FDV: Concerning the genesis of his Harold or Humphrey Coxon's agnomen and discarding finally those theories which would link him either with the Glues & Gravys & Earwickers of Sidleham [in the hundred of manhood] or proclaim him a descendant of vikings who had settled in Herwick (?) or Erwick (?) the most authentic version has it that it was this way.

forbear - to politely or patiently restrain an impulse to do something, to refrain

soliloquy - an act of speaking one's thoughts aloud when by oneself or regardless of any hearers, esp. by a character in a play

Tree, Iris - English actress whom John Quinn called "a fine wench with pink hair" 

The Orange Lily, O! (song): Then come brave boys, and share her joys, / And toast the health of Willy, O! / Who bravely won, on Boyne's red shore, / The Royal Orange Lily, O!

genesis - origin, mode of formation or production

harold - a species of sea duck + Harold II, "last of the Saxons" (1022-66) - English king, defeated and killed at Hastings, fighting William I, the Conqueror. It was after the Norman Conquest that surnames were introduced into England. 

dine with Duke Humphrey - to go dinnerless + Humpty Dumpty (nursery rhyme) + FDV: Concerning the genesis of his Harold or Humphrey Coxon's agnomen

occupational - of or relating to the activity or business for which you are trained

agnomen - an additional name or epithet (generally on account of some exploit) + Joyce's note, Scribbledehobble, Cyclops section: 'occupational name (Butcher)'.

presurnames period - a period in Irish history (before the 10th century) when men bore essentially one name, usually composed of two yoked elements (e.g. Conchobhar, 'high-will'), sometimes complemented by a patronymic ('Mac' plus genitive of father's name) or an agnomen.

prodromatic - of or pertaining to a prodromus; forerunning, introductory, preliminary + prodromarithmos (Greek Artificial) - what comes before numbers (from Greek prodromos: forerunner and arithmos: number)

Enos - biblical name. He is the son of Seth, father of Kenan, and grandson of Adam (Gen. 5:6-11; Luke 3:38). He supposedly lived nine hundred and five years. The Sabeans, who worshipped the "regents of the Seven planets" held Seth and his son Hermes (Enoch or Enos) as the highest among the planetary gods. Seth and Enos were borrowed from the Sabeans and then disfigured by the Jews (exoterically) [Fulcanelli]; Enos was regarded by the kabbalists as a greater magician than any before him + enosh (Hebrew) - man.

chalk - to write with a chalk + "presumably [Enos] is chalking circles to compel the spirits." (McHugh, Roland: The sigla of Finnegans wake)

from older sources (Joyce's note) → Fitzpatrick: Ireland and the Making of Britain 29: 'an Irish historical tract, written about 721 A. D., and copied from older sources, gives the definite Gaelic monarchy as beginning contemporaneously with Alexander the Great in the fourth century B. C.'

pivotal - being of crucial importance; central, cardinal + Joyce's note: pivotal ancestor Fitzpatrick: Ireland and the Making of Britain 29: Cormac, the descendent of Lethain [...] was of the line of Olliol Olum, King of Munster and pivotal ancestor of its nobility (MS 47472-98, LMA: those theories ^+from older sources+^ which would link him either with ^+Such pivotal ancestors as+^ the Glues | JJA 45:004 | late Aug-Sep 1923 | )

Anker (ger) - anchor + Joyce's note, Circe: 'glue & gravy, anker, N. E.'

While the fictional Earwicker was apparently not descended from the Sidlesham Earwickers, it is probable that Joyce's visit prompted him to use the name Earwicker in Finnegans Wake. He visited Sidlesham Church in 1923, prior to writing Chapter 2. Several graves of Earwickers are present or at least still legible in the churchyard, the earliest being 1795, although no Glue's, Gravy's, Northeasts or Ankers were visible - except for the 'Glue' middle name of a Charles Glue Dibley on a World War One memorial which most likely harks back to a regional name. There was also a few legible Bonifaces. While no Earwickers are presently on the parish register, there were two Earwicker graves dated 1965, so it is feasible there is still a living descendent of Earwicker somewhere thereabouts (PICTURE)

Joyce visited the graveyard at St Mary's Our Lady in Sidlesham in southern England, and had in his possession A Pictorial & Descriptive Guide to Bognor &c. Chichester 54 in which we can read: 'Sidlesham Church is an Early English structure worthy of notice, and an examination of the surrounding tombstones should not be omitted if any interest is felt in deciphering curious names, striking examples being Earwicker, Glue, Gravy, Boniface, Anker, and Northeast' (PICTURE)

hundred - a subdivision of a county or shire (in England); Sidlesham is in the Hundred of Manhood, the extreme southwestern Hundred (county division) of Sussex; Joyce stayed in Bognor, a few miles from there, in summer 1923 + Joyce's note, Circe: 'hundred Manhood the hunt, the play, the Turk'

offspring - the progeny which springs or is descended from some one + offshoot.

wapentake - a subdivision of some english shires

hem - them

Herrick - the maiden name of Swift's mother F. Elrington Ball: The Correspondence of Jonathan Swift, D.D., vol. I, 37 (1910): 'the name is spelt variously Herrick and Erick' + the old, correct, pronunciation of the name Earwicker is 'Erricker' + FDV: or proclaim him a descendant of vikings who had settled in Herwick (?) or Erwick (?)

authenticate - to make authentic or autoritative + FDV: the most authentic version has it that it was this way.

Talmud (read backward) - commentary on the Pentateuch (Hebrew is written from right to left)

hoofd (Dutch) - head + (a parody of a rabbi's name).

Ben Edar - anciently Howth, said to be named for Edar, a Dedanaan chief, buried on the hill + Binn Éadair (Irish) - Howth Head + ben (Hebrew) - son of. 

'In the beginning' (Genesis 1:1, John 1:1) + 'And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, that the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose... There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughter of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men (heroes) which were of old, men of renown.' (Genesis 6:1-2,4) 

cabbaging (tailor steals cloth) pejorative [Joyce's note] + cabbage - to purloin or embezzle, as the pieces of cloth remaining after cutting out a garment, to pilfer (Your tailor... cabbages whole yards of cloth).

Cinncinatus - Roman emperor, who was said to have laid down his plow on his tiny farm to serve as dictator in 458 BC and then immediately returned to plough his farm after danger passed.

Alfred Lord Tennyson: Lady Clara Vere de Vere: 'The grand old gardener and his wife Smile at the claims of long descent' (the first verse was changed to 'The gardener Adam and his wife' because of frequent letters to Tennyson from friends asking for an explanation).

save the day - to bring success when failure seems certain + daylight saving time schemes were implemented in Europe since 1916.

redwood - mahagony, scotch pine, etc. + Chevy Chase (song): 'Under the greenwood tree'.

sabbath - in the original use: The seventh day of the week (Saturday); since the Reformation, often applied to 'the Lord's day', i.e. the first day of the week (Sunday); transf. and fig. A time or period of rest.

khag (Hebrew) - feast, holiday + hagios (gr) - saint

The Ballad of Chevy Chase - The ballad tell the story of a large hunting party ("chase") in the Cheviot Hills, hence 'the chevy chase'. The chase is led by Percy, the English Earl of Northumberland. The Scottish Earl Douglas had forbidden this hunt, and interprets it as an invasion of Scotland. In response he attacks, causing a bloody battle which only 110 people survived. 

follow the plough - to plough (said of the ploughman) + FDV: Like Cincinnatus he the G.O.G. (grand old gardener) was one sabbath day at following his plough [for rootles] in the rear garden of his Royal Marine Hotel when royalty was announced by runner to have been pleased to halt on the highroad along which a dogfox had cast.

rootles (notebook 1922-23) → rootle (vb.) = root - to dig with the snout ("the pig was rootling for truffles") + roots.

rere - rear, the back or back part of anything

mug house - an ale-house, beer-house. ? (obs. or arch.) + madhouse.

ye - the

marine - of or belonging to the sea, a sailor, mariner + A Pictorial & Descriptive Guide to Bognor &c. Hotel Ads 7: 'SELSEY, near Chichester. THE MARINE HOTEL. ONLY HOTEL ON SEA FRONT' + PICTURE.

royalty - a person of royal rank

runner - one that delivers messages, reports, etc. + (notebook 1922-23): 'by runner to Luxor (mail)' Irish Times 30 Nov 1922, 7/3: 'Egyptian Treasure': 'The Cairo Correspondent of The Times yesterday telegraphed a long message, dated from the Valley of the Kings (by runner to Luxor)... the most sensational Egyptological discovery of the century'.

highroad - a chief or main road, a highway

leisure - time which one can spend as one pleases, free or unoccupied time

dog fox - a male fox + (notebook 1922-23): 'dogfox' Quarterly Review Oct 1922, 270: 'Reynard the Fox': 'It is hard to understand why dog-foxes are so often seen about earths which contain cubs' + {HCE's double}.

cast - to turn in one's course, to veer; to spread out the pursuing dogs (in search of a lost scent) + (notebook 1922-23): 'casts along shore (fox)' Quarterly Review Oct 1922, 267: 'Reynard the Fox': 'The fox had vanished... exhaustive casts upon the shore failed to recover the line' (i.e. foxhunt).

lady pack - a pack of female hounds + Joyce's note: 'lady pack' Quarterly Review Oct 1922, 271: 'Reynard the Fox': 'A late snowfall having prevented hunting, we had taken the lady-pack out for road exercise'.

cocker spaniel - a small spaniel

FDV: Forgetful of all but his fealty he stayed not to saddle or yoke but he hastened stumbled hotface out of his forecourts on to the road in his [surcingle [plus fours] &] bulldog boots [coated with red clay marl [jingling the his turnpike keys a sweatdrenched bandana hanging from his coat pocket]] holding aloft among the fixed bayonets pikes [of the royal hunting party] a long perch atop of which a flowerpot was affixed.

vassal - in the feudal system, one holding lands from a superior on conditions of homage and allegiance, a tenant in fee

fealty - the obligation of fidelity on the part of a feudal tenant or vassal to his lord

ethnarch - a governor of a nation or people; a ruler over a province [Joyce's note: 'ethnarch']

yoke - to attach a draft animal to something (by yoke)

sweatful - full of or abounding in sweat

bandanna - a large handkerchief


forecourt - the front court of a building + FDV: he hastened stumbled hotface out of his forecourts on to the road

public - Short for 'public house'. colloq. Cf. 'pub'.

topee - a helmetlike hat with curved brim worn esp. for protection from the sun (PICTURE) + Joyce's note: 'topee (sun helmet)'.

surcingle - a girdle or belt which confines the cassock (a kind of long loose coat or gown worn by rustics, shepherds, or sailors) + Joyce's note: 'surcingles' Leader 11 Nov 1922, 327/1: 'Our Ladies' Letter': 'Mrs Joe was out last Sunday, and if you heard her about the military weddings! The officers "with their surcingles!" that kill her'.

sola - a tall swamp-plant, the pith of which is used in making topees

plaid - a rectangular length of tartan worn over the left shoulder as a part of the scottish national costume (PICTURE)

plus fours (shoes) [notebook 1922-23] + plus fours - breeches or trousers that extend 4 inches (10 cm) below the knee (and thus four inches longer than traditional knickerbockers, hence the name). As they allow more freedom of movement than knickerbockers, they have been traditionally associated with sporting attire from the 1860s and onward, and are particularly associated with golf.

puttee - a long strip of cloth wound spirally around the leg from ankle to knee for protection and support (PICTURE)

ruddle - to redden, flush, to color with red ocher + FDV: in his [surcingle [plus fours] &] bulldog boots [coated with red clay marl

cinnabar - a red colour like that of vermilion