavonic "autumn"). 

SHARON - The fertile plain of Palestine between Joppa and Mount Carmel. The "Rose of Sharon" of Song of Solomon 2:1 has been identified with various flowers, such as the crocus and narcissus + Song of Solomon 2:1: 'I am the rose of Sharon, and the lily of the valleys'. 

toman - a hillock, a mound of earth; a Persian gold coin

led (Volapük) - red

lol (Volapük) - rose

zesüd (Volapük) - necessity

kadem (Volapük) - academy

Jespersen: An International Language 34 (of Volapük): 'the stem itself must always begin and end with a consonant. Accordingly Academy becomes kadem. R is avoided: fire is fil, and red led. As s is the sign of the plural, no word may end in s: rose is made into lol. As ne is the negative, such a word as necessity is clipped of its initial syllable, and becomes zesüd. Not even proper names get off scott-free: Italy is Täl and England Nelij (j is pronounced sh). Europe is Yulop, and the other continents... are made into Melop, Silop, Fikop and Talop respectively'.

Fikop (Volapük) - Africa

Nelly, Fresh - Dublin whore + Nelij (Volapük) - England.

mundo novo (Portuguese) - new world + el mundo (sp) - the world.

flen (Volapük) - friend

Lilith (Hebrew lilatu, "night") - Semitic female demon, haunting wildernesses in storms, inimical to children and pregnant women. She was Adam's first, ungovernable wife, Cain's mother, the Devil's mate + song 'Lillibullero, bullen a law' (The song's title and the words of the refrain have been interpreted as a garbled version of the Irish words Lile ba léir é, ba linn an lá: "Lilly was clear and ours was the day").

(coitus interruptus)

Saint Paul allows the breaking of marriage bonds between believing and unbelieving husband and wife if the Christian is thereby prevented from practising his or her Christianity (I Corinthians 7:15).

maler = males - pl. of male + Maler (German) - painter.

abush - to ambush  

keep back - to restrain, retard; to conceal

erstwhile - former + FDV: Guiltless he was clearly for so once at least he clearely with a brave outlander's burr declared himself to be & we know that it is true.

burr - anything that appears to stick in the throat or that produces a choking sensation, accumulation of phlegm, huskiness; 'a lump in the throat'; a rough sounding of the letter r, characteristic of Northumberland.

amalgam - orig. A soft mass formed by chemical manipulation, esp. a soft or plastic condition of gold, silver, etc. produced by combination with mercury; fig. A complete combination of various elements. 

chloride - Chem. A simple compound of chlorine with a metal or an organic radical + chlôroeidês (gr) - greenish + calcium chloride - a moisture-absorbing salt, used as a dehumidifying agent (i.e. hydrophilic).

hydrophobe - one suffering from, or affected with, hydrophobia (aversion to water or other liquids, and difficulty in swallowing them; dread or horror of water. Also fig. madness).

sponge - a hard drinker, drunkard

happy go lucky - just as it may happen; as luck will have it; haphazard + gusty - Of weather, etc.: Marked by gusts or squalls of wind; fitfully windy or stormy.

Ides of April - 13th April + Ides of March (the date of Caesar's assassination) + FDV: They tell the story that one fine spring one whistling happy-go-gusty -blowy April morning some years after the alleged misdemeanour whisst whitst crossing swinging billowing across the fair expanse of the park in the billowy rubberised inverness he met a cad with a pipe.

assumption - the action of taking to oneself; reception, adoption

birthday suit - the state of being nude; nakedness + (on his birthday)

appurtenance - a thing which naturally and fitly forms a subordinate part of, or belongs to, a whole system; a contributory adjunct, an accessory.

confusion of races (notebook 1924)

misdemeanour - Law. One of a class of indictable offences which were formerly regarded as less heinous than those called felonies; evil behaviour, misconduct.

tried - proved or tested by experience or examination; Of metals: purified, refined.

tigerwood - showy black marked wood

staff - a long stick carried in the hand for support in walking

stay - something that serves as a prop, support

billow - to surge, swell, undulate, roll with wavy motion + FDV: crossing swinging billowing across

expanse - a widely extended space or area, a wide extent of anything

caoutchouc - 'waterproof' (cloak) + caoutchouc kepi (fr) - a forward-sloping military cap made of rubber + HCE is putting on his seven pieces of clothing, suitably waterproof for a happygogusty April morning of potentially stormy conditions, that is, of showers and exposers.

kepi - a French military cap, slightly tapering, with a flat top which slopes towards the front, and a horizonal peak.

blue fox - a dark reddish grey, pelt of artic fox + Blaufuchs (ger) - blue fox.

fustian - Formerly, a kind of coarse cloth made of cotton and flax. Now, a thick, twilled, cotton cloth with a short pile or nap, usually dyed of an olive, leaden, or other dark colour.

ironside - a hardy veteran puritan soldier + Ironsides - nickname of Cromwell.

jackboot - a heavy military boot

bhagavat - possesing good fortune, blessed one + Bhagavad Gita (Sanskrit) - a book of scripture of the Hindu religion.

rubberize - to coat or impregnate with rubber

inverness - name of an overcoat with a removable cape

Cad = The Dorans (Joyce's list of characters in I.2)

Lucifer - the rebel archangel whose fall from heaven was supposed to be referred to in Isa. xiv. 12; Satan, the Devil + luciferens (l) - light-carrying.

aureoled - encircled with an aureole + oriuolo (Italian Obsolete) - a watch, a clock.

odds - chances, greater likelihood

beat about - to discuss topics already treated of; to tack against the wind + Dagobert (d.639) - Frankish king who seems to have worn his clothes back to front.

bamer (Anglo-Irish) - straw hat

overcoat - a large coat worn over the ordinary clothing, esp. in cold weather.

Schulter (ger) - shoulder

inside out - so that the inner side becomes the outer + Jacob (a smooth man) put on a goatskin and carried venison to his father + song Brian O'Linn: (made breeches with) 'the skinny side out and the woolly side in'.


sign the pledge - to decide or promise to drink no more alcohol

hardily - boldly, courageously

accost - to make up to and speak to; to address + FDV: The latter accosted him to ask if he could say what it was o'clock that the clock struck, had he any idea.

Conas ta tu indiu mo dhuine uasal fionn? (Irish Gaelic) - How are you today, my fair gentleman? (McH) + ouzel (Archaic) - blackbird; a person of dark complexion.

ouzel (Archaic) - blackbird; a person of dark complexion + The Ouzel Galley, believed lost, reappeared unexpectedly off Poolbeg in 1700.

Dubh-Linn - Ir, "Black Pool" probably referring to the little harbour once formed at the point where the Poddle River joined the Liffey from the South. The Viking invaders adopted and gave currency to this name.

old days - past times

tremblingly - in a trembling manner; tremulously; with trembling

bradys (gr) - slow, dull + Joe Brady - leader of the Invincibles, who killed the viceroy in the Phoenix Park. 

evitate - to avoid, shun

execration - the utterance of curses (as an expression of hatred), an imprecation.

honi soit (fr) - shame on him + Motto of the Order of the Garter: 'Honi soit qui mal y pense' - Shame Be (to Him) Who Evil Thinks of This + honni (Welsh) - assert, allege, pretend + homicide.

spurring - that impels, incites or urges + spur of the moment - prompted by the occation, occuring without prior planning.

nexal - characterized by the imposition of servitude as a penalty on a defaulting debtor + nex (l) - murder, slaughter. 

noxally - by way of noxal surrender (the compensatory surrender to the plaintiff of the slave, animal, etc. by which the injury was done) + noxal (Legalese) - relating to damage or injury done by a person or animal belonging to another (from Latin noxa: damage, harm) + nox (l) - night.

ping - a sharp metallic sound

K.O. - knock(ed) out + Kimmage Outer 1767 (exchange and phone number).

Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March (17) + Fenian Rising, 1867 (67) = 1767 (Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu: The House by the Churchyard, ch. 1: (begins) 'A.D. 1767').

plug - to put a bullet into, to shoot + (notebook 1922-23): 'to plug (shoot)' Irish Times 9 Dec 1922, 5/3: 'Four "Reprisal" Executions': 'The I.R.A. would argue that they had to "plug" a good many more deputies in order to prevent the national troops from firing on them'.

softnosed bullet - expanding bullet

sap - simpleton, fool + FDV: Earwicker realising [as a on fundamental principles] the supreme importance of physical life & being unwishful to be plugged by a leaden the sap's bullet sending him to eternity halting drew quick on the draw produced his enamelled shrapnel hunter Waterbury [from his gun pocket] and hearing [above the skirling of old sharp Mother East] old Fox Goodman working the tenor bell in the speckled church, and told the cad it was punctually twelve to the minute adding however that the accusation against him had been made as was well known by a creature in human form who was several degrees lower than a snake.

quick on the draw - to be quick in drawing a pistol

tipstaff - a sheriff's officer carrying a tipped staff + tiptop (Colloquial) - superlatively good.

cue - a hint of what is coming


Jurgensen - type of Swiss watch + Jorgenson - United States Army rifle.

shrapnel - a hollow projectile containing bullets and a small bursting charge, which, when fired by the time fuse, bursts the shell and scatters the bullets in a shower; small change, notes, or coins of low denominations.

Waterbury - the name of a town in Connecticut, U.S.A., used attrib. or absol. to designate a low-priced watch or clock of a type manufactured there + Joyce's note: 'Pop has Waterbury watch' MS 47471b-iiv, LPS: his enamelled ^+shrapnel+^ hunter ^+Waterbury+^ | JJA 45:024 | Oct 1923 |

usucaption - the acquisition of ownership by long use or enjoyment

skirl - a high shrill tone of a bagpipe, a shrill cry, a shriek; to scream, to produce a shrill sounds.

(East wind)

Thom's Directory of Ireland/Dublin (1862): 'Eccles-street... 14... Goodman, John Fox, solicitor' + Thom's Directory of Ireland/Dublin (1903): 'Court for Crown Cases, Reserved - Officer of the Court - John Fox Goodman, Esq' (apparently the clerk responsible for swearing the jury in a conspiracy case against Parnell in 1880).

bellmaster - a player on a set of fixed bells played by hammers controlled by the keyboard.

Ton (ger) - tone

tonante (it) - thundering

thunderous - resembling thunder in its loudness, suggestive of thunder

toller - one who tolls a bell + toll - the act of tolling a bell, or the sound made by a bell when tolled + Toller, John - 7-foot giant, Brewer says. He melts into great tolling bells and tailors.

song 'Cuchulainn's Call' Cuchulainn - the greatest hero in early Irish literature and the principal hero of the Ulster Cycle; along with Lug Lámfhota and Fionn mac Cumhaill, Cúchulainn is one of the three great heroes of early Ireland, all of whom may derive from a common source and may in fact be identical. ... The guests at Culann's lonely mansion are making merry, knowing they are protected from intruders by a huge, ferocious dog. But in the midst of the laughter they hear a terrible sound. A late-arriving Sétanta, aged only 7, has killed the dog by smashing it against a doorpost. The guests cheer, but Culann is dismayed at the loss of his prized hound. Sétanta responds that he will raise another whelp to replace the guard dog, and will serve as the hound in the interim. The crowd applaud his generosity and call him the Hound: Cú, of Culann: Chulainn, the name he retained thenceforward.

kidder - hawker

by Jove - Colloquiall asseveration (pro Juppiter, pro Jovem) + Jehovah or Yahweh - God of Israel. The name has been derived from hawah, "to sink down or fall." 

sidereal - Of periods of time: Determined or measured by means of the stars + FDV: and told the cad it was punctually twelve to the minute adding however that the accusation against him had been made as was well known by a creature in human form who was several degrees lower than a snake.

tankard - a bell hung on a sheep's neck + Standard Time

buttal - a bound or boundary; to set boundaries to

pondus  - a weight; chiefly fig. power to influence or bias; moral force

copperstick (Slang) - policeman's truncheon; penis

Confucius + confusion

chopsticks (used by Confucius)

ginger - the rhizome of the tropical plant Zingiber officinale, remarkable for its hot spicy taste, used when dried and ground in cookery and as a medicine; ginger ale, ginger brandy + Confucius liked chewing ginger root (pungent).

chowchow - food of any kind

vim - force or vigour, energy + vitalis (l) - of life + In ancient Chinese medicine, sour is used to nourish bones, acid for muscles, salt for blood, sweet for flesh, and bitter to improve the general vitality.

haku (Japanese) - to say + (stuttering)

quarter - a person or group not definitely specified

MORNING POST - London daily newspaper, merged with the Daily Telegraph, 1937; Dublin daily newspaper, merged with the Dublin Times, 1832 + morgenpost (Dutch) - morning post.

human + uniform.

below par - not as healthy as usual; below the average, normal or usual amount, degree, condition, or quality + (notebook 1922-23): 'several degrees lower than a snake'.

tripleheaded - threeheaded + hydra - Gr. Myth. The fabulous many-headed snake of the marshes of Lerna, whose heads grew again as fast as they were cut off: said to have been at length killed by Hercules + Daily Mail 8 Dec 1922, 6/3: (quoting a statement made by Bywaters to the police in the Ilford murder trial) 'The reason I fought with Thompson was because he never acted like a man to his wife. He always seemed several degress lower than a snake'.

quaint - unusual, extraordinary

reconstructed + constrict - squeeze, cramp, inhibit.

quiritary - that is in accordance with Roman civil law; legal, as opposed to equitable (characterized by equity or fairness) + Quirites - Roman citizens. 

quietude - quietness, stillness

zusammen (ger) - together

Webster, Noah (1758-1843) - American lexicographer. I agree with Mr Wilder: for FW, Joyce's English-language dictionary was Webster's Unabridged, for the OED is parochial and time consuming (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake) + webster (Archaic) - weaver.

redaction (French) - edition

attributive - so-assigned, so-ascribed (by those who essay to assign the authorship of a painting or work of art).

price one shilling, postage free

flaxen - with pale soft strawy color (used chiefly of the hair)

giant + gigas (gr,l) - giant, titan + Gyges (gr,l) - Lydian king who had ring of invisibility + The Syrians knew Orion as Gabbara; the Arabians as Al Jabbar, both signifying 'the Giant', Gigas, giant, Greek title for Orion with Ptolemy, — and in Latin days occasionally Gigas.

chronometer - an instrument for measuring time + chronometron (gr) - time-measure + conundrum

ambi - - both, on both sides + adjacent

floodplain - a flat surface that may be submerged by floodwaters + Joyce's note: 'floodplain'.

gauntlet - a glove worn as part of mediaeval armour, usually made of leather, covered with plates of steel + Berlin glove - glove knitted of Berlin wool (a type of fine dyed wool).


hough - the hollow part behind the knee-joint in man; the adjacent back part of the thigh + hoch (ger) - high + height

elbow + Ellbogen (ger) = elleboog (Dutch) - elbow.

lore - knowledge

duc de fer (fr) - iron duke

overgrown - that has grown too much; too big, abnormally large + WELLINGTON MONUMENT - The 205-ft granite obelisk erected in 1817 in Phoenix Park. Visible from many parts of Dublin, it has been popularly called the "overgrown milestone."  

milestone - a pillar set up on a highway or other road or course to mark the miles + FDV: In support of his words the honest flaxen goliath tapped his chronometer and pointed a Berlin gauntlet to the dukes overgrown milestone as he said solemnly: credit me sir my friend [I have won [straight]. Hence my nationwide business.]

gage - a fixed or standard measure or scale of measurement, the measure to which a thing must conform, an instrument for ascertaining and verifying dimensions + gage (fr) - pledge, token.

aver - to assert as a fact; to state positively, affirm

snake + (stuttering)

(masturbation, five fingers and one penis) + five silent sources of the crime, 2 "Slavies" and 3 "Fusiliers".

nonation - strange, remote, out of the way, scarcely known + no-nation place - an out-of-the-way locality + FDV: Hence my nationwide business

creamery - an establishment where butter and cheese are made or where milk and cream are sold.

credit - to give credit to, put faith in, believe, trust (a statement, person, or thing).

take one's stand - to declare one's position, loyalty, etc. and be prepared to fight (or defend them).

redemption - the action of redeeming oneself from punishment; way or means of doing this; atonement made for a crime or offence + (notebook 1923): 'sign of our redemption'.

hygienic - belonging or relating to hygiene + FDV: I am prepared to stand take my stand on upon the monument any hygienic day at this hour and to declare before upon the open bible before the Great Taskmaster's eye & in the presence of the deity my immediate neighbour and my fellows [in every corner on this globe in general] & to every each living soul acquainted with the British tongue that there is not one tittle of truth in that purest of fabrications. 


sin fingers

taskmaster - one who assigns tasks, one who burdens another with labor, overseer + John Milton: Sonnet VII: 'my great task Masters eye'.

Michan - St Michan's church in Dublin has a vault full of well-preserved corpses which are shown to tourists.  

Mitwohner (ger) - people sharing living quarters


wheresoever - in any place whatever

backbone - a main support or axis, or chief substantial part; fig. The main or important element.

commutative justice - justice bearing on the relations between individuals and contractual obligations.

tittle - the smallest or a very small part of something, a minute amount

gape - to stare in wonder or admiration, to stare at with open mouth + Gaping Ghyl - a deep vertical cave in Yorkshire, England + FDV: The cad perceiving that he had to do with a clear postpuberal hyperpituitary type, thanked him for the time of day [not a little surprised, all the same, that that was all the time it was] and repeated the words that same evening at his fireside where he was smoking reflectively spat in museful thought after having eaten some boiled peas and with vinegar a dish a plateful he much fancied.


errors + Thor - Scandinavian god of thunder and war. Tomar is the Irish form. Thunder-gods are important in FW because Finnegan fell on Thursday, Ulysses takes place mostly on Thursday, and Vico says language, religion, the family, and civilization began with thunder (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake).

Swift/Sterne (Motif)

check - to stop (action, growth, exhibition of feeling, and the like), to restrain.

Eustachian tube - a canal leading from the upper part of the pharynx to the cavity of the tympanum, which it appears to supply with air.

markedly - in a marked manner or degree

postpubertal - occuring after puberty + puberal - of puberty.

pituitary gland - a small bilobed body attached to (and sometimes taken to include) the infundibulum at the base of the brain. 

Heidelberg man - an early pleistocene man + (notebook 1924): 'Heidelbergman' +  mannlich (ger) - manly, masculine.

luft = left + lifted

slope - to move or proceed in, an oblique direction; spec. To bring (a weapon) into, or hold (it) in, a sloping position + (notebook 1930): 'hat = sloping forward I luft my sloper forward to mr Ally on the hills' Paget: Babel 85: (of the connection between sound, tongue-gesture and meaning) 'Ă as in hat (written phonetically Æ) would represent a sloping forward'.

Sweatagore - Russian Svyatogor, a supernatural hero of Russian folklore, literally meaning "Holy Mount" + Sweatipore (Slang) - India. 

greedly = greedily - with manifestation of strong desire + greatly

ham - an inexpert performer; an incompetent boxer or fighter + man

touchy - risky, precarious; not to be touched without danger

um - 'em

guilder - gulden + guider - something which guides.

take aback - to surprise or discomfit by a sudden and unlooked-for check + bock (fr) - glass of beer + FDV: not a little surprised, all the same, that that was all the time it was

all the same - in spite of what has been mentioned; even if circumstances had been otherwise; nevertheless, notwithstanding.

tysk (Danish) - German + taskmaster - one who imposes tasks, especially burdensome or laborious ones.

mouldy - of the nature of mould; decayed, gloomy, depressing

void - gap, nothingness + Psalms 68:33: 'lo, he doth send out his voice, and that a mighty voice'.

corse - corpse + in a matter of course - belonging to the ordinary procedure, custom, or way of the world; customary; natural, to be expected.

hound - to hunt or trace with hounds or as if with hounds

monticule - hillock, a minute eminence

dandruff - dead scarf-skin separating in small scales and entangled in the hair; scurf.

blaze the trail - to indicate (a spot or path)

trusty - trustful, trustworthy

snorler = snarler - a dog + One Middle English treatment of the legend, the poem Sir Tristrem, highlights some issues in a humorous fashion; when Tristrem and Ysonde mistakenly drink of the love potion, Tristrem's hound Hodain licks out the cup. The poet writes of the new-made lovers and hound, "Thai loved with al her might / And Hodain dede also."

voracious - Of animals (rarely of persons, or of the throat): Eating with greediness; devouring food in large quantities; gluttonous, ravenous + verbi gratia (l) - for instance + verbigeration - repetition of the same word or phrase in a meaningless way. 

The early bird catches the worm (proverb) + Wilde: De Profundis: (to Douglas) 'but I met you either too late or too soon'.

tag - label, epithet + tak for ilden (Danish) - thanks for the light.

big time - outstanding, first class + big timer - a top ranker.

verboten (ger) - forbidden + verbatim.

cold eve + kveld (Danish) - evening + FDV: and repeated the words that same evening at his fireside where he was smoking reflectively spat in in museful thought after having eaten some boiled peas and with vinegar a dish a plateful he much fancied.

twittering - light tremulous chirping of a bird or birds

twitterlight - twilight

between the devil and the deep sea (phrase)

suppertime - the time for evening meal

souvenir - a remembrance, a memory

charlatan - an assuming empty pretender to knowledge or skill, a pretentious impostor + Joyce's note: 'Charlatan Mall'.

mall - a sheltered walk serving as a promenade; in some towns adopted as a proper name.

jointly - together

darkening - nightfall, dusk

ROYAL CANAL - A financial disaster from the start, the Royal Canal was begun in 1789 to run North of the Liffey, roughly paralleling the course of the rival Grand Canal to the South.  

Fluh (ger) - precipice

whenas - while; although, whereas; for the reason that

talky-talk - trivial conversation, talk for talking's sake + pawky - tricky, sly, cunning.

pogue (Anglo-Irish) - kiss

Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب‎, literally Coast/Beach of the Arabs) or the Arvand Rūd (Persian: اروندرود, literally Arvand River), is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 kilometres in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq. In Middle Persian literature the name "Arvand" refers to the Tigris river.

acquiescent - acquiescing; disposed to acquiesce, quietly agree, or assent + aqua (l) - water.

im Blauen (ger) - in the blue + castles in the air (phrase) + Castle Browne was renamed Clongowes Wood.

stud - to furnish with studs (pillar, nail, bolt) + Studd - a family of English cricketers.

cowshot - in cricket, a flat scooping legstroke made by the batsman  

spat - p. of spit (to utter, speak, to emit)

pervertedness - wickedness, distortion

musaic = mosaic + Mosaic Dispensation - Moses' religious system, Judaism.

dispensation - Theol. A religious order or system, conceived as divinely instituted, or as a stage in a progressive revelation, expressly adapted to the needs of a particular nation or period of time, as the patriarchal, Mosaic (or Jewish) dispensation, Christian dispensation.

hearthstone - the flat stone forming the hearth. Also put symbolically for the fireside or home.

saliva - spittle

ma se do thoil e (ma she du hul e) (gael) - if you please

ascendance - going back in time

expectorate - to eject, discharge (phlegm, etc.) from the chest or lungs by coughing, hawking, or spitting; to ease or relieve one's mind.

callous - hardened, unfeeling, insensible

belcher - one who, or that which, belches; a neckerchief of deep blue with large white spots, each containing a dark blue spot, darker than the ground (so called after Jim Belcher (1781-1811), a pugilist who adopted it); also, any particoloured neckerchief.

Spucker (German) - person who spits + Tuch (German) - cloth.

pucket - nest of caterpillar + pocket



sup - to take supper

dish meat - food cooked in a dish, as e.g. a pie + sot - a habitual drunkard.

pottage - soup, esp. a thick soup + FDV: after having eaten some boiled peas and with vinegar a dish a plateful he much fancied.  

dab - pat, tap + dub - to name, to nickname.

rawly - barely, scarcely (obs. rare.) + realy

Lucan - Dublin environ on the Liffey. Two earls of Lucan may have interested Joyce: (1) Patrick Sarsfield, a Wild Goose, who fought under James II, died in 1693, saying, "O that this were for Ireland!"; (2) Lord Lucan, who commanded cavalry at Balaclava and is associated by Joyce with the Light Brigade + pocán (Irish) - little he-goat. 

senaf (Rhaeto-Romanic) = senf (Serbian) - mustard

pibe (Rhaeto-Romanic) = biber (Serbian) - pepper

excelling - superior

ball - to form into a ball, to squeeze into a compact mass + boiled.

minnshogue (Anglo-Irish) = minnseog (minshog) (gael) - young she-goat after first kidding

winesour - a small acid variety of plum + white malt vinegar → Malt vinegar is made by malting barley, causing the starch in the grain to turn to sugar. An ale is then brewed from the sugar and allowed to turn into vinegar, which is then aged. Any type of vinegar may be distilled to produce a colourless solution of about 5% to 8% acetic acid in water. This is variously known as distilled, spirit or white vinegar, and is used for medicinal, laboratory and cleaning purposes as well as in cooking, including pickling. The most common starting material, due to its low cost, is malt vinegar.

proviant - food

bilker - one who practises cheating; esp. one who evades payment of a cabman's fare  

hoarsely - with hoarse voice + highly

relish - to enjoy, take pleasure or delight in, to have a liking for

chaff - to roll up (dough) into a rounded form in the moulding of a round loaf

snevel = snivel + sne (Danish) - snow.

fain - pleased, happy, inclined, desirous + fain of - glad of, pleased with.

fennel - a fragrant perennial umbellifer (Foeniculum vulgare) having yellow flowers, cultivated chiefly for its use in sauces eaten with salmon, etc.

crown - to cap or put the finishing touch to a series of events

pot valiance - valour or courage induced by drink, Dutch courage

platter - one who plats (to buffet, slap, smack, strike, knock); a flat dish or plate for food + plat regional (fr) - local dish.

Benjamin - the name of the patriarch Jacob's youngest son. Hence allusively, the youngest (and, consequently, favourite) son of a family; also transf.; Benjamin's mess or portion: the largest share.

bouilli (fr) - boiled beef


zaynith (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - zenith + zayit (Hebrew) - olive.

porco grasso (Italian) - fat swine, fat pig (an exclamation in Triestine Italian Dialect) + porcograso (Esperanto) - lard.

arabesque - to ornament in arabesque (a species of mural or surface decoration in colour or low relief, composed in flowing lines of branches, leaves, and scroll-work fancifully intertwined) + erebus - place of darkness between earth and heaven.

deluxe - luxuriously + deliciously - delightfully.

PHOENIX BREWERY - Phoenix Porter Brewery Co, in James's Street, across Watling Street from Guinness's. Ca 1820 the brewery was owned by Daniel O'Connell, Jr, later by John Brennan, O'Connell's manager, who renamed it the Phoenix Brewery. Until it went out of business before WW I, the Phoenix Brewery brewed "O'Connell's Ale." Its premises were taken over by Guinness, and the brewing of O'Connell's Ale by D'Arcy's Anchor Brewery. 

The Memory of the Dead (song): 'Who fears to speak of Ninety-Eight?' (i.e. of the Irish rebellion of 1798)

nuptial - wedding + for the first, second, etc. time - as a first, second, etc., instance.

Piesporter - wine made in and around the village of Piesport on the north bank of the Mosel wine region of Germany. A white, light body wine that ranges from dry to off-dry, it can be made from Riesling, Müller-Thurgau or Elbling grapes.

Grand cru (French for 'great growth') is a regional wine classification that designates a vineyard known for its favorable reputation in producing wine. Although often used to describe grapes, wine or cognac, the term is not technically a classification of wine quality per se, but is intended to indicate the potential of the vineyard or terroir.

humble - to make humble, to destroy the power + Thomas Moore: Though Humble the Banquet (song) [air: Farewell Eamon]: Though humble the banquet to which I invite thee, / Thou'lt find there the best a poor bard can command; / Eyes, beaming with welcome, shall throng round, to light thee, / And Love serve the feast with his own willing hand.

banquet - a feast, a sumptuous entertainment of food and drink + bouquet - the odour of wine.

teaman - prisoner (slang); a marijuana addict + seaman - a sailor + leman (Archaic) - lover, sweetheart.

obdurately - stubbornly

FDV: The aftertale has it that The next evening but one the cad's wife spoke of the matter after sadality meeting to the Reverend the director, a fresh complexioned clergyman and it was he in all human probability who, seized of the facts, was overheard by accident - if indeed it was an accident - to repeat the words in an undertone to a layteacher of natural science in the middle 40's during a priestly flutter for safe & sane bets on the race course of baldoyle on the day when on a date easily capable of remembrance by all [turfites] when the portmanock plate was won captured after a clever getaway by a full length from Bald Boy Cromwell by Captain Blounts fresh colt drummer coxon at even money at short odds.

bit of stuff - woman or girl + bit of strife (Rhyming Slang) - wife + strife - earnest endeavor + Cad's Wife = Maggy (Joyce's list of characters in I.2).

née (fr) - born (feminine)

Maxwelton, Bareniece - wife of the Cad. Her name has to do with "Maxwelton's braes" in "Annie Laurie" (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake) + Annie Laurie (song): 'Maxwelton braes are bonny'.

quick ear - capable of swift perception

spittoon - a receptacle for spittle, usually a round flat vessel of earthenware or metal, sometimes having a cover in the form of a shallow funnel with an opening in the middle.

aftertale - a subsequent reckoning, a correction

hath - 3d. pres.sing. of have

line up - to fall into line, to come up to a certain line + glaned (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - gleaned glean - to gather stalks or ears of grain left by reapers; to pick up or gather anything by degrees, to gather information or material bit by bit + cleaned up (after meal).

domestic - of home, house, of one's own country or nation

husbandry - the care of a household, domestic menagement

persica (l) - peach + persic (Rhaeto-Romanic) - peach.

armeniacum prunum (l) - apricot (lit. "armenian plum")

pomum (l) - apple + Pomeranze (ger) - pomengrate + pomaranza (Rhaeto-Romanic) - orange (fruit).

slip - to glide or pass easily out of (or from) one's hand or grasp, through (or between) one's fingers , etc., so as to escape or be lost.

clava (l, it) - cudgel, club + clavis (l) = clav (Rhaeto-Romanic) - key + slip the calf - to suffer abortion.

in one's claws - implying the notion of seizing, or having in one's possession or power.

break news, a matter, a secret - to make it known, disclose, divulge it.

curtsey - slight bending of a knees + course

vesper - evensong + whisper

secret (Rhaeto-Romanic) - lavatory

pispigliando (it) - whispering + pis (pish) (gael) - vulva.

amad - mad, demented + amid + ama-da (Rhaeto-Romanic) - loved.

loverden - beloved + lavurdi (Rhaeto-Romanic) - weekday.

manfolk - people, human beings

gossip - a familiar acquaintance, friend, chum; esp. applied to a woman's female friends invited to be present at a birth + gossip cup - a warm drink consisting of thin gruel, mixed with wine or ale, sweetened and spiced, given chiefly to sick people, esp. women in childbed + Hegesippos (g) - "Horse-commander"; 4th cent. Athenian orator. 

cup of tea

ticklish - sensitive, touchy; fickle

Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 1: 'I couldn't stood it much longer'

hosch - hush + hoscha! (Rhaeto-Romanic) - come in!

intra - within the powers of legal authority + intro - colloq. abbrev. of introduction + intrar (Rhaeto-Romanic) - to enter.

jist = just

tablespoon - as much as a tablespoon holds

cupple = couple - to link together, to fasten

lawrie = lowrie - a fox + Annie Laurie (song).

pudden - pudding

cum (l) - with

pech, pieck (Rhaeto-Romanic) - breast + peclas (Rhaeto-Romanic) - a cake made on Shrove Tuesday + pitschen (Rhaeto-Romanic) - slight, small.

epistle - a literary work, usually in poetry, composed in the form of a letter; Chiefly (from its use in translations from L. and Gr.) applied to letters written in ancient times, esp. to those which rank as literary productions, or to those of a public character, or addressed to a body of persons + gossip/epistle.

epistola (l) - letter

teetotal - of, relating to, or practicing complete abstinence from alcoholic beverages.

in vino veritas (l) - truth comes out under the influence of alcohol; a drunken person tells the truth (Pliny) + vinars (Rhaeto-Romanic) - brandy.

volatile - a winged animal + volatilis (l) - flying.

Sodality Priest = Shem (Joyce's list of characters in I.2)

Giordano Bruno of Nola (referred to as 'the Nolan' in Joyce's The Day of the Rabblement) + Browne and Nolan, Dublin booksellers.

vale (l) - farewell

Vincentian - a member of an order of Roman Catholic mission-priests founded by St. Vincent  de Paul (1576-1660) + Vicentio - duke in Measure for Measure

overhear - to hear (speech or utterance) that is not intended to reach one's ears.

reared - brought up to a certain stage of growth

ruadh (rue) (gael) - red + ruakh (Hebrew) - spirit, wind, puff.

Ecclesiastes - the title of a book of the Old Testament, written in the person of Solomon, and traditionally ascribed to his authorship.

hippos (gr) - horse + Saint Augustine of Hippo.

output - to put out, produce

have a banana (Slang) - to coit + 'Have a Havana' (old commercial slogan for cigars) + Havvah (Hebrew) - Eve + bat (Hebrew) - daughter of + ben (Hebrew) - son of + bean (Irish) - woman.

pianissimo - very softly; a very soft passage

varied - presenting different forms or qualities on this account

Crookedribs - Eve (Paradise Lost, X, 884-85) + Mohammed: 'Women were created out of a crooked rib of Adam'.

confidential - spoken or written in confidence + confessions

Marie Louise and Josephine (Napoleon's wives)

between hands - in the intervals of time, at intervals

swear fealty - (of the feudal tenant or vassal) to take the obligation of fidelity to his lord.

bravour - valour, bravery, spirit + mein Braver (ger) - my good one.

freer - one that sets free; friar + Frau (ger) - wife, woman + mon frère!' (fr) - my brother!' + frar (Rhaeto-Romanic) - brother.

Balfe: The Bohemian Girl: The Secret of My Birth (song)

rubied - coloured like a ruby

oreille (fr) - ear + Persse O'Reilly

philly - rel. to city of Philadelphia; filly + (notebook 1923): 'Ernest Thornton Philly - Henry -' (dashes ditto 'Thornton') + Teacher = Lily Kinsella.

lay - not ecclesiastical, unproffesional

rural science - the study of rural concerns esp. agriculture + (natural science).

orthophonethics - reproducing sounds correctly  

flutter (Betting Slang) - an exciting venture

sane - sensible, rational

hippic - rel. to horses or horse racing

breezy - windy; fig. Characterized by brisk vigour or activity, lively, jovial.

BALDOYLE - Village, North of Sutton and Howth; site of race course.

Winny Widger

go through the card - to consider or try all the possibilities offered + go through the card (Slang) - (of a jockey) to win every race on the programme.

picker up - one who picks up or gathers

Dublin Details - a newspaper column about Dublin race horses

perkin - a pretender to the trone, or to any exalted position + Peter

peer - a member of one of the degrees of nobility in the United Kingdom

prole - a member of the proletariat

encourage - encouragement; inspire with confidence; give hope or courage to.

Hackney (Horse) - a recognized breed that was developed in Great Britain. A studbook has been maintained for this breed since 1833 by the Hackney Horse Society, which has its headquarters in Norwich. The breed takes its name from the Hackney area of London, England (the uncapitalized term, "hackney" is a more general designation for horses used for ordinary driving or riding). The Hackney Horse derives from two earlier breeds that have now disappeared, the Norfolk Roadster and the Yorkshire Roadster. Like those two breeds, the breeding of the Hackney has been directed toward producing horses that are ideal for drawing carriages. They are known for their great stamina, trotting at high speed for extended periods of time.

plate - in Horse-racing, a prize consisting of a silver or gold cup or the like given to the winner of a race.

photo finish - the finish of a race in which competitors are so close that the result has to be determined by reference to a photograph of the situation + tablecloth - a covering for a table, particularly that spread on it when it is 'laid' for a meal.

each (akh) (gael) - horse, steed + ek (Volapük) - some.

neach (nakh) (gael) - anyone + nek (Volapük) - none.

evelo nevelo (Volapük) - ever never

cream - yellowish white color

colt - the young of the horse (to the age of 4, or in the case of a thoroughbred, 5 years).

getaway - act of starting + (notebook 1923): 'a clean getaway'.

roe - a name given to the regular appearance of dark figures and spots in figured mahogany, which give a mottled effect, like a fish roe.

hinny - the offspring of a she-ass by a stalion

Saint Doolagh - a village near Baldoyle and Raheny

drummer - one who beats a drum for public or military purposes + drummer (Slang) - a horse with an irregular foreleg action.

coxon - coxswain

nondescript - not easily described or classified; of no particular class, kind, or form + depict = depicted.

breakneck - inviting danger, very rapid, very steep

odds - the ratio between the amount to be won and the amount wagered on a bet, difference.

bonny - pleasing to the sight, comely, beautiful

winny - whinny; wienie

widger - a gardening tool + widge (obs. dial.) - a steed + jolly roger - the pirate's flag + (notebook 1922-23): 'Widger' → J.W. Widger: the most famous rider of a Waterford racing-associated family.

daddy of them all - the best or finest example of som. pleasant or unpleasant + nappy - liquor, ale; napkin + Ulysses.14.1415: 'Thou art all their daddies, Theodore'.

'Neverrip brand as supplied to the aristocracy' (Ulysses.15.3256)

bantam-weight - a weight class in boxing (about 51-54 kilograms) + (jockey).

top - to get or leap over the top of, to surmount + topped

timber - wooden, dull + timber topper (Slang) - a horse good at jumping.

maggie - a girl + naggy - a small nag, a pony.

cove (Slang) - fellow + FDV: It was 2 coves of the name of Treacle Tom & Frisky Shorty off the hulks what was on the bum for a [an oofbird with good for a] jimmygogblin jimmygoblin as heard this reverend gent make use of the language which he was having a gurgle [on his own] along of the bloke in the specs.

wetter - one who wets; water + Wetter (ger) - weather.

renn- (ger) - race + Ren, or name of power (Egyptian mythology)

overt - open to view

vox (l) - voice

future + the turf (horse-racing)

lande - an infertile moor, sandy barren bordering the sea + Song of Solomon 2:11-12: 'For, lo, the winter is past, the rain is over and gone... and the voice of the turtle is heard in our land'.

treacle - something sweet or clogging; to flow as treacle, to trickle (humorous nonce-use.) + Treacle Town (Slang) - Bristol + Treacle Tom = Magrath Bros. (Joyce's list of characters in I.2).

in pop - in pawn or pledge + out of pawn (Slang) - out of prison [(notebook 1923): 'out of pawn (prison)'].

theft - the action of a thief, larceny

KEHOE, DONNELLY AND PAKENHAM - Ham and bacon curers, 12-14 Brabazon Street.  

frisky - lively, playful + Frisky Shorty = ∆ (Joyce's list of characters in I.2).

shorty - a person of short stature; a short drink + (notebook 1922-23): 'frisky shorty (tramp)' Irish Times 18 Nov 1922, 9/6: 'Literary Vagabonds': 'stealing free rides on freight trains with kindred knights of the road known as "Boston Slim" and "Frisky Shorty"'.

punctilious - marked by precise exact accordance with the details of codes or conventions.

tipster - a man who makes a business of furnishing 'tips' or confidential information as to the probable chances of an event on which betting depends, esp. in horse-racing.

come off - to come away from a place in which one has been e.g. a ship.

hulk - a ship; the body of a dismantled ship (worn out and unfit for sea service) retained in use as a store-vessel, for the temporary housing of crews, for quarantine or other purposes; a vessel of this kind formerly used as a prison. Usually pl. + hulks (Slang) - prison ships.

bum - to go around in the manner of a bum, to wander

oofbird - a source or supplier of money, rich person, ''the goose that lays the golden eggs'' (from Slang oof: money) + (notebook 1923): 'oofbird'.

jimmy o'goblin - Rhyming slang for sovereign (twenty shillings)

un - one + thick 'un (Slang) - a sovereign or crown piece.

SEAFORTH HIGHLANDERS - This famous British regiment is named for the last Earl of Seaforth (d 1781), who raised the original regiment, later the 2nd Battalion of the Seaforths. The band of the 2nd played in College Park, TCD on 16 June 1904, and the viceroy hears "My Girl's a Yorkshire Girl" as his contage passes.

colleen - a girl + colleen bawn = white or fair girl + Dion Boucicault, The Colleen Bawn.

person + parson.

clobber - to hit; to thrash or 'beat up' + motor car - an automobile + clobber (Slang) - clothes.

law language - language pertaining to law

and so on - used as an abbreviating phrase to avoid further description or the enumeration of further details + edzo (Esperanto) - husband.

sunday - a sunday newspapers

rub noses (with) - to touch noses in greeting (in token of friendship).

gurgle - a drink or draught of liquor

along of - on account of, owing to; together (with)

butty - a fellow workman; a sandwich (from buttered bread) + butty (Dublin Slang) - drinking companion.

bloke - man, fellow + bootblack - a person who blacks boots, a shoe-black.

specs - specifications + specs (Colloquial) - spectacles.

FDV: Now it was the habit This Treacle Tom to whom reference has been made had been absent from his usual wild and woolly haunts for some time previously (he was in the habit of frequenting common lodging-houses where he slept in a nude state in strange beds shakedowns) but returning on Baldoyle night to [his house of call at] Block Z, Pump Square, the Liberties [he sought his [warm] bed] he repeated the tale more than once during uneasy slumber and in the hearing of a ballad monger and a discharged drapery executive O'Donnell out of work for the moment Peter Cloran O'Donnell a secretary of no fixed abode who had passed several nights in a doorway and Hosty an illstarred streetsinger busker who, feeling suicidal, had been tossing on his doss in the hope of soon finding ways & means for getting a loan of some chaps' parabellum to go & find some quiet dive somewhere off the main tram line blowing & blow the napper off himself in peace & quietness. He having been trying for over a year to get into Jervis street hospital without having been able to wangle it anyway. + REFERENCE

wild and woolly - marked by boisterous and untamed ways of living and by lack of refinement.

counties - pl. of county + The Countess Cathleen - heroine of Yeats's play (1892, produced by the Irish National Theatre 1899) who sells her soul to the devil to feed the starving Irish + capaillin (kopilin) (gael) - little horse.

lodginghouse - a house, other than an inn or hotel, in which lodgings are let.

to be hail fellow well met - to be on such terms, or using such freedom with another, as to accost him with 'hail, fellow!'; on a most intimate footing + hailfellow - pal, a boon companion.

meth (Slang) - methylated spirit [(notebook 1924): 'meth (ylate)'] + methe (gr) - strong drink; drunkeness. 

cot - a portable bed, or one adapted for transport + FDV: in strange beds shakedowns

blotto - completely drunk, confused, disordered

divers - various, several; more than one, some number of

tot - a minute quantity of anything, esp. of drink

hell fire - the fire of hell + Hell Fire (cocktail) ingredients: 1/3 shot tequila, dash tabasco sauce, 1/3 shot chilli vodka, 1/3 shot red aftershock.

red biddy - a drink consisting of methylated spirits and cheap red wine; also, inferior red wine.

Bulldog Cocktail recipe: 1 1/2 oz cherry brandy, 3/4 oz gin, juice of 1/2 limes

blue ruin - gin (usually of bad quality)

jenny - a female bird + Creeping Jenny - a plant also known as moneywort + Jenny Cocktail recipe: Vodka - 2/3 oz., Grapefruit Juice - 1/3 oz., Ice - _, Triple Sec - 2/3 oz.,
Cherry Brandy - 1/3 oz.

Rhaeto-Romanic is spoken in the Swiss valley of Engadine

herbage - herbs collectively; herbaceous growth or vegetation + Herberge (ger) - hostelry

doggies - pl. of doggy (a small dog) + deoch an dorais (Irish) - parting drink (literally 'drink of the door') + Duck and Dog Tavern - an 18th century Dublin pub.

galop - a lively dance

primrose - a well-known plant, bearing pale yellowish flowers in early spring, growing wild in woods and hedges and on banks.

Brighid (brid) (gael) - "strength"; fem. n.; goddess of poetry

The Cock - an 18th century Dublin pub

aim - to calculate one's course with a view to arriving (at a point) + William Shakespeare: All's Well That Ends Well.

stirrup cup - a cup of wine or other drink handed to a man when already on horseback setting out for a journey; a parting glass + Arditi: 'The Stirrup Cup' (song).

"We slept at the Village of Simplon, in a very fair and wellwarmed inn."

leaba (lyaba) (gael) - bed

housing - house accomodation, lodging + rooming house - a house where lodgers may rent rooms.

abide - to remain in residence; to sojourn, reside, dwell; an abode or stay + 'Abide with Me' (song).

block - a compact or connected mass of houses or buildings, with no intervening spaces.

back - to support one's opinions, judgements, etc., as to an undecided issue, by a wager or bet; to back a horse: to bet or stake money upon his winning a race.

PUMP COURT - Not a Dublin place-name, but old maps of Dublin mark the location of communal pumps in the inner courts of buildings in The Liberties. 

THE LIBERTIES - Roughly the area of Old Dublin South of the Liffey bounded East and West by the Castle and St James's Gate, North and South by the Quays and Blackpitts. Originally, the Liberties were jurisdictions, civil and ecclesiastical, independent of the city of Dublin and for the most part outside the walls.

what with - because of

molto più (it) - much more + motapük (Volapük) - mother-tongue + molto-puke (it-en).

Volta, Alessandro (1745-1827) - Italian physicist for whom the volt is named. The cinema Joyce set up in Dublin, 1909, was called The Volta + Volapük - artificial language. 

snore - to make harsh or noisy sounds in sleep by breathing through the open mouth or through the mouth and nose + According to the first draft, Treacle Tom mutters the tale in his sleep within earshot of three other down-and-outers: Hosty the busker, Peter Cloran and O'Donnell. Tom was a thief and jailbird who previously happened to hear the priest (in dual persona as Brown and Nolan) repeat his tale to the teacher (later called Philly Thornton).

burden - the bass, 'undersong', or accompaniment

delay - to linger, loiter, tarry + The Lily of Killarney: The Moon Hath Raised Her Lamp Above (song): '...I come, I come, my heart's delight'.

nom - used in expressions denoting a pseudonym, a false or assumed name + (onomat.)

num - name + (onomat.)

busybody - one who is improperly busy in other people's affairs [(notebook 1924): 'evangelical busybody'] + bussy - sweetheart.

rus in urbe - the creating of an illusion of the countryside in a city; an urban building, garden, prospect, etc., which suggests the countryside; country in city.

collarette - small or tight collar, necklace

sunbonnet - a light bonnet with a projection in front and a cape behind to protect the head and neck from the sun + Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 10: 'sun-bonnet'.

eyot - small island + eyes + Marta (marte) (gael) - March + Ides of March + eight of march.

otherwiles - at another time + otherwise

3 fusiliers = Roaring Peter (Joyce's list of characters in I.2)

Behan (*S*)

katya (Sanskrit) - widow + Katya (Russian) - nickname for Catherine + Kate (*K*).

Lavinia - heroine of Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus who suffered the same fate as Philomela. Lavinia is also the wife of Aeneas and heroine of Shaw's Androcles; and, as Mr Senn has shown, lavina means "avalanche" in Rhaeto-Romanic. 

mens (l) - mind, disposition, intellect + monthlies

pump ship - to urinate + Punch and Judy show

deadly + dood (Dutch) - dead.

whereat - for what cause or reason, wherefore

nigger - a Negro

wild horses

oft - often + Thomas Moore: National Airs: Oft, in the Stilly Night (song).

metagnostic + metagnostikos (gr) - fit to be translated + met 'agôna (gr) - with struggle

epikos (gr) - epic, poetic + thalamos (gr) - bride chamber + epithalamios (gr) - nuptial, bridal (hence, epithalamium: a nuptial poem honouring the wedded couple).

hearing - the extent within which sound may be heard

stony broke - completely broke, ruined

Welshdraper - a maker of, or dealer in, 'Welsh cotton'; a woollen draper + (notebook 1923): 'Cash draper' + 'The Drapier' - an epithet of Swift.

executive - a business man

Mac Labhrain (moklouran) (gael) - son of Labhran ("spokesman") + Cloran (Joyce's list of characters in I.2).

discharged - freed from a charge, load, obligation, etc.; dismissed

O'Mara, Joseph - Irish tenor, sang Tristan + O' Meadhra (o myare) - descendant of Meadhair ("mirth").

abode - an abiding-place, a dwelling-place, house or home

Mona Lisa - the name of a portrait painted by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), used allusively and attrib. of an enigmatic smile or expression such as that of the woman in this painting + mildew - a morbid destructive growth upon plants, consisting of minute fungi, and having usually the appearance of a thin whitish coating + The Liebestod in Wagner's Tristan und Isolde begins Mild unde leise ("gentle and soft").  

doorway - the space in wall occupied by a door + Mark Twain: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, ch. 6: (Huck Finn) 'slept on doorsteps in fine weather and in empty hogsheads in wet'.

bunk - a box or recess in a ship's cabin, railway-carriage, lodging-house, etc., serving for a bed; a sleeping-berth. Freq. one of two or more beds arranged in a tier.

iceland - a country covered with ice; the realm of perpetual ice + Bank of Ireland, College Green, Dublin.

pillow - to lay down on a pillow, to rest (a head) on a pillow

hostis (l) - stranger, enemy + Hosty = Sully (Joyce's list of characters in I.2).

no slouch of (something) - a poor, indifferent, or inefficient thing, place, person, etc. + Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 17: 'no slouch of a name' → "I bet you can't spell my name," says I. / "I bet you what you dare I can," says he. / "All right," says I, "go ahead." / "G-e-o-r-g-e J-a-x-o-n -- there now," he says. / "Well," says I, "you done it, but I didn't think you could. It ain't no slouch of a name to spell -- right off without studying.".

illstarred - ill fated, doomed to failure or disaster

busker - an itinerant entertainer or musician + (notebook 1923): 'busker (beach & town)'.

sans - without

rootie (Slang) - bread

scrapie - a virus disease of sheep + scrap - pl. The remains of a meal, fragments (of food) + scrape (Slang) - butter.

'she set still' (i.e. sat) [Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 11]

toadstool - mushroom

selfabuse - abuse or revilement of oneself, masturbation + Joyce's note: 'on the verge of suicide' MS 47472-141, TsILS: who feeling suicidal ^+as how he was on the verge of selfabyss+^ had been tossing | JJA 45:059 | Dec 1923 |

'you must be most starved' (Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 8)

Birman - Burman + barman - a man who serves at the bar of a public-house.

nat (Burmese) - spirit + -gale (Burmese) - (denoting offspring)

nwa-no (Burmese) - milk

towhead - a head with flaxen hair, a person having flaxen hair + Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 12: 'towhead' (a river sand-bar).

toss - to lift, jerk, or throw up (the head, etc.) with a sudden, impatient, or spirited movement.

shakedown - a bed made upon straw loosely disposed upon the floor or ground; hence, any makeshift bed, esp. one made up on the floor.

by any manner of means - in any way whatever + Mark 4:41: 'What manner of man is this?'

'how in the nation' (Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 13)

parabellum - automatic pistol or machine gun + (notebook 1922-23): 'parabellum (rev)'.

take wing - to develop rapidly, to take on greater power + wing (Slang) - penny.

sociable - companionable, friendly, inclined to community; an open 4-wheel carriage.

light - to descend from a horse or vehicle, to dismount

sidewheel - of steamers, having paddle-wheels at the sides + Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 19: 'side-wheel' (paddle steamboat).

Dun Laoghaire (dun liri) (gael) - Laoghaire's ("calf-keeper") Fort; harbor just South of Dublin; anglic. Dun Laoghaire. Laoghaire was High King at Patrick's coming.

BLACKROCK - Town on Dublin Bay between Dublin and Dun Laoghaire; Since the 18th century a place of resort for Dubliners, reached by the "Rock Road", later by the Dalkey, Kingstown, and Blackrock tram. 

tramline - a tramway; also, a tram-rail

throw true - to prouduce offspring true to the parent type, to produce + Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 11: 'throw true' → She was right about the rats. You'd see one stick his nose out of a hole in the corner every little while. She said she had to have things handy to throw at them when she was alone, or they wouldn't give her no peace. She showed me a bar of lead twisted up into a knot, and said she was a good shot with it generly, but she'd wrenched her arm a day or two ago, and didn't know whether she could throw true now. But she watched for a chance, and directly banged away at a rat; but she missed him wide, and said "Ouch!" it hurt her arm so..


napper - head; one that naps

'worth two bits' (Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 9)

beatitude - supreme blessedness or happiness + Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 19: 'balditude' (i.e. state of baldness).

quietness + quietibus (l) - to the dead + (notebook 1923): 'peace and quietness'.

STEEVENS' HOSPITAL - At South Lane and St John's Road. Often called "Madame Steevens". Dr Richard Steevens died in 1701, the day after bequeathing his estate to his sister Griselda for her lifetime, then to build a hospital. She turned over the estate to trustees to build the hospital at once, keeping 150 pounds a year and an apartment in the hospital. She always went veiled and was thought to have a snout like a pig. 

Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital

JERVIS STREET HOSPITAL - Founded 1721 as Inns Quay Charitable Infirmary; removed to Jervis Street 1728, rebulit 1803 and 1887. The street is named for Sir Humphrey Jervis, 17th-cent Sheriff of Dublin + (notebook 1923): 'I am trying to get into Jervis Street'.

Kevin, St (d.618) - eremite who lived 7 years alone in Glendalough, County Wicklow, spending his nights in a cave-Kevin's Bed, a popular tourist attraction-and his days in a hollow tree by the lake's shore. Thither came beautiful young Cathleen, who had previously tempted him at Luggelaw, and when Kevin again spurned her love, she drowned herself + Saint Kevin's Hospital, Dublin.

ADELAIDE - A Hospital, in Peter Street; founded 1839 "for Protestants only".

incurable - that cannot be cured

wellesay - alas! + Wellesley, Garrett, Lord Mornington - Wellington's father, founded Hospital for Incurables on Lazar's Hill, Dublin, whence pilgrims with cockleshells in their hats embarked for the Shrine of Saint James the Less, at Santiago de Compostella, patron saint of lepers (Sterne called him 'Saint Iago').

welladay - exp. of sorrow, lament

cockle hat - a hat with cockleshell as the badge of a pilgrim + Ophelia's Song: 'by his cockle hat and staff'.

wangle - to accomplish (something) in an irregular way by scheming or contrivance + FDV: He having been trying for over a year to get into Jervis street hospital without having been able to wangle it anyway.


Lisa O'Deavis → Mildew Lisa (O'Mara): *I*

roche - a rock or cliff + Rose Mongan → Peter Cloran: *J* + FDV: O'Donnell [Peter Cloran [as an understood thing,]] slept in the same bed one bunk with hosty when day dawned and the housewife dawn-of-all-work had not been many hours furbishing potlids, doorbrasses, scholars' applecheeks & horny buttons when that busker the busker and his bedmates bedroom suite was were up and afoot crosstown thrumming his square crewth fiddle  

O Mongain (o mongan) (gael) - descendant of Mongan (diminutive of Mongach, "hairy").

in common - in joint use or possession [(notebook 1924): 'so much in common, if the phrase be permitted'].

epi (gr) - upon + psychidion (gr) - a little soul + Shelley: Epipsychydion ('On the Soul/Spirit') Shelley believed in free love and this poem is no exception to that. He says that he does not wish to be part of that "great sect" in which one woman is chosen and the rest are "confined to cold oblivion". He believed that "to divide is not to take away" and thus multiple partners were perfectly acceptable. At the start of the poem he describes his lifelong search for the eternal image of Beauty, the Platonic Form, in the form of his various wives, mistresses and female friends. It describes the triles and tribulations he encounters in this pursuit. For Shelley, sex plays a vital role in his relations with women, yet it did transcend the mere physicality of what he called, "that hyena lust". In Epipsychidion the penultimate section itself has a climactic structure in which the rhythm builds up into the final enamored exclamation of pant, "I sink, I tremble, I expire!" Sex is described as not only the coming together of bodies, but of souls as well and when he describes his sexual experience with Emily their "spheres" converge to "become the same" and through this they are "transfigured".  

hostis et odor insuper peteroperfractus (dog latin) - an enemy and a stink besides stony broke + odor insuper (l) - smell above + perfractus (l) - frustrated.

seaborne - conveyed by sea + Swinburne, Algernon Charles (1837-1909): 'The Triumph of Time': 'I will go back to the great sweet mother, Mother and lover of men, the sea' (Ulysses.1.77). 

undulant - fluctuating, rippling, rolling

shaver - boy, a little child; one that shaves

shaw - a thicket, a small wood, copse or grove; show + George Bernard Shaw.

yokel - a contemptuous term for a (stupid or ignorant) countryman or rustic

William Butler Yeats  

waster - one who lives in idleness and extravagance

Oscar Wilde

bustling - that bustles; full of bustle or agitation

tweeny - an assistant maidservant who helps the cook and housemaid + (notebook 1922-23): 'tweeny (betweenmaid)' Daily Sketch 13 Dec 1922, 3/3: 'Duke's Daughter Could Not be a "Tweeny"'.

of all works - employed in all kinds of work esp. in household (maid of all works).

meed - a reward, guerdon, or prize awarded for excellence or achievement + Byron's "Maid of Athens" begins, "Maid of Athens, ere we part." 

anthem - a song, as of praise or gladness; a hymn + anthê (gr) - flowers

jiffy - a very short space of time

furbish - to brighten by rubbing, polish, burnish; to renovate, revive

potlid - the lid of a pot (when of iron, sometimes used as a warming-pan)

brass plate - brass plate, a plate of brass, bearing an inscription, e.g. on or at a door or gate, bearing the resident's name.

linkboy - an attendant employed to bear a torch to light the way of a person abroad in the streets at night.

ashhopper - a lye (any detergent material used in washing; a cleansing substance) cask, resembling a hopper in a mill + Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 32: 'one little hut all by itself away down against the back fence, and some outbuildings down a piece the other side; ash-hopper and big kettle to bile soap in by the little hut;'.

fella - fellow

bed and breakfast + bacon and eggs

longa - long + longa (Beche-la-Mar) - to.

rejuvenate - to restore to youth; to make young or fresh again

busker - an itinerant entertainer

rave - the (or an) act of raving; frenzy, great excitement

rumble - commotion, bustle, tumult, uproar

Schinken (ger) - ham + shunka (Serbian) - ham.

broadawake - fully awake

suite - a train of followers, attendants, or servants; a retinue

shufle - to move the feet along the ground without lifting them, so as to make a scraping noise.

THE BARREL - The area behind a stone archway (recently a shop) on the West side of Meath Street, where the Friends' Meeting House stood; thus called in the Liberties because the Quakers gave out soup to the hungry.  

cross - across, transversely + Joyce's note: 'crosstown' → O. Henry: The Four Million 168: 'From the Cabby's Seat': 'the fine hansom dashed away 'crosstown'.

linn (lin) - pool + Eblana - Ptolemy's name for Dublin + Dublin

chilled - made sensibly cold + Lord Byron: Childe Harold's Pilgrimage.

thrie = three

route - a way, road, or course; a certain direction taken in travelling from one place to another.

resting - a resting place

superficies - Geom. A magnitude of two dimensions, having only length and breadth + superficies (l) - surface. 

correspondent - in agreement or harmony, congruous, accordant with + correspondant (French) - corresponding.

linea (l) - lines

puncta = punctum - a (geometrical) point + puncta (l) - points.

twopenny + London Tube


maniplumbo (l) - to make by hand out of lead 

Oberflache (ger) - surface


thrum - to play (a stringed instrument, or a tune on it) idly, monotonously, or unskilfully.

cruit (krit) (gael) - harp + crwth (Welsh) - bowed lyre.

fiddle - a stringed instrument of music; usually, the violin

cronan (kronan) (gael) - hum, drone + John Francis Waller: The Spinning Wheel (song): 'crooning and moaning'.

witty - clever

leppy - a motherless calf + ? leapy

subject - one who is under the dominion of a monarch or reigning prince

festive - Of persons: Employed in, or fond of feasting; convivial, jovial + Fionnachta Fleadhach (finokhte flahokh) (gael) - "Fair-snow" (or, "Made known") the Festive; 7th century high king [(notebook 1923): 'King Finaghta the Festive' → Flood: Ireland, Its Saints and Scholars 88: 'King Finaghta the Festive' (story told of young Adamnan, who, while making way for Finaghta, the king of Tara, broke a jar of milk, complained, was promised the king would see to his future welfare, and was later summoned to court as a friend and adviser)].

flavoury - having flavour (a smell, odour), fragrant

fryberry - a raspberry + fraise (fr) - strawberry + The Strawberry Beds, between Chapelizod and Lucan, along the north bank of the Liffey river + Peter: Dublin Fragments, Social and Historic 213: (of obsolete hawkers' cries) 'Another melodious cry... was that of the strawberry girl: Ripe strawberries, ripe strawberries'.

honeyman - a man who sells honey or has charge of bees + Peter: Dublin Fragments, Social and Historic 211: (of obsolete hawkers' cries) 'What has become of our old friend the honey-man?'

sød (Danish) - sweet + Peter: Dublin Fragments, Social and Historic 212: (of obsolete hawkers' cries) 'the tones of "Sweet lavender" do not echo through the streets'.

lavender - any of various aromatic Old World plants of the genus Lavandula, especially L. angustifolia, having clusters of small purplish flowers that yield an oil used in perfumery.

foyne = few + Peter: Dublin Fragments, Social and Historic 212: (of obsolete hawkers' cries) 'Another itinerant provision merchant who had a very distinctive cry was the seasonable salmon-vendor. In a voice resonant but rather nasal he announced: Boyne salmon alive, Boyne salmon. Few would have gathered from the cry that the excellent fish had been extracted from the river Boyne, and some small people, at all events, imagined that it was "Foin salmon alive fine salmon" the man was calling'.

priggish - characteristic of a prig; dishonest; dandish; conceited, pragmatical

appraise - to estimate quality or excellence of


roaration = oration - a prayer; a formal speech; a noise or hubbub + Hughes: The Pre-Victorian Drama in Dublin 6: 'John Barrington... sang and danced here his Roratorios in derision of the Oratorios in Fishamble Street'.


pawnbroking - the occupation of lending money on the security of articles pawned + FDV: and after a visit to a public house near not 1,000 miles from Parnell's statue [where the trio were] in company of two decent boys joined by another casual & a decent sort who had just pocketed his weekly insult where all had stimulants [[in the shape of gee and gees stood by the decent sort] at the decent sort's expense [& came out of the licensed premises wiping their mouth on their sleeves]]

prothetikos (gr) - setting before itself, prefixing + prosthetic - pertaining to replacement of lost teeth, etc. 

redeem - to free (mortgaged property), to recover (a person or thing put in pledge), by payment of the amount due.

songster - poet

house of call - a house where journeymen of a particular trade assemble, where carriers call for commissions, or where various persons in request may be heard of; Esp. lodging-place for tailors.

Cujas, Rue de - A short street in the 5th Arr, Paris. Joyce lived at several addresses in the area. He went first to Cecilia Street medical school in Dublin, than tried Paris in 1902-03 + cujas (l) - whence? from what place? + cuja (sp) - bedstead.

fizz - an effervescing drink, esp. champagne + viz. - [Latin, A contraction of the term videlicet, to wit, namely, or that is to say.] A term used to highlight or make more specific something previously indicated only in general terms. 

sot - one who commonly or habitually drinks to excess, a soaker + Old Sots' Hole - The Old Men's Home; also a chop-house which stood in a recess between Essex Bridge and the Custom House in Dublin, and which from the first years of the eighteenth century maintained the reputation of having the best ale and beef-stakes in the city + Peter: Dublin Fragments, Social and Historic 93: (of old inns) '"The Old Sots' Hole" was at Essex Gate' (frequented by Swift).

Saint Cecilia - patron of music + The National University Medical School was in Cecilia Street, Dublin (Joyce attended it in 1902-3).

liberty - a district of some british cities within which certain immunities are enjoyed + Liberties, Dublin.

ceol mor (kyol mor) (gael) - great music

league - an itinerary measure of distance, varying in different countries, but usually estimated roughly at about 3 miles.

Griffith, Arthur (1872-1922) - edited The United Irishman, founded Sinn Fein, was briefly president of the Free State + Griffith's Valuation - a rent reduced to the government rating valuation of the farm.  

site - the situation or position of a place, town, building, etc., esp. with reference to the surrounding district or locality.


Gladstone, William Ewart - statesman and four-time prime minister of Great Britain.

"No man has a right to fix the boundary to the march of a nation; no man has a right to say to his country - thus far shalt thou go and no further': Parnell's speech in Cork, 1885 (inscribed on his monument in O'Connell Street, Dublin).

steward - an administrator and dispenser of wealth, favours, etc.; esp. one regarded as the servant of God or of the people + Charles Stewart Parnell.

peut-être (fr) - perhaps

diddler - [Of obscure origin. Found first in the name of 'Jeremy Diddler', the chief character in Kenney's farce, 'Raising the Wind', brought out in 1803. The name was of course intended to be contemptuous and ludicrous; it is also probable that Jeremy Diddler's characteristic methods of 'raising the wind', by continually borrowing small sums which he does not pay back, and otherwise sponging upon people, gave rise to the current sense of the verb, of which 'diddler' is now naturally viewed as the agent-noun] A mean swindler or cheat, one who diddles people out of what belongs to them + song Finnegan's Wake, chorus: 'Whack fol the dah'.

casual - occurring or brought about without design or premeditation, coming up or presenting itself 'as it chances'; In such phrases as casual labourer, one who does casual or occasional jobs, but has no fixed employment

Decent Sort (Joyce's list of characters in I.2)  

variety - used as a collective to denote a number of things, qualities, etc., different or distinct in character; a varied assemblage.

touch weekly insult (Cork phrase) - to get wages paid + (notebook 1923): 'weekly insult (wages)'.

phew - a vocal gesture expressing impatience, disgust, discomfort, or weariness + fuit (l) - it was.

fig - as a type of anything small, valueless, or contemptible + blabber - one who reveals secrets.

saith - say

stimulant - applied to alcoholic drinks (rare.)

gee (Slang) - vulva + 'g & g' - gin and ginger [(notebook 1923): 'g & g (gin and ginger)'] + J.J. and S. - John Jameson and Sons, Dublin whiskey.

stand - to bear the expense of, pay for (a treat)

stag - for man only

luncheon - Originally, a slight repast taken between two of the ordinary meal-times, esp. between breakfast and mid-day dinner.

flushed - suffused with red or ruddy colour; heated, excited

foster - to encourage, promote the development of

licensed premises - an establishment in which alcoholic beverages are consumed.

cap-in-hand - custom of uncovering the head (abridged to 'raising' or merely 'touching' the cap) in sign of reverence, respect, or courtesy.

executive - a person holding an executive position in a business organization; a person skilled in executive or administrative work.

in the rear (less freq. in rear) - in the hindmost part (of an army, etc.), behind

lips + lupes (gr) - sorrows + (notebook 1924): 'wiped his lipes'

please send

buachaillin (bukholin) (gael) - little boy; unmarried man

rosc (Irish) - inflammatory speech, declamation + rosc-catha (Irish) - battle-hymn, war-cry (Pronunciation 'roskohe').

sinn fein - 'we ourselves' + sinn fein, sinn fein, amhain (shin fen shin fen awan) (gael) - ourselves, ourselves alone + seinn (Irish) - play music + fíon (Irish) - wine.

ámhran (Irish) - song

ballader - a writer of ballads + ballader (Danish) - ballad-singer.

humanity - the human race; mankind; human beings collectively + cumann (kumun) (gael) - club, society.

melôma (gr) - sweetened with honey + melos (gr) - song, music; limb

lay - a short lyric or narrative poem intended to be sung (esp. by minstrels)

bogey - a bogle or goblin; a person much dreaded + bégayeur (fr) - stutterer + bugger (vulgar slang) - a sodomite.

avatar - the descent of a deity to the earth in an incarnate form

correctly - exactly, accurately, without error

luibin (lubin) (gael) - looplet, curl; pretty girl

follow my leader - a game in which each player must do what the leader does or pay forfeit + Lieder (ger) - songs.

riau (Provençal) - river basin

riot - to make a disturbance, to storm

col - a high pass in a mountain range + colo (Provençal) - mountain.

hump - to make humped or hump-shaped

legislator - one who makes laws (for a people or nation), a lawgiver + "The Shade of Parnell" (L'Ombre di...)  

eleuthero- - free + eleutherios (gr) - free, liberal, generous, noble + dendron (gr) - tree 

Woodman, Spare That Tree (song)

overflow - such a quantity as runs over; excess, superfluity, superabundance + overflow meeting - secondary meeting improvised for those who could not be accomodated at the primary one.

fulfill - to spread through the whole extent of; to pervade (obs.) + FDV: the world was the richer for a new halfpenny ballad first sung from the under the shadow of the monument of the dead legislator [to an audience overflow meeting [fully filling the visional area] representative of every section of the Irish people [ranging from slips of boys [with pocketed hands, ladychairs, [a few old souls obviously under the spell of liquor] & emergency men [in search of an honest crust]] to busy professional gentlemen.]]  

Divisional / area (Joyce's note) → Campbell (Cornwallis-West): My Life and Some Letters 300: (from an official report about her son in Gallipoli, 1915) 'he laid out 13 mine fields in the divisional area, protecting the withdrawal of troops from the line'. 

singleminded - sincere in mind or spirit; honest, straightforward; simple-minded + Souvenir of the Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Opening of The Gaiety Theatre 32: 'And oh! the choristers of old! Probably no set of men or women were ever so single-minded. When Sheridan remarked upon the unanimity of the stage, he must have been thinking of these operatic supers. It was one of the joys of old-fashioned opera that the "crowds" were always agreed upon the course of action to be pursued. There were no half measures with them. If one went, all went; where one pointed, all pointed'.

whet = what

cross section - a typical or representative sample, group, etc.

pour - Of persons: To run or rush in a stream or crowd

brim - to fill to the brim

broach - to give vent or publicity to, to give out, to begin conversation or discussion about + broaching - introduction, mooting, origination of opinions.

Liffeyside (notebook 1924)

mainland - that continuous body of land which includes the greater part of a country or territory, in contradistinction to the portions outlying as islands or peninsulas.

wayfare - to travel

Watling Street, Erning Street, Icknild Street, and Foss Way - Roman roads in Britain

in chief - chiefly, mainly

halted - brought to a stand

cockney - a derisive appellation for a townsman, as the type of effeminacy, in contrast to the hardier inhabitants of the country (obs.) + hackney coach - a carriage kept for hire.

quota - the part or share of a total which belongs, is given, or is due, to one + total.

Harmsworth, Viscount - Alfred Northcliffe, Irish newspaper magnate

hack - a writer hired to produce routine or commercial writing

Northern Whig - Belfast newspaper, one of two papers to publish Joyce's letter of protest about his difficulties over the publication of 'Dubliners'.

chronicler - a writer of a chronicle, a recorder of events + East-Anglian Chronicle (newspaper).

Manchester Guardian (newspaper)

range - to vary within certain limits

slip - a young person (a slip of girl) [(notebook 1923): 'a slip of a boy']

cutpurse - pickpocket + Cutpurse Row, now west end of the Cornmarket, Dublin.

videlicet - that is to say, namely, to wit

jumbo - huge + brick - a brick shaped block of any substance e.g. of ice-cream.

truant officer - a school attendance officer

three (golden) balls - the sign of a pawnbroker + woollen - woolen.

poplin - a mixed woven fabric, consisting of a silk warp and worsted weft, and having a corded surface (poplin manufacture was a major industry in 17th to 19th century Dublin).

croûte de pain (fr) - crust of bread

brace - a pair

palesman - an officer of a park charged with keeping the fences in repair + policeman

dundrearies - long flowing side whiskers

noon - to stop for a meal at noon + moving

O Dalaigh (o dali) (gael) - descendant of Dalach ("assemblist") + Daly's - Dublin club, closed 1823.

snipe - one or other of the limicoline birds of the genus Gallinago (formerly included in the Linnæan genus Scolopax), characterized by having a long straight bill, and by frequenting marshy places.

mallard - a wild drake or duck + (notebook 1922-23): 'mallard (wild duck)' Irish Times 30 Dec 1922, 9/5: 'Bird Life in Dublin Bay': 'Of ducks that breed in Ireland, the wild duck or mallard is by far the most numerous'.

heath - bare, more or less flat, tract of land, naturally clothed with low herbage and dwarf shrubs.

sneer - a look or expression implying derision, contempt, or scorn; a disdainful or scornful remark or utterance.

chair - a light vehicle drawn by one horse; a chaise + (notebook 1924): 'Sedan chair Hume St disappears 1841' Freeman's Journal 21 Feb 1924, 8/5: 'By the Way... The Sedan Chair': 'on the question of the introduction of taxis for hire on Dublin streets... as late as ninety years ago Sedan chairs were to be seen in the city. Of the last two to be exposed for hire, one was located at the Rotunda, and the other at the corner of Hume street. The first-mentioned did not disappear until 1841'.

bearer - a carrier, a porter; one who brings a letter, a verbal message, tidings, rumours, etc.

bait - to make a brief halt, to stop for food and drink

homeling - a home-born inhabitant; a native + amalog (omalog) (gael) - simpleton + Hammel (ger) - mutton.

Mosse, Bartholomew - 18th-century Dublin doctor, built the Rotunda Hospital. 

oblate father - a member of a congregation of secular priests + oblate - one who has devoted himself and his property to the service of a monastery in which he lives as a lay brother.

skinner - one that deals in skins; one that swindles or cheats + Skinner's Alley, Dublin.

bricklayer - one who lays the bricks in building

Fleming - a native or inhabitant of Flanders

tabinet - a silk fabric similar to poplin

fumant - emmiting vapour or smoke

hammersmith - a smith who works with a hammer

chiseller - one that chisels; child, boy

bout - a contest or match

cudgel play - a fighting or sporting contest with cudgels + Hughes: The Pre-Victorian Drama in Dublin 2: 'The impression left by Shirley's prologues is that bear-baiting and cudgel-playing were more to the taste of our ancestors than plays'.

braxy - a malignant sheep disease, foot and mouth disease

bluecoat scholars, from King's Hospital, Dublin

broke - broken, peniless

gent - man, fellow, guy

Simpson's - hospital for decayed citizens' children, commonly called the Blue Coat Hospital, founded in 1670 (Thom's, 1907, Dublin Annals) + Ulysses.17.1945: 'Simpson's Hospital for reduced but respectable men permanently disabled by gout or want of sight'.   

on the rocks - quite destitute of means + Simpson's-on-the-Strand - London restaurant.

portly - large and bulky in person; stout, corpulent

pert - lively; brisk, sprightly; in good spirits, cheerful, 'jolly'

tass - a cup or small goblet, esp. one of silver or the like; the contents of this; a small draught of liquor + tasting.

shrub - a prepared drink made with the juice of orange or lemon (or other acid fruit), sugar, and rum (or other spirit) + Peter: Dublin Fragments, Social and Historic 155: (quoting an old advertisement) 'all kinds of sugar, teas, the very best and freshest, for sale, and also Turkey coffee and right good Orange shrub'.

tickey - threepence

Peter Pan - used allusively for an immature adult (usu. a man); one who is emotionally (occas. physically) retarded.

Paul Pry - meddlesome hero of the comedy Paul Pry, an excessively inquisitive person.

RICHARD ATKINSON AND CO - 31 College Green; tabinet and poplin manufacturers + there were four major established Dublin poplin manufacturers: Messrs Pim Bros, Elliott and Son, Messrs Fry and Company, and Richard Atkinson and Company. 

hell's delights - pandemonium

blain - a blister, botch, pustule

annuitant - one who holds, or is in receipt of, an annuity (a yearly grant, allowance, or income; the grant of an annual sum of money, for a term of years, for life, or in perpetuity) [Joyce's note: 'annuitant'].

acorn - fruit generally + corns

deuce - the two at dice or cards; bad luck, plague, mischief

Diana - an ancient Italian female divinity, the moon-goddess, patroness of virginity and of hunting; virgin, unsullied.


particularist - an adherant of a theological doctrine that redemption through Christ is provided only for the elect.

prebendary - the holder of a prebend (the portion of the revenues of a cathedral or collegiate church granted to a canon or member of the chapter as his stipend).

tonsure - the shaving of the head or part of it as a religious practice or rite, esp. as a preparation to entering the priesthood or a monastic order.

Uniate - a Russian, Polish, or other member of that part of the Greek Church which, while retaining its own liturgy, acknowledges the supremacy of the Pope and is in communion with the Roman Catholic Church + (notebook 1922-23): 'Greek uniates'.

plunk - to plump, to drop down abruptly

lappet head - a head dress provided with lappets (streamers attached to a lady's headdress) + Peter: Dublin Fragments, Social and Historic 156: 'Under "The Lace Lappet", in Cappel Street, could be inspected the newest style in "Lace Lappet Heads", and every kind of Point, Mechlin, and Brussels lace "that can be desired"'.

juiced - drunk

take the pledge - to promise to drink no more alcohol

uncle's (Slang) - pawnshop

tarry - spending or loss of time; delay, procrastination + The Wake of Teddy the Tiler (song).  

flagon - a large vessel containing a supply of drink for use at table; now esp. one with a handle and spout, and usually a lid.

commodore - Naval. An officer in command, ranking above captain and below rear-admiral; 'the senior captain, when three or more ships of war are cruising in company'; a like officer in a fleet of merchantmen + plumo (Provençal) - pen + drole (Provençal) - young boy.

weaver - a workman or workwoman whose occupation is weaving + WEAVERS' ALMSHOUSE - Recte Townsend Street Asylum, founded by weavers from the Liberties; it was in the center of the Coombe + Weaver, Harriet Shaw (1876-1961) - Englishwoman, Joyce's literary executor, publisher of Portrait of the Artist. Miss Weaver was also Joyce's patron, his mother hen in fact and in FW. She wrote on Time, was strongly teetotal, suffragette, and a member of the Communist Party. Her money came from a hard-driving forebea - a Lancashire cottonspinner; I fancy it seemed to hen "dirty" money like the slum landlord's money in Shaw's Widower's Houses. In FW Joyce mocks himself as a man kept by women - Harriet Weaver and Penelope-Molly Bloom, the clou of Ulysses - see 43.18; but he also dreamt of himself (Letters I, 261) in an oriental bazaar, a "carpetweaver" who ravels up the many-colored strands of Work in Progress (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake).

almshouse - a house founded by private charity, for the reception and support of the (usually aged) poor.


petticoat - a skirt as distinguished from a bodice, worn either externally, or beneath the gown or frock as part of the costume, and trimmed or ornamented + Ross, Betsy (1752-1836) - a note in Buffalo Workbook #17 indicates that the U.S. flag was made (?by her) from her petticoat + Joyce's parody of song 'Pretty Molly Brannigan' (after having a dream in which Molly Bloom rejects Leopold and Joyce): 'But if I cling like a child to the clouds that are your petticoats' (Gorman: James Joyce 283; Ellmann: James Joyce 550).

curate - any ecclesiastic (including a bishop, etc.) who has the spiritual charge of a body of laymen + curio (l) - priest.

Caoch O'Leary - subject of a poem, "Caoch the Piper," by John Keegan (1809-49). Caoch is a blind old piper who outlives his friends + caoch (Irish) - blind, purblind (as Joyce was at times)

wararrow - an arrow split into segments which are sent out by a chief as a call to arms + (notebook 1924): 'wararrow sent round' Lawless: The Story of Ireland 67: (of the Battle of Clontarf) 'The War-arrow had been industriously sent round to all the neighbouring shores, peopled largely at that time with men of Norse blood'.

Thomas Osbourne Davis: A Nation Once Again (song)

Félibrian - relating to the Félibres (Provençal literary brotherhood or school of poets founded by Frédéric Mistral in 1854), or to the Provençal literature produced by them.

trankope (l+g) - (modeled on synkope) a cutting accross, cutting up into small pieces, cutting short.

metre - any specific form of poetic rhythm

affectioned - inclined (in any way), well affected

taiocebo (Provençal) - earwig

casudo (Provençal) - fall + Poulichinello (Provençal) - Punchinello + atahut (Provençal) - bier, coffin.

stampede - Of a herd of cattle: To become panic-stricken and take to flight.

slip - a piece of paper or parchment, esp. one which is narrow in proportion to its length + FDV: This on a slip of blue paper headed by a woodcut soon fluttered on highway & byway to the rose of the winds from lane to lattice and from mouth to ear, throughout the 5 corners of the land of Ireland, and round the land his rann it ran and this is the rann that Hosty made:  

blanco - a white preparation for whitening accoutrements + vide (fr) - empty + black and white. 

headed - furnished with a heading, written or printed

rough and ready - not elaborately or carefully contrived or finished, just good enough to serve the purpose.

woodcut - a design cut in relief on a block of wood, for printing from; a print or impression obtained from this.

Delville - Glasnevin estate owned by Dr Patrick Delaney, where Swift's 'The Legion Club' (1735) was privately printed, as no publisher would undertake it + (notebook 1924): 'Swift - Delville' Irish Statesman 2 Feb 1924, 664/1: 'Gossip of an Irish Book Lover': 'the persistent tale that a secret press existed at Dean Delaney's, Delville, Glasnevin, for the printing of the numerous pamphlets issued by Swift when at war with the government of his day'.

byway - side road

rose of the winds - a diagram indicating the frequency, force, etc. of the winds at some given place.

archway - an arched or vaulted passage

lattice - a structure made of laths, or of wood or metal crossed and fastened together, with open spaces left between; used as a screen, e.g. in window openings and the like; a window, gate, screen, etc. so constructed.

black hand - a lawless secret society practicing terrorism, extortion, etc.

village cries to village (Joyce's note) → Chateaubriand: Œuvres Choisies Illustrées II.82, Les Martyrs: 'a centurion came to tell me that one could hear, echoing from village to village, the cries that the Gauls give when they want to spread a piece of news'.

cuige (kuige) (gael) - one-fifth, province (anciently there were five provinces, now only four) + Puss in the Corner - children's game in which four individuals occupying the four corners of a room try to run from one corner to another while the fifth, the 'puss', on the alert in the centre, tries to rush in to claim a vacated space, so leaving the dispossessed person in the middle as a new 'puss'.

scotia - a hollow moulding; darkeness (so called from the dark shadow within the cavity) + Scotia Picta (l) - Painted Scotia (Ireland, later Scotland) + Scotia Pictorum (l) - Scotia of the Picts (Scotland) + skôtia pikta (gr) - a stew of livers in thick sauce (a Greek dish) + (notebook 1923): 'United States of Asia'.

Pict - one of an ancient people of disputed origin and ethnological affinities, who formerly inhabited parts of north Britain. According to the chroniclers the Pictish kingdom was united with the Scottish under Kenneth MacAlpine in 843, and the name of the Picts as a distinct people gradually disappeared. In Scottish folk-lore, the Pechts are often represented as a dark pygmy race, or an underground people; and sometimes identified with elves, brownies, or fairies.

Mohammed: 'May your hands be rubbed in dirt'  

strain - a musical sequence of sounds, a melody, tune

peaceful + silent flute (Slang) - penis.

uncrowned king - a man exerting autocratic influence over a specified sphere; a dominant man + Parnell was called 'the uncrowned king of Ireland'.

instruments + screw (Slang) - to fuck.

PIGOTT AND CO. - Music and Pianoforte Warehouse, 112 Grafton Street, around the turn of the century + Pigott's forgery of letters incriminating Parnell.  

cielo (it) - sky

liuto (it) - lute

Delaney, Patrick - the Phoenix Park assassin who was released from life imprisonment after his evidence against Parnell at the Parnell Commission.

downpour - a pouring down; esp. a heavy, continuous fall (of rain, etc.)

plaudit - an act of applauding; a round of applause

rapsodist - a collector of literary pieces (obs.); Ancient Greek reciter of epic (especially Homeric) poems

pipe - to play (a tune, music) upon a pipe

soort (Dutch) - sort, kind + decent sort

Percival, Parsifal - Grail knight, subject of a Wagnerian opera + (notebook 1924): 'namesakes are like'.

sput - to urge, incite; p. of spit + sputen (ger) - to hurry, to make haste + sputare (Italian) - to spit.

snowy - snowwhite + The Snowy-breasted Pearl (song).


A Wild Mountain Air (song)

ductor - a leader, the leader of a band of music

fezzy - furnished with or wearing a fez

fuzz - a mass of fine, light, fluffy particles; the beard of an adolescent boy + (elevation of host and ritual of chalice in Wagner's Parsifal).

bludgeon - a short stout stick or club, with one end loaded or thicker and heavier than the other, used as a weapon.

signum - sign, signature

(knights of the Grail)  

silentium in curia (l) - silence in the court

maypole - a tall pole in an open place and wreathed with flowers forming a center for may day sports.

canto - a song, ballad (obs.); one of the major divisions of a long poem.

chorussed - singed in chorus

christen - baptize, to give a name to

tollgate - a point where vehicles pause to pay toll

Annona (l) - goddess; Roman corn-goddess + Saint Andrew's Street and Church - site of Thingmote, Norse parliament in Dublin.

rann - a stanza of a song, a verse + 'rann' (Joyce's note) → Fitzpatrick: Ireland and the Making of Britain 164: 'Crimthann... gained victories and extended his sway over Alba, Britain and Gaul, as the Shanachie tells us in the following rann: "Crimthann, son of Fidach, ruled The Alban and the Irish lands, Beyond the clear blue seas he quelled The British and the Gallic might"'.

rann (ger) - flowed

buachaill (bukhel) (gael) - boy

caile (kalyi) (gael) - girl, wench

versified + vier (German, Dutch) - four

stoney = stony + story

here lie the remains of

mote = moot - to argue, to plead, to discuss, dispute, esp. in a law case.

Mike - an Irishman; a Roman Catoholic

dub - to name, style, nickname

llyn - a lake or pool in Wales + O Fhlainn (o lin) (gael) - descendant of Flann ("Ruddy"); anglic. Lynn

Fionn (fin) (gael) - fair

Lug on Lugh (known as Lamhfada or "long armed," and as Lugaid) - Gaelic sungod.

bog (bug) (gael) - soft + bog (Serbian) - god.

Dunlop, Daniel - the Dunlop of Ulysses (183), president of the Dublin Theosophical Society when AE was vice-president, founder of the British Anthropological Society + Daniel O'Connell. 

lex - law

lax - salmon

Gunn, Michael - manager of The Gaiety Theatre, Dublin

Guinness, Arthur - founder of the Guinness brewery

apt - to make fit, adapt (to), prepare suitably (for)

Art (art) (gael) - stone; bear + arth (Welsh) - bear.


Bartholomew Vanhomrigh - father of Swift's Vanessa

coll (kol) (gael) - hazel tree; letter C

noll - head

parse - to describe (a word in a sentence) grammatically, by stating the part of speech, inflexion, and relation to the rest of the sentence + I'll Name the Boy Dennis, or No Name at All (song).

Patrick Henry Pearse (10 November 1879 – 3 May 1916) was an Irish teacher, barrister, poet, writer, nationalist and political activist who was one of the leaders of the Easter Rising in 1916. Following the collapse of the Rising and the execution of Pearse, along with his brother (Willie Pearse) and fourteen other leaders, Pearse came to be seen by many as the embodiment of the rebellion.

Michael Joseph O'Rahilly (22 April 1875 - 29 April 1916) self-described as The O'Rahilly was an Irish nationalist who took part in the Easter Rising, during which he was killed in the fighting + perce-oreille (French) - earwig.

arrah - exp. of surprise or excitement

frosty - affected with or characterized by frost; reduced to a temperature at or below freezing-point; ice-cold + FDV: Sure leave it to Hosty, frosty fiddler, leave it to Hosty he's the man to ran run the rann, the wran of all ranns.

rann (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - wren + Irish children used to carry a dead wren on a stick from door to door collecting money on Saint Stephen's Day (26 December) + Ulysses (15): (BLOOM’S BOYS): 'The wren, the wren, / The king of all birds, / Saint Stephen's his day, / Was caught in the furze'.

ha - have

han't - have not, has not

brum - to murmur, hum + brummen (German) - to buzz, to grunt, to snarl.

clip clop - imitations of sounds of alternating rhythm

glass crash (Joyce's note) Fay: A Short Glossary of Theatrical Terms 16: 'Glass Crash. -- A quantity of broken glass emptied from a bucket on to a piece of sheet iron used to give the illusion of breaking glass'

khlopat (Russian) - clap

Klatsch (ger) - applaud

battere (fr) - to clap

krotoi (gr) - loud explosive noises

greadadh (gradu) (gael) - clapping

ardite! (it) - dare!, be brave! + ardite (it) - brave women + audite! (l) - hear!, listen! (plural) + arduigh e (Irish) - lift it (masculine).

arditi (it) - brave men, brave ones (name applied to special assault units of the Italian army in World War I) + Luigi Arditi - 19th century Italian conductor and composer, based in London but touring worldwide, including Dublin (Fitzpatrick: Dublin, Historical and Topographical Account 267: 'the veteran conductor Signor Arditi was as well known in Dublin as the Nelson Pillar'; his picture appears on Souvenir of the Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Opening of The Gaiety Theatre 14) + arduigh i (Irish) - lift it (feminine).

musique (fr) - music + cue - humour, disposition, mood, frame of mind (proper to any action) + Joyce's note: 'Music Cue' Fay: A Short Glossary of Theatrical Terms 19: 'Music Cue. -- A note on the prompt copy of a play to indicate where music is to be used either on the stage or in the orchestra'.

Perce-oreille, French "earwig"

FDV: Have you heard of a one Humptydumpty / How he fell with a roll and a rumble / And hifat lay low like old Oliver Crumple / Behind Aback By the back of the magazine wall / of the the magazine wall + REFERENCE

humpty dumpty - something that once damaged can never be repaired; egg shaped character who fell from a wall and broke into bits.

roll - a loud, reverberating peal; a continuous reverberation

curl up - to adopt a reclining position with the legs close to the body and the back rounded.

crumple - an irregular fold, crease, or wrinkle; to become incurved or crushed together + crumpleback - crook-back + Oliver Cromwell.

butt - a terminal point; a hillock, mound; promontory

THE CASTLE - Dublin Castle, was first built on the site of an early Danish fortress by Henry de Londres; Until 1921, the Castle was the official residence of Lords Lieutenant, the highquarters of British administration, and the hated symbol of British rule + Children’s game: 'I'm the king of the castle, Get down you dirty rascal' (English rhyming game, in which a player jumps on top of sand castle and then the player who pulls him down becomes the new king).

parsnip - a biennial umbelliferous plant (Pastinaca sativa), a native of Europe and part of Asia, having pinnate leaves, yellow flowers, and a pale yellow root.

Green Street Courthouse, Dublin

MOUNTJOY - Prison, between NCR and Royal Canal, East of Phibsborough Road.

slow coach - one who acts, works or moves slowly; a slow, idle or indolent person + (slow train).

openair - outdoor

hideous - terrible, distressing, or revolting to the moral sense; abominable, detestable, odious.

How did they manage it, says you (notebook 1922-23) Leader 11 Nov 1922, 327/1: 'Our Ladies' Letter': 'You heard - or did you - Mary Rose of the bog was married. He's a general or something... How did they manage it, says you'.

I will go bail - I am certain

dairyman - a man who owns or manages a dairy; a man who works in a dairy.

bumping - huge, great; 'thumping'

Roberts: The Proverbs of Wales 59: 'The butter is in the cow's horns (that is, when she gives no milk)'.

Pearce: Sims Reeves, Fifty Years of Music in England 93n: (of Hector Berlioz) 'On one occasion at rehearsal the harps with their cases were put together to enclose a small space wherein he could change his shirt, the operation being necessary in consequence of his intense exertions'.

The Wren, the Wren, The king of all birds (song)

balbuties - stammering, stuttering; lisping + balbo (it) - stuttering + -accio (it) - (pejorative).

-uccio (it) - (diminutive).

Thought to have been brought to America by the Chinese railroad laborers, chow-chow is a mustard-flavored mixed-vegetable-and-pickle relish. Originally, the term was used to describe a Chinese condiment of orange peel and ginger in a heavy syrup.

chicken pox - the common name for Varicella, a mild eruptive disease, bearing some resemblance to small-pox, and chiefly attacking children.

chamber - chamber pot

soft soap - to soothe or persuade with flattery or blarney soft-soaping (Colloquial) - flattering.

small wonder - it is not very surprising

e'erawan (Anglo-Irish) - anyone

take the floor - to get up to address a meeting, to take part in a debate.

bucketshop - a retailer of 'cut-price' goods, aiming to undercut the market by working outside the official system.

premises - a house or building with its grounds or other appurtenances.

sumptuous - Of buildings: Made or produced at great cost; costly and (hence) magnificent in workmanship, construction, decoration, etc.

bonfire - to make bonfires

trash - anything of little or no worth or value, worthless stuff, rubbish.

trumpery - 'Something of less value than it seems', worthless stuff, trash, rubbish + trash and trumpery (Slang) - rubbish.

tis short now till (notebook 1922-23) Leader 11 Nov 1922, 327/2: 'Our Ladies' Letter': 'Like that, I suppose 'tis short now till we'll have women labourers in the Government'.

Clancy, Sheriff - Long John Clancy, mentioned in 'Ulysses' as then-sheriff of Dublin + Mac Fhlannchadha (moklonkhu) (gael) - son of Flannchadh ("ruddy-warrior").

wind up - to end, end up

unlimited company - a company in which liability of members is not limited.

bum - to hum loudly, to boom; to drink; to beg, to act as a bum

wash - Of waves: To sweep over a surface, to break or surge against (the shore, etc.)

hooker - a two-masted Dutch coasting or fishing vessel; ship (depreciatively or fondly).

Eblana - name of Dublin used by Ptolemy  

man of war - a vessel equipped for warfare; an armed ship belonging to the recognized navy of a country; a boy's garment resembling that worn by a sailor, a sailor suit.

bar - a bank of sand, silt, etc., across the mouth of a river or harbour, which obstructs navigation.

POOLBEG - Deep anchorage (Irish, "the little hole") in Dublin Bay beyond the Pigeonhouse. The Poolbeg lighthouse is at the end of the South Wall. Before the lighthouse, a Poolbeg lightship marked the anchorage.   


donnez-moi (fr) - give me

scampi (it) - prawns + spittle

bambini (it) - children, babies + wife and family.

Fingal - Finn's name in Macpherson's Ossian poems. Fingal is a Scottish hero who comes to Ireland and fights the Danes. The Irish called certain Norse invaders, fingal or fingall, meaning "fair stranger" + Oscar Fingal O'Flaherty Wills Wilde (Oscar Wilde's full name).

mac (mok) (gael) - son [of]

Oscar (usker) (gael) - "Combatant"; son of Oisin son of Fionn Mac Cumhail.

Onesimus, Saint - a runaway slave emancipated and converted to Christianity by Saint Paul while the latter was imprisoned in Rome (Philemon 1:10, Colossians 4:9; the name derives from Greek onesimos: useful, helpful; spelled Onesime in French).

bargearse (Slang) - a person with a round behind

Boniface - the name of the jovial innkeeper in Farquhar's Beaux' Stratagem 1707; whence taken as the generic proper name of innkeepers; 'mine host', or 'the landlord' of the inn.


min - mine

gammel (Danish) - old, ancient + gammal (Hebrew) - camel.

moniker - a name, a nick-name

Og - king of Bashan, a giant (Joshua, XII, 4) + og (Danish) - and.


cod (Irish slang) - a fraud, hoaxer ("he's an old cod")

camel - a great awkward hulking fellow

pump - to pour forth (with pump), to raise or move water by means of a pump.

heavyweight - one above average weight; the heaviest weight division in professional boxing, having no upper limit, with contestants usually weighing more than 190 pounds (85.5 kilograms).

Ulysses.15.1188: 'Innocence. Girl in the monkey house. Zoo. Lewd chimpanzee. (Breathlessly) Pelvic basin. Her artless blush unmanned me.' + (Chimpden).

general (Colloquial) - general servant, maid-of-all-work

Waterloo + loo - love.  

highheaded - carrying the head high; proud, arrogant + hay - grass cut or mown, and dried for use as fodder.

begob - a mild oath (by God)

antediluvial - applied by Buckland to geological formations older than the 'diluvial' (then attributed to the Noachian deluge).

messrs - pl. of mr.

bill and coo - to interchange caresses (Said of doves; also of demonstrative lovers).

Noah's Ark - the ark in which Noah and his family, with many animals, were saved from the Flood.

noo - now + new

joult - to ride with constant jolts; Of a vehicle: to move along with succession of jolts + joult (Anglo-Irish) - journey.


hippopotamus - a pachydermatous quadruped, the African river-horse, Hippopotamus amphibius, a very large beast with a thick heavy hairless body, large muzzle and tusks, and short legs, inhabiting the African rivers, lakes, and estuaries + Popo (ger) - buttocks.

bugger - a worthless person, guy, fellow, rogue, rascal

let down - to lower (a drawbridge, portcullis, steps of a carriage, etc.)

trap - a ladder or movable flight of steps leading to a loft or the like + (notebook 1923): 'trap of cab'   O. Henry: The Four Million 134: 'Mammon and the Archer': 'They whirled up Forty-second to Broadway... At Thirty-fourth Street young Richard quickly thrust up the trap and ordered the cabman to stop'.

omnibus - a four-wheeled public vehicle for carrying passengers, with the inside seats extending along the sides, and the entrance at the rear, and with or without seats on the roof.

catch one's death of - to get, receive, incur (something injurious or unpleasant).

rent - the result of rending or tearing apart; esp. a large tear in a garment.

rear - the buttocks or backside

missus - wife

legitimate - authorized by law or right, lawful, proper

frow - a woman, a wife

wigs on the green - sharp altercation, coming to blows (wigs being liable to fall or be pulled off in a fray).

suffoco (l) - to suffocate + Sophocles - Athenian tragedian 496-406 B.C. 

The Encyclopædia Britannica vol. IV, 'Buddha', 737c: 'Buddha... was the son of Suddhodana, one of the chiefs of the tribe of the Sakiyas, one of the republican clans then still existent in India'

free trade - an open and unrestricted trade

mass meeting - a large assembly of the people to be addressed on some public occasion (usually political).

sod - to cover with sod + sod (Slang) - bugger.

OXMANTOWN - When the Anglo-Normans took over Dublin after 1170, the Danish inhabitants were relegated to the area North of the Liffey, caded villa Ostmannorum. The "town of the Ostmen," is corrupted to "Oxmantown".

king's man - a partisan of the king, a royalist + 'Not all the king's horses and all the king's men Could [can] set [put] Humpty Dumpty up again' - nursery rime or riddle of Humpty Dumpty + REFERENCE

resurrect - to raise (a person) from the dead or from the grave

corpus - the body of a man + corpse.

Connacht - province in Ireland + Cromwell: 'Go to Hell or Connacht' (from a Parliamentary act of 1654).

raise cain - to make noise or trouble esp. by complaining or arguing; to create a disturbance.