ginger - the rhizome of the tropical plant Zingiber officinale, remarkable for its hot spicy taste, used when dried and ground in cookery and as a medicine; ginger ale, ginger brandy.

chowchow - food of any kind

vim - force or vigour, energy + vitalis (l) - of life.

haku (Japanese) - to say

quarter - a person or group not definitely specified

MORNING POST - London daily newspaper, merged with the Daily Telegraph, 1937; Dublin daily newspaper, merged with the Dublin Times, 1832 + morgenpost (Dutch) - morning post.

human + uniform.

below par - not as healthy as usual; below the average, normal or usual amount, degree, condition, or quality + (notebook 1922-23): 'several degrees lower than a snake'.

tripleheaded - threeheaded + hydra - Gr. Myth. The fabulous many-headed snake of the marshes of Lerna, whose heads grew again as fast as they were cut off: said to have been at length killed by Hercules + Daily Mail 8 Dec 1922, 6/3: (quoting a statement made by Bywaters to the police in the Ilford murder trial) 'The reason I fought with Thompson was because he never acted like a man to his wife. He always seemed several degress lower than a snake'.

quaint - unusual, extraordinary

reconstructed + constrict - squeeze, cramp, inhibit.

quiritary - that is in accordance with Roman civil law; legal, as opposed to equitable (characterized by equity or fairness) + Quirites - Roman citizens. 

quietude - quietness, stillness

zusammen (ger) - together

Webster, Noah (1758-1843) - American lexicographer. I agree with Mr Wilder: for FW, Joyce's English-language dictionary was Webster's Unabridged, for the OED is parochial and time consuming (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake) + webster (Archaic) - weaver.

attributive - so-assigned, so-ascribed (by those who essay to assign the authorship of a painting or work of art).

flaxen - with pale soft strawy color (used chiefly of the hair)

giant + gigas (gr,l) - giant, titan + Gyges (gr,l) - Lydian king who had ring of invisibility.

chronometer - an instrument for measuring time + conundrum

ambi - -  both, on both sides + adjacent

floodplain - a flat surface that may be submerged by floodwaters

gauntlet - a glove worn as part of mediaeval armour, usually made of leather, covered with plates of steel + Berlin gloves - gloves made of knitted wool.  

hough - the hollow part behind the knee-joint in man; the adjacent back part of the thigh + hoch (ger) - high + height

elbow + Ellbogen (ger) - elbow + elleboog (Dutch) - elbow.

lore - knowledge

duc de fer (fr) - iron duke

overgrown - that has grown too much; too big, abnormally large + WELLINGTON MONUMENT - The 205-ft granite obelisk erected in 1817 in Phoenix Park. Visible from many parts of Dublin, it has been popularly called the "overgrown milestone."  

milestone - a pillar set up on a highway or other road or course to mark the miles + FDV: In support of his words the honest flaxen goliath tapped his chronometer and pointed a Berlin gauntlet to the dukes overgrown milestone as he said solemnly: credit me sir my friend

gage - a fixed or standard measure or scale of measurement, the measure to which a thing must conform, an instrument for ascertaining and verifying dimensions + gage (fr) - pledge, token.

aver - to assert as a fact; to state positively, affirm


go stright - to behave in an honest manner

nonation - strange, remote, out of the way, scarcely known + no-nation place - an out-of-the-way locality + FDV: Hence my nationwide business

creamery - an establishment where butter and cheese are made or where milk and cream are sold.

credit - to give credit to, put faith in, believe, trust (a statement, person, or thing).

take one's stand - to declare one's position, loyalty, etc. and be prepared to fight (or defend them) + FDV: I am prepared to stand take my stand on upon the monument any hygienic day at this hour and to declare before upon the open bible before the Great Taskmaster's eye & in the presence of the deity my immediate neighbour and my fellows [in every corner on this globe in general] & to every each living soul acquainted with the British tongue that there is not one tittle of truth in that purest of fabrications.

redemption - the action of redeeming oneself from punishment; way or means of doing this; atonement made for a crime or offence + (notebook 1923): 'sign of our redemption'.

hygienic - belonging or relating to hygiene


taskmaster - one who assigns tasks, one who burdens another with labor, overseer + John Milton: Sonnet VII: 'my great task Masters eye'.

Michan - St Michan's church in Dublin has a vault full of well-preserved corpses which are shown to tourists.  

Mitwohner (ger) - people sharing living quarters


wheresoever - in any place whatever

backbone - a main support or axis, or chief substantial part; fig. The main or important element.

commutative justice - justice bearing on the relations between individuals and contractual obligations.

tittle - the smallest or a very small part of something, a minute amount

gape - to stare in wonder or admiration, to stare at with open mouth + Gaping Ghyl - a deep vertical cave in Yorkshire, England + FDV: The cad perceiving that he had to do with a clear postpuberal hyperpituitary type, thanked him for the time of day [not a little surprised, all the same, that that was all the time it was] and repeated the words that same evening at his fireside where he was smoking reflectively spat in museful thought after having eaten some boiled peas and with vinegar a dish a plateful he much fancied.


errors + Thor - Scandinavian god of thunder and war. Tomar is the Irish form. Thunder-gods are important in FW because Finnegan fell on Thursday, Ulysses takes place mostly on Thursday, and Vico says language, religion, the family, and civilization began with thunder (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake).

check - to stop (action, growth, exhibition of feeling, and the like), to restrain.

Eustachian tube - a canal leading from the upper part of the pharynx to the cavity of the tympanum, which it appears to supply with air.

markedly - in a marked manner or degree