ginger - the rhizome of the tropical plant Zingiber officinale, remarkable for its hot spicy taste, used when dried and ground in cookery and as a medicine; ginger ale, ginger brandy + Confucius liked chewing ginger root (pungent).

chowchow - food of any kind

vim - force or vigour, energy + vitalis (l) - of life + In ancient Chinese medicine, sour is used to nourish bones, acid for muscles, salt for blood, sweet for flesh, and bitter to improve the general vitality.

haku (Japanese) - to say + (stuttering) + Weret-hekau (Urthekau) was a lion headed goddess who was also depicted as a snake with the head of a woman. Her name means "great magician" and she was known as "She Who is Rich in Magic Spells". As she took either the form of a lion or a snake and protected the sun god, she is also associated with Wadjet and Sekhmet and the story of the "eye of Ra".

quarter - a person or group not definitely specified

MORNING POST - London daily newspaper, merged with the Daily Telegraph, 1937; Dublin daily newspaper, merged with the Dublin Times, 1832 + morgenpost (Dutch) - morning post.

human + woman + uniform.

parr - young salmon + below par - not as healthy as usual; below the average, normal or usual amount, degree, condition, or quality + (notebook 1922-23): 'several degrees lower than a snake'.

tripleheaded - threeheaded (Cerberus) + Hydra - Gr. Myth. The fabulous many-headed snake of the marshes of Lerna, whose heads grew again as fast as they were cut off: said to have been at length killed by Hercules + Daily Mail 8 Dec 1922, 6/3: (quoting a statement made by Bywaters to the police in the Ilford murder trial) 'The reason I fought with Thompson was because he never acted like a man to his wife. He always seemed several degress lower than a snake'.

quaint - unusual, extraordinary

reconstructed + constrict - squeeze, cramp, inhibit.

quiritary - that is in accordance with Roman civil law; legal, as opposed to 'equitable' (characterized by equity or fairness) + Quirites - Roman citizens. 

quietude - quietness, stillness + James Joyce: Letters I.261: letter 09/11/27 to Harriet Shaw Weaver: 'I had a rather strange dream the other night. I was looking at a Turk seated in a bazaar. He had a framework on his knees and on one side he had a jumble of all shades of red and yellow skeins and on the other a jumble of greens and blues of all shades. He was picking from right and left very calmly and weaving away. It is evidently a split rainbow and also Parts I and III. And now may Allah who is infallahble guide this epistle of his lowliest and shed upon his sconce the quietude of the carpetweaver'.

zusammen (ger) - together

webster (Archaic) - weaver + Webster, Noah (1758-1843) - American lexicographer. I agree with Mr Wilder: for FW, Joyce's English-language dictionary was Webster's Unabridged, for the OED is parochial and time consuming (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake).

redaction (French) - edition

attributive - so-assigned, so-ascribed (by those who essay to assign the authorship of a painting or work of art)

price one shilling, postage free

flaxen - with pale soft strawy color (used chiefly of the hair)

giant + gigas (gr,l) - giant, titan + Gyges (gr,l) - Lydian king who had ring of invisibility + The Syrians knew Orion as Gabbara; the Arabians as Al Jabbar, both signifying 'the Giant', Gigas, giant, Greek title for Orion with Ptolemy, — and in Latin days occasionally Gigas.

chronometer - an instrument for measuring time + chronometron (gr) - time-measure.

Dundrum - district of Dublin + tamtam + conundrum.

ambi- - both, on both sides + adjacent

floodplain - a flat surface that may be submerged by floodwaters + Joyce's note: 'floodplain'.

gauntlet - a glove worn as part of mediaeval armour, usually made of leather, covered with plates of steel + Berlin glove - glove knitted of Berlin wool (a type of fine dyed wool).


hough - the hollow part behind the knee-joint in man; the adjacent back part of the thigh + hoch (ger) - high + height

elbow + Ellbogen (ger) = elleboog (Dutch) - elbow + eleven [1132 (motif)] + (placing the right fist in the bent left elbow imitates the letter E backwards).

lore - knowledge

duc de fer (fr) - iron duke + LDV: In greater support of his words the flaxen giant tapped his chronometer and, now standing erect with one Berlin gauntlet pointed towards the duke's overgrown milestone solemnly averred: Credit me, my friend. I have won straight.

overgrown - that has grown too much; too big, abnormally large + WELLINGTON MONUMENT - The 205-ft granite obelisk erected in 1817 in Phoenix Park. Visible from many parts of Dublin, it has been popularly called the "overgrown milestone."  

milestone - a pillar set up on a highway or other road or course to mark the miles + FDV: In support of his words the honest flaxen goliath tapped his chronometer and pointed a Berlin gauntlet to the dukes overgrown milestone as he said solemnly: credit me sir my friend [I have won [straight]. Hence my nationwide business.]

gage - a fixed or standard measure or scale of measurement, the measure to which a thing must conform, an instrument for ascertaining and verifying dimensions + gage (fr) - pledge, token.

aver - to assert as a fact; to state positively, affirm

snake + (stuttering)

five silent sources of the crime, 2 "Slavies" and 3 "Fusiliers" + (masturbation, five fingers and one penis).

nonation - strange, remote, out of the way, scarcely known + no-nation place - an out-of-the-way locality + FDV: Hence my nationwide business

creamery - an establishment where butter and cheese are made or where milk and cream are sold

credit - to give credit to, put faith in, believe, trust (a statement, person, or thing)

take one's stand - to declare one's position, loyalty, etc. and be prepared to fight (or defend them) + FDV: I am prepared to stand take my stand on upon the monument any hygienic day at this hour and to declare before upon the open bible before the Great Taskmaster's eye & in the presence of the deity my immediate neighbour and my fellows [in every corner on this globe in general] & to every each living soul acquainted with the British tongue that there is not one tittle of truth in that purest of fabrications. 

redemption - the action of redeeming oneself from punishment; atonement made for a crime or offence + (notebook 1923): 'sign of our redemption' (cross is traditionally seen as a sign of redemption).

hygienic - belonging or relating to hygiene


sin fingers + Sinn Féin - a nationalist movement in Ireland.

taskmaster - one who assigns tasks, one who burdens another with labor, overseer + John Milton: Sonnet VII: 'my great task Masters eye' + (God).

Michan - St Michan's church in Dublin has a vault full of well-preserved corpses which are shown to tourists  

Mitwohner (ger) - people sharing living quarters + LDV: Hence my nationwide business and I am prepared to take my stand upon the monument any hygienic day at this hour and to declare upon the open bible before the Great Taskmaster's eye and in the presence of the deity and my immediate neighbours and every living soul in every corner of this globe in general acquainted with the British tongue that there is not one tittle of truth in that purest of fabrications.


wheresoever - in any place whatever

backbone - a main support or axis, or chief substantial part; fig. The main or important element.

commutative justice - justice bearing on the relations between individuals and contractual obligations

tittle - the smallest or a very small part of something, a minute amount

gape - to stare at with open mouth + Gaping Ghyl - a deep vertical cave in Yorkshire, England + FDV: The cad perceiving that he had to do with a clear postpuberal hyperpituitary type, thanked him for the time of day [not a little surprised, all the same, that that was all the time it was] and repeated the words that same evening at his fireside where he was smoking reflectively spat in museful thought after having eaten some boiled peas and with vinegar a dish a plateful he much fancied.

others + make errors + Thor - Scandinavian god of thunder and war. Tomar is the Irish form. Thunder-gods are important in FW because Finnegan fell on Thursday, Ulysses takes place mostly on Thursday, and Vico says language, religion, the family, and civilization began with thunder (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake).

Swift/Sterne (motif)

check - to stop (action, growth, exhibition of feeling, and the like), to restrain + checkmate - a check from which a king cannot escape.

Eustachian tube joins the ear to the nose and throat

markedly - in a marked manner or degree