curragh - marshy waste ground; spec. the proper name of the level stretch of open ground in Co. Kildare, famous for its racecourse and military camp

machree - My dear!

bosthoon - an awkward fellow; a tactless, senseless person + best + bosom + Boston.

fiend - an enemy, foe (obs.); an evil spirit generally; a person of superhuman wickedness + An Páistín Fionn (song): 'Chara mo chroídhe mo pháistín fionn' ('friend of my heart, my fairheaded maid').

bump - a blow somewhat heavy, but rather dull in sound; a sudden collision, more or less violent

bellow - the loud deep roar of cannon, thunder, a storm, and other inanimate agents; transf. of human beings: A loud deep cry or roar.

bawl - a shout at the top of one's voice, a loud prolonged rough cry

Mackirdy & Willis: The White Slave Market 192: (quoting a "missus" arguing with an American Consul trying to convince her to stop her traffic in American women to the East) 'the 'sky-pilots,' the 'pulpit-punchers,' and 'Bible-bangers' don't own creation... If you stop my progress here in this hell-on-earth... I say, I'll shake eternity to its foundation to get even with you'.

opprimor (l) - I am oppressed + opprimor [correctly oppresor] (l) - a crusher, oppresser.

opima (l) - honorable spoils; rich, fertile (plural) + oppima (Estonian) - to study.

rent - a tribute, tax, or similar charge, levied by or paid to a person

tithe - the tenth part of the annual produce of agriculture, etc., being a due or payment (orig. in kind) for the support of the priesthood, religious establishments, etc.; In more general sense: Any levy, tax, or tribute of one tenth. 

wage - a payment to a person for service rendered. Formerly used widely, e.g. for the salary or fee paid to persons of official or professional status. Now (exc. in rhetorical language) restricted to mean: The amount paid periodically, esp. by the day or week or month, for the labour or service of an employee, worker, or servant.

save - an act of saving; a piece of economy (dial. and vulgar.)

spend - the action of spending money; the amount spent

heil - Used in the expression Heil Hitler! by the Germans during the Nazi regime.

heptarch - a ruler of one of seven divisions of a country; a seventh king + heptarched span of peace = seven-arched span of peace - the rainbow (O Hehir, Brendan; Dillon, John M. / A classical lexicon for Finnegans wake)

hang back - to resist advance by one's weight or inertia; fig. to show unwillingness to advance or come forward + Joyce's note: 'Family Hold Back' family hold back - jocular command to leave enough food for guests.

lex (l) - the law

nex (l) - murder, slaughter, violent death

mores - those acquired customs and moral assumptions which give cohesion to a community or social group, the contravention or rejection of which produces a reaction of shock and outrage + mores (l) - customs.

was ist das? (ger) - what is it + fas est (l) - it is lawful, it is proper, it is fit.

wo (ger) - where + Hvor er du? (Danish) - where are you?

impover - to make poor; to reduce to poverty + improvement


bauble - a child's plaything or toy; a thing or article of no value, a paltry piece of rubbish + 'Take away these baubles' (Cromwell ordering dissolution of Rump Parliament).

bubble - a thin globular vesicle of water or other liquid, filled with air or gas + Lincoln: Gettysburg Address: 'government of the people by the people for the people'.

wrap up - to put an end to, bring to completion + Pack Up Your Troubles in Your Old Kit Bag (song).

wampum - small beads made from polished shells and formerly used as money by native Americans

cowdung - the dung or excrement of cows + Cowdung Forks = Furculae Caudinae (l) - Caudine Forks, Forks of Caudium (a town): mountain-pass where Roman army was trapped by the Samnites and forced to pass under the yoke (321 B.C.), a national humiliation never forgotten by the Romans.  

basketful - as much as fills a basket

kine - archaic pl. of cow + Cannae (l) = Kannai (gr) - village in Apulia where Hannibal destroyed a Roman army (216 B.C.); In addition to the physical loss of her army, Rome would suffer a symbolic defeat of prestige. A gold ring was a token of membership in the upper classes of Roman society. Hannibal had his men collected more than 200 gold rings from the corpses on the battlefield, and sent this collection to Carthage as proof of his victory. The collection was poured on the floor in front of the Carthaginian Senate, and was judged to be "three and a half measures".

meat meal - a meal of which meat forms the chief part

shake down - to settle down, to accommodate oneself to circumstances, a condition, position, etc. 

shuffle - movement of the feet along the ground without lifting them; a tricky exchange or alternation (of arguments, expedients, etc.) + Old Uncle Ned (song): 'Then lay down the shovel and the hoe, Hang up the fiddle and the bow, No more hard work for poor old Ned, He's gone where the good niggers go'.

throw - a violent spasm or pang, such as convulses the body, limbs, or face; Also, a spasm of feeling, a paroxysm, agony of mind, anguish; the agony of death, the death-struggle, death-throe.

ope - obs. f. hope + In Greek mythology, Oenopion ("wine drinker", "wine-faced"), son of Rhadamanthys or Dionysus and Ariadne, was a legendary king of Chios, said to have brought winemaking to the island. He had one daughter: Merope. The story of Oenopion differs somewhat in different ancient sources; what follows is Hesiod's version. Orion walked to Chios over the Aegean, and Oenopion welcomed him with a banquet; Orion got drunk and assaulted Merope. In revenge, Oenopion stabbed out Orion's eyes, and then threw him off the island. Hephaestus took pity on the blind Orion and gave him his servant Cedalion as a guide. Cedalion guided him east, where the rising sun restored Orion's sight. Orion then decided to kill Oenopion, but the Chians had built the king an underground fortress, and Orion couldn't find him. (Other sources say it was an iron fortress, built by Hephaestus.) Orion then went to Crete.

hoppity - a fanciful extension of hop (v.), used adverbially or as adj., often repeated or with the word hop to suggest a hopping or hobbling movement

Huhn (ger) - hen

hoosh - to force or turn or drive (an animal, etc.) off (or out, etc.)

clucker - one who clucks or talks endlessly and aimlessly + kliker (Serbian) - a small ball of glass that is used in various games, marble.

nuts - testicles

downfall - falling down, descending

ned - hooligan, thug, petty criminal; Also used as a general term of disapprobation + ned (Danish) - down.

levy - the action of collecting an assessment, duty, tax, etc. + Anna Liffey.

shrewd - Of persons, their qualities, actions, etc.: Depraved, wicked; evil-disposed, malignant; Passing into a weaker sense: Malicious, mischievous. 

shoplifter - a person who steals from a shop, a shop-thief

Nièvre river + never.

Nore river + another.

skidoo - to go away, leave, or depart hurriedly

Thom's Directory of Ireland/Dublin (1922), 798: (advert) 'Pure Altar Wine Sweet, Medium and Dry'.

goy (Slang) - gentile + goy (Hebrew) - gentile; nation + for you and I and I and you.

dimpled - marked with or as with dimples + dimple - a small hollow or dent, permanent or evanescent, formed in the surface of some plump part of the human body, esp. in the cheeks in the act of smiling, and regarded as a pleasing feature.

pimpled - having, or characterized by, pimples + pimple - a small solid rounded tumour of the skin, usually inflammatory, without, or rarely with, suppuration; a papule or pustule.

simple - an ignorant or foolish person

wimpled - enveloped in or wearing a wimple; hence, veiled + "a drowned doll, to face downwards for modest Sister Anne Mortimer" [211.23-24]

peek - a secret look + pig in a poke - something buyed without careful examination.

pew - long bench seat used for seating members of a congregation or choir in a church

penny babies - type of sweet

one by one - one after another, one at a time, singly

haul - the act of 'drawing' or making a large profit or valuable acquisition of any kind + holy

hekatoendeka (gr) - one hundred and eleven + hekta (gr) - six + hendeka (gr) - eleven + Hecate - Greek moon-goddess The frog is totem of Hecate, the Witch who transforms from the old crone or hag (hexe) into voluptuous enchantress: the mother into the daughter. (Kenneth Grant: Outside the Circles of Time).

mange (Danish) - many

jujube - a lozenge, made of gum-arabic, gelatin, etc., flavoured with, the fruit + mumbo jumbo - a grotesque idol said to have been worshipped by certain tribes or associations of Negroes; obscure or meaningless talk or writing (Joyce's note 'mumbo jumbo' derives from Dora Russell's Hypatia, or Woman and Knowledge).

Mutt and Jeff - a stupid pair of men; stupid dialogue (from the names of two characters called Mutt and Jeff, one tall and the other short, in a popular cartoon series by H. C. Fisher (1884-1954), American cartoonist) + Mutt and Jeff (Cockney Rhyming Slang) - deaf.

muchas gracias (Spanish) - many thanks

barcelona (Anglo-Irish) - silk neckcloth

fie fie - to say Fie! (an exclamation expressing, in early use, disgust or indignant reproach. No longer current in dignified language; said to children to excite shame for some unbecoming action, and hence often used to express the humorous pretence of feeling 'shocked') + (presents from *A*). 

tondeo (l) - to shear, clip, crop, shave + tondus [correctly tonsus] (l) - shaved, clipped + (jinnies and Napoleon).

castoff - thrown off, rejected from use, discarded: as clothes, a favourite, a lover, etc. + The Letter: well Maggy...

vaguely - without attention or concentration of mind or thought + very grateful. Many thanks (The Letter: dear, thank you ever so much).

free speech - speech characterized by liberty in the expression of sentiments or opinions; uttered or expressed without reserve; frank, plain-spoken

gar - to make, to cause (in various constructions) + gearr (gyar) (gael) - cut + gair (gar) (gael) - laugh.

sex + Morton Prince: The Dissociation of a Personality 481: quotes letter from Christine in which Sally commented: 'Nobody asked you, Sir, she said' (parody of nursery rhyme 'Where are you going, my pretty maid... My face is my fortune, sir, she said') [280.22]

hinter - one who or that which hints or gives a hint + hinter (ger) - behind + Hintergrund (ger) - background + grunt - the short low gruff noise of the kind made by hogs.

burdened - heavily loaded, encumbered, oppressed

tad - a young or small child, esp. a boy. Occas. used joc. of old men + tad (Cornish, Welsh) - father + Jespersen: Language, its Nature, Development and Origin 159 (VIII.8): (if a child reaches out and says) 'ta or da, it will be taken by its parents and others as a real word... in England as there or thanks... in Germany as da 'there', in France as tiens 'hold'... in Italy as to, (= togli) 'take''.

an t-athair (un tahir) (gael) - the father

skitter - to move or run rapidly, to hurry about

laughing + Joyce's note: 'trees laugh at old wind's joke' + Laub (ger) - foliage + hing (ger) - hung.

wheeze - orig. Theatr. slang, A joke or comic gag introduced into the performance of a piece by a clown or comedian, esp. a comic phrase or saying introduced repeatedly; hence, (gen. slang  or colloq.) a catch phrase constantly repeated; more widely, a trick or dodge frequently used; also, a piece of special information, a 'tip'.

windbag - fig. (contemptuous). An empty pretender, or something pretentious but unsubstantial; esp. a voluble and senseless talker. 

bluster - boisterous inflated talk, violent or angry self-assertion, swaggering + Wyndham Lewis edited the publication Blast.

blowhard - a blustering person, a braggart; A "blowhard" is a braggart, while to "blow hard" is to forcibly expel one's breath + blowharding (Slang) - boasting + Joyce's note: 'blowhard mit - - skittering laubhing at that wheeze of old windbag, Blusterboss, blowing blowharding about all he didn’t do (late 1934-March 1935).

troop = troupe - a company of performers + heliotrope

winker - blind consisting of a leather eyepatch sewn to the side of the halter that prevents a horse from seeing something on either side + Winker (ger) - signal.

muckwet - wet as muck, thoroughly wet + muck - dirt, filth + muc (muk) (gael) - pig + Marquis of Wellesley - Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, Wellington's brother.

nith - envy, malice, hatred

nod - a short, quick inclination of the head used as a sign, esp. to convey salutation or recognition, to express assent or approbation, or to direct attention to something; Obs. exc. in the proverb a nod's as good as a wink to a blind horse.

emperor Napoleon

poorblind = purblind - partially blind; almost blind

piebald - of two different colours, esp. white and black or other dark colour, usually arranged in more or less irregular patches; usually of animals, esp. horses

horse + huir (Spanish) - escape. 

tricuspidal - having three cusps or points, threepointed

hauberk - a piece of defensive armour: originally intended for the defence of the neck and shoulders; but already in 12th and 13th c. developed into a long coat of mail, or military tunic, usually of ring or chain mail, which adapted itself readily to the motions of the body.