machomai (gr) - to fight, to fight against + Mac Dhonnchaidh (mokonekhi) (gael) - son of Donnchadh ("brown-warrior").

Mac Siocaire (mok shikeri) (gael) - son of Siocaire ("dwarf") + sicari (it) - cutthroats + mak siccar (Archaic) - make sure + McGillycuddy's Reeks, County Kerry.

home (Joyce's note)

mungy - dark, gloomy (obs.); moist, damp

Everallin - gael. Iubhar aluinn (yuver-alin), "Beautiful yew tree": in Macpherson's Fingal, she was the mother of Oscar and wife of Ossian.  

maggoty - full of maggots; full of whims and foolish fancies, freakish

mag - chatter, talk; halfpenny; playful shortening of the female name Margaret

'illumination metalwork crosses buildings' (notebook 1923) + Flood: Ireland, Its Saints and Scholars 105: 'Christian Art in Ireland attained its highest excellence in four branches: the writing and ornamentation of manuscripts, metal-work, stone carving, and building'

coppersmith - an artificer in copper, one who manufactures copper utensils + (notebook 1923): 'coppersmith bishop' Flood: Ireland, Its Saints and Scholars 106: 'The title of scribe is frequently used... to enhance the dignity of a bishop... St. Patrick's... it is stated in the Trepartite Life that the holy Bishop Assicus was his coppersmith'.

split - to depart, to take one's leave; Used hyperbolically to denote the effect of excessive laughter, pain, or repletion; to turn evidence or informer, to betray confidence + FDV: Allwhile he swure. He would split.

squeal - a shrill scream; an act of informing against another (U.S. Slang)

tricher (fr) - to cheat + 'Tripartite Life of Saint Patrick' - a medieval manuscript describing Saint Patrick's life.

seek hallows - to visit the shrines or relics of saints + Sieg heil (ger) - (Nazi cheer).

Yank - Yankee + Young Irelanders - 19th century patriots' party.

islander - a native or inhabitant of an island

petriotes (gr) - rock-dweller + patriot's absolution.

absolution - an absolving, discharging, or formal setting free (from guilt, sentence, or obligation)

Genick (ger) - neck + zhenikh (Russian) - bridegroom.

skiff - a small sea going boat, adapted for rowing and sailing + to take off - to go away, take one's departure, be off.


Deo-greine (d'ogrene) (gael) - Spark of the sun; Macpherson explains fem. personal name Dagrena in Fingal: "Deogrena signifies a sunbeam".

overwade - to wade across + over wide + James Macpherson: The Poems of Ossian: Temora VIII: 'Erin rolls to war, wide tumbling, rough, and dark'.

tumbler - a drinking cup, originally having a rounded or pointed bottom, so that it could not be set down until emptied; often of silver or gold; now, a tapering cylindrical, or barrel-shaped, glass cup without a handle or foot, having a heavy flat bottom. 

rainbow + James Macpherson: The Poems of Ossian: Fingal V: 'the bow of the shower' (i.e. rainbow).

bower - a framework that supports climbing plants; a shaded, leafy recess; a woman's private chamber in a medieval castle; a picturesque country cottage, especially one that is used as a retreat

three sheets in the wind - very drunk

pagoda - a temple or sacred building (in India, China, and adjacent countries); fig. a temple + pogoda (Russian) - weather.

crucilevante (l) - cross-raisingly

Gaius Marcius Coriolanus (early 5th c. B.C.) - Roman patrician, surnamed for destroying Koriola, Volscian town; a 1608 tragedy by William Shakespeare, based on his life. 

Loyola, St Ignatius (1491-1556) - founder of the Society of Jesus

secular - rel. to the world; rel. to the secular clergy; a Jesuit lay brother + from plurals to singular.

human + cumann (Irish) - society, club, local branch of national political party.

neuter - Of gender: Neither masculine nor feminine; taking neither one side nor the other + from common to neuter.

byebye - good bye

Brassolls - girl whose brother Cairbar kills her lover in Macpherson's Fingal. She then kills herself. Machpherson explains fem. personal name Brassolis in Fingal as signifying "a woman with a white breast" + Bragha-solais (brasulish) (gael) - Throat of light.

leaving + "In Joyce's work this practice [of letting a given character's idiom either to take over or influence the narrator's style for as long as that character is the centre of attention] is often compounded by characters who are themselves, as it were, readers, their idioms infected by something recently read or heard. Here is double-barreled, and quite Joycean, example from Max Beerbohm's Zuelika Dobson: 'But, just as he set pen to paper, his hand faltered, and he sprang up, victim of another and yet more violent fit of sneezing. / Disbuskined, dangerous. The spirit of Juvenal woke in him. He would flay. He would make Woman (as he called Zuelika) writhe.' (compare FW 228.02-12.)" (John Gordon: Finnegans wake: a plot summary)

au revoir - lit. 'to the seeing again' + Good-bye, Dolly Gray (song).

conundrum - a riddle in the form of a question the answer to which involves a pun or play on words; any puzzling question or problem + Conan - a member of the Fianna, Finn's army + James Macpherson: The Poems of Ossian: Fingal I: 'the streams of Cona answer to the voice of Ossian'.

LODA - The mossy "stone of power" in Scand folklore; also a cirde of stones used probably as a place of worship; associated with Odin James Macpherson: The Poems of Ossian: Carric-Thura: 'the circle of Loda' (glossed in a footnote: 'supposed to be a place of worship among the Scandinavians, as the spirit of Loda is thought to be the same with their god Odin').

Schluss (ger) - finish, the end

Gelchossa ("white legged") - minor female in Fingal James Macpherson: The Poems of Ossian: Fingal V: 'I see not Gelchossa, my love' + Lochaber No More (song) + girl chaser. 

missionary - a person who goes on a religious mission; esp. one sent to propagate the faith among the heathen + Mishna (Hebrew) - part of Talmud.

ministry - the functions, or any specific function, pertaining to a minister of religion; the action, or an act, of ministering in holy things + monastery.

Sem - an Egyptian officiating priest + Sem (fr) - Shem + sons of Erin.

ARAM - Hebrew name for ancient Syria, the area extending from the Lebanon Mountains to beyond the Euphrates River + Aram, son of Shem.

simkha (Hebrew) - joy + siomach (Irish) - kind of trout.

mum - an inarticulate sound made with closed lips, esp. as an indication of inability or unwillingness to speak + James Joyce: A Portrait V: 'silence, exile and cunning'.

for his

maxim - a rule or principle of conduct

ban - anathemization, curse; denuciation, prohibition + bean (ban) (gael) - woman, wife.

Dodgson, Charles Lutwidge (Lewis Carroll)

Dora - Defense of the Realm Act, a censoring device + Dora (gr) - gifts + Doire (dire) (gael) - thicket on a steep incline; Macpherson glosses Dora, name of a hill in Temora, as "the woody side of a mountain" James Macpherson: The Poems of Ossian: Temora I: 'Dora' (glossed in a footnote: 'the woody side of a mountain; it is here a hill in the neighbourhood of Temora').

agelong - lasting for an age + m, b, d, h and vowels = mebhadeah (Hebrew) - joyous (i.e. Joyce) + (notebook 1931): 'mum's for's motto maxim, bann for's book & Dodgesome Dora for hedgehog scheolmasthres.'

schoolmistress - a woman who teaches in a school; (in early use) a female teacher, governess + sheol (Hebrew) - abode of the dead.

Silanse, Unkel - villain in Le Fanu's Uncle Silas 

coach - to read or study with a 'coach'; to prepare (a candidate) for an examination, to instruct in special subjects

diligence - constant and earnest effort to accomplish what is undertaken

whole hog - thorough-going, out-and-out + to go the whole hog - to go all the way, to do the thing thoroughly.

carberry - to defeat, get the better of (f. Carberry Hill where Queen Mary was finally routed) + Cairbar - several persons in James Macpherson's "The Poems of Ossian": brother of Brassolis, father of Degrena, brother of Cathmor James Macpherson: The Poems of Ossian: Fingal I: 'Cairbar' (glossed in a footnote: 'signifies a strong man').

banishment - the action of authoritatively expelling from the country; a state of exile + corporal punishment.

pencylmania (notebook 1930) + Pennsylvania, United States & mania for writing.


Gloria Vanderbilt - American heiress (in 1925 when she was one year old) to part of the Vanderbuilt fortune held in a trust fund (control of the fund was in dispute between her mother and her aunt, culminating in a famous custody trial in 1933)


trust - a body of producers or traders in some class of business, organized to reduce or defeat competition, lessen expenses, and control production and distribution for their common advantage.

incorporated - constituted as a legal or formal corporation

emprunté (fr) - borrowed + pronto (Spanish) - without delay, quickly.

meteoromancy - divination by the observation of meteors [(notebook 1931): 'meteoromancy Waite: The Occult Sciences 123: 'Æromancy. This is the art which, sometimes under an alternative appellation, Meteoromancy, is concerned with the prediction of things to come by the observation of atmospheric variations and the different phenomena of the air, particularly those of thunder, lightning, and fiery meteors'].


heiss (ger) - hot + roh (ger) - raw, crude + hydrogen.

Lorrequer, Harry - title, hero of Lever's novel, leaves Ireland for Paris. 

Paname (fr. slang) - Paris + Ulysses.18.1610: 'Trieste-Zurich-Paris 1914-1921'.

Originally a Celtic settlement, Zurich became the Roman town Turicum + turris (l) - tower. 

regain - to get back to, succeed in reaching (a place) again

absentee - one who is absent, or away, on any occasion

tarry - resembling tar; having the consistency, colour, or flavour of tar + James Joyce lived in Trieste from 1905 to 1915 and again in 1919-20, working as an English teacher at the Berlitz School. Trieste was once nicknamed 'la citta immediata' (Italian: the immediate city). 

alley - a narrow street with walls on both sides, or generally bordered with trees or bushes; a back-lane running parallel with a main street (U.S.) + aller et retour (fr) - travel to and back; return ticket.

detour - a turning or deviation from the direct road, a roundabout or circuitous way

Fahrkarte (ger) - ticket (for travel)

getrennt (ger) - separated + trente (French) - thirty + twenty.

Rody the Rover on the Ribbonman - novel by William Carlton, 1845. Rody is a provoking agent of the English government + røde (Danish) - red. 

on the safe side - with a margin of security against error

Libera - female counterpart of Liber, associated with Ceres + libera nos (l) - free us.

nostalgia - a form of melancholia caused by prolonged absence from one's home or country; severe home-sickness

Beate Laurentie (l) - Blessed Laurence + Laurence O’Toole, who died in exile and wandering saint’s nostalgia, literally meaning “homesickness”.

ora pro nobis (l) - pray for us + beate Laurentie O'Tulie ora pro nobis (l) - blessed Laurence O'Toole pray for us + Europa (l) - Europe (where Laurence O'Toole died).

cashel - strong fence or ring wall enclosing a group of churches + CASHEL - Town, County Tipperary; form capital of the king-bishops of Munster. The cathedral-fortress (now ruins), on the "Rock of Cashel," was burned in 1495 by Fitzgerald Mor (the Great Earl of Kildare) (ef U 228/231); also by the renegade Murrough O'Brien in 1647. Caisel, Ir. "castle" + Joyce's note: 'cashels' Flood: Ireland, Its Saints and Scholars 115: 'The Christian missionaries... built their small oratories and bee-hive huts within the boundaries of the stone fort or cashel'. 

ligger - a line with a float and bait which is left in the water, used chiefly in pike-fishing in the Norfolk Broads + ligge (Danish) - lie (down).

liogo (Provençal) - place + luogotenente (Italian) = liòtenènt (Provençal) - lieutenant.

inclined - having a direction leaning or falling away from the vertical or horizontal, sloping, slanting; favourably disposed, in the mood or mind for something + (Joyce's note): 'undressed masonry: inclined jambs'.

jamb - a leg; each of the side posts of a doorway + (notebook 1923): 'inclined jambs' Flood: Ireland, Its Saints and Scholars 117: 'The Irish Romanesque therefore exhibits native traditions handed down from earlier native buildings, pagan and Christian, and is characterised by... the retention of the inclined jambs of the primitive doorways'.

purview - range of vision, physical or mental; range of experience or thought

pronaos - the space in front of the naos, cell, or body of a temple, enclosed by the portico and the projecting side walls

deretano (it) - behind, bottom, buttocks

reredos - an ornamental facing or screen of stone or wood covering the wall at the back of an altar, frequently of ornate design, with niches, statues, and other decorations

fuit finis terrae (l) - it was the end of the land + finster (ger) - dark + fenestra (l) = Fenster (ger) - window + Finisterre, Spain.

skyscraper + fire escape (Parnell [388.03])

weighting - something used as a weight to press down, steady, or balance + The Man on the Flying Trapeze (song): 'with the greatest of ease... her dear home' + weighing anchor.

raging - that rages; also as a mere intensifier + On the Raging Canal (song).

Jordan - The name of a river in Palestine, the crossing of which is used (after Num. 33:51) to symbolize death + jorden (Norwegian) - the earth + 'On the Other Side of Jordan' (American revival hymn) + ivri (Hebrew) - a Hebrew (literally 'from the other side' (of the Jordan river)).

Havvah (Hebrew) - Eve

waterboy - a boy employed at the riverside; chiefly U.S., a boy or man who carries or takes round drinking water + Waterboy (song).

lesson - Eccl. A portion of Scripture or other sacred writing read at divine service + himself.

Cnocan an Gabha (knukan nugou) (gael) - The Smith's Hillock; anglic. Knocknagow

chow - A Chinaman

collegian - one who is receiving, or has received, a college education, a student + collegio (Amaro - Italian underworld slang & craftsmen's cant) - prison (literally 'college').

fire off - to propel or discharge (a missile) as from a gun. Also fig. + (notebook 1930): 'firing off ein epistol to the hebruws.'

John Mitchel's Jail Journal is one of Irish nationalism's most famous texts + SHEOL - Hebrew "Hell," the afterworld + giornale (it) - newspaper

Talmud - the body of Jewish civil and ceremonial traditionary law + Sebastian Melmoth - name assumed by Wilde in Paris after his imprisonment, after hero of Charles Robert Maturin's Melmoth the Wanderer + melammed (Hebrew) - teacher in Hebrew school.

first + farced (Archaic) - stuffed.

epistle - Eccl. the Epistle: The extract from one of the apostolical Epistles read as part of the Communion Service.

Hebrews + The Epistle of Paul the Apostle to the Hebrews (Hebrews).

Cornelius (l) - "Horned (?)": a Roman centurion converted by Peter (Acts 10:1-31) + chernila (Russian) - ink + (several of Paul's epistles open: 'Paul... to the church of'...)

sometime + slon (Russian) - bishop (in chess); elephant.

prepositus - the head, chief, president, or provost, in various institutions clerical and civil + praepositus (l) - commander.

tu Maria (l) - thou Mary + tomaria (gr) - tracts, booklets + Teamhar (t'our) (gael) - Prospective-hill, ancient royal capital; anglic. Tara + James Macpherson: The Poems of Ossian: Temora + touman (Russian) - fog + Samaria (Acts 8:1-14, 9:31).

church in Antioch (Acts 11:19-27)

Antioch - capital of Seleucid Syria, named by Seleucus, one of Alexander's generals, after his own father + an teach (un t'okh) (gael) - the house.

salvo - to salute (a vessel, etc.) by firing of salvo or volley or guns + salve (l) - hail! (e.g. a greeting in a letter).

ledig (ger) - unmarried + ledig (Danish) - idle, unoccupied.

gentlemen + jointure - a joining.

tordenskrald (Danish) - thunderclap + tordenshjold (Danish) - thunder shield.

everybody + ebrio (l) - to make drunk.

zusammen (ger) - together + tilsammen (Danish) - together + tinned salmon.