buzzard - an inferior kind of hawk, useless for falconry; fig. A worthless, stupid, or ignorant person + buzzer (bee).

suckle - to suck at the breast

milkmaid - a woman that milks or is employed in a dairy + milk and honey (Exodus 3:8, and elsewhere) + "when a child of Maam, Festy King," [085.22-.23]

embalm - to impregnate (a dead body) with spices, to preserve it from decay + emballer (fr) - to pack up + (notebook 1924): 'embalmed in honey'.

soot - blackness, darkness + suit

ochone - a Scottish and Irish exclamation of lamentation


ripping - that rips or tears; also fig., cutting; very fast or rapid (obs.); excellent, splendid

Lucretia (on Lucrece) - Roman lady, raped by Sextus Tarquimius; having exacted an oath of vengeance from her menfolk, she stabbed herself + "Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus": Castor and Polydeuces (Pollux) abducted the Leucippides ("white horses") Phoebe and Hilaeira, the daughters of Leucippus. When they encountered their analogous twin brothers of Thebes, Idas and "lynx-eyed" Lynceus, bound for revenge, Castor, the mortal brother, fell, and Polydeuces, the immortal twin, survived, yet they were not separated. Polydeuces persuaded Zeus to share his gift with Castor. Accordingly, the two spend alternate days as gods on Olympus, worthy of burnt sacrifice, and as deceased mortals in Hades, whose spirits must be propitiated by libations + William Shakespeare: The Rape of Lucrece

toga (l) - normal peacetime dress of a Roman citizen + toggery (Slang) - clothes.

imponent - that imposes + impotence


mucky - dirty, filthy, muddy; More widely: grimy, grubby, horrid + muckle (Dialect) - much.

spick - short for spick and span (particularly neat, trim, or smart; suggestive of something quite new or unaffected by wear)

Via Flaminia (l) - the great northern highway of Roman Italy, built 220 B.C. by C. Flaminius + flumineus (l) - of, in or belonging to a river + flumen (l) - river.


weemen - obs. pl. of woman + wee (Colloquial) - to urinate + mingere (l) - to urinate.

funerally - in a funeral manner; with funeral ceremonies + (notebook 1924): 'rivers break forth for joy, at funeral' → Irish legends of rivers bursting forth at the burial of heroes.

Thomas Moore: Irish Melodies: song The Minstrel Boy: 'warrior-bard'

feaster - one who partakes of a feast; a guest

foster - a foster-parent, nurse + foster mother


cottonwood - the name of several species of poplar (Populus) in U.S.

ruadh (rue) (gael) = roe (Anglo-Irish) - red + (7 colours of rainbow).

William of Orange

buidhe is Irish "yellow" 

gorm is Irish "blue"

indigo and violet 

Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome

to (gr) - the

obedient - that obeys or is willing to obey + obedientia civium urbis felicitas (l) - the citizen's obedience is the city's happiness (motto of Dublin).

Civvy (Joyce's note) Narcissus, 118: 'Meanwhile our clothes, ordinary civvies, are still with us; and as all the conventional arts save this one have vanished, it remains with the unique anthropological interest which belonged to the Tasmanian.'

at (l) - moreover, but, yet

Mike - a Roman Catholic

sandglass - timepiece in which the passage of time is indicated by the flow of sand from one transparent container to another through a narrow passage + Stanislaus Joyce + (notebook 1924): 'Stained glass effect *V*'.


buttermilk - the acidulous milk which remains after the butter has been churned out + (notebook 1924): 'butter won't melt in's breeches' butter wouldn't melt in his mouth (phrase) - prim and proper, with a cool demeanor (the allusion is to people who maintain such a cool demeanor that they don't even have the warmth to melt butter).

FDV: He who will either be crowned or hanged learns scans history's errors from the parrotbook of Datars, foully traduced for the usages of dauphins of the meter of Herodotus or Noah's misbelieving Annalfabetter, missus was to velivole back from Walhala [& through the tellaspeep of whatsaswhatness] thick about read boyjones upon those pages about the things that did having place at all [for pretty safe menly], she wd. laugh that flat that after she had sanked down on her fat arks they were all of a sheeks. This while he who suckled at the breast of a peasant mother who having aten knots of knowledge will be the [cowards castle pulpiter &] apostle walker from ball of his foot [and [not wetting his weapon] shaker of the sacred rattle,] as far as him, oriented through life, sees not her signings nor the multiplying of her shadow but is ating, as he thuks at present, for his salvation of the knuts of knowledge so as to befit him for the massacre of the ignorants by pitchcap and triangle though still preserving his stained glass effect (you wd think butter wouldn't melt in his breeches) (Most of this was eventually suppressed, but some parts were incorporated in the marginal notes and footnotes which characterize the finished chapter.)

duck - a term of endearment + duck trousers.

deputy - a person elected to represent a constituency; a member of a representative legislative assembly

mimbar - the pulpit in a mosque + diputy mimber (Irish Pronunciation) - deputy member.

poll - head, nape of neck + pole + Peter and Paul Fortress - one of the most noted buildings in Petrograd.

burgess - an inhabitant of a borough; strictly, one possessing full municipal rights; a citizen + Petersburgh

mushy - soft, pulpy; fig. Tender, sentimental, insipid + mishe/tauf (motif).

tiptop - situated at the very top; very highest; almost always fig. of the highest quality or excellence

toft - Originally, a homestead, the site of a house and its out-buildings; a house site + Toft's - hobbyhorses and whirligig at the Mirus Bazaar.  

taft - a widening-out of the end of a lead pipe into a broad thin flange + Taft, William Howard - 27th president of the U.S.

noblesse oblige - Phrase suggesting that noble ancestry constrains (to honourable behaviour); privilege entails responsibility.

jady - Of a horse: Like a jade; tricky, jadish + lady

daktar (Hindustani) - doctor + daughter dear.

rerise - to rise again

white night - a sleepless night + The White Knight - character in 'Through the Looking-Glass' by Lewis Carroll.

drÝmme (Danish) - dream + hjem (Danish) - home + druimin (Irish) - a white-backed crow.

Buddha - (buddha: enlightened, awakened) The title given by the adherents of one of the great Asiatic religions, thence called Buddhism, to the founder of their faith, Sakyamuni, Gautama, or Siddartha, who flourished in Northern India in the 5th century b.c.

despising + theosophising.

thea (gr) - goddess + theos (gr) - god + tea + butters despising our cheese [161.12].

encloud - to surround with or envelop in a cloud; to overshadow, darken + included.

Liffey flows from West Wicklow

Rosaleen, Dark - personification of Ireland, like Poor Old Woman, Cathleen Ni Houlihan, etc. Mangan's poem begins, "My dark Rosaleen, do not sigh, do not weep..."

truant - absent without permission; idle, lazy, loitering

thorntree - a tree having or bearing thorns; in Great Britain, usually a hawthorn tree

drames (fr) - plays + drame (Irish Pronunciation) - dream.

bap (Hindustani) - father + "Teems of times and happy returns, the seim anew, ordovico or viricordo".

sein - to sign, seal + sein (ger) - being + Sein (Basque) - nickname from Basque: sein 'child' + sen (Czech, Polish) = san (Serbian) - dream.

Malory: 'Some men say yet that King Arthur is not dead... I will not say it shall not be so'.

Arthur + Layamon: 'ever yet the Britons look for Arthur's coming'.

Herbst (ger) - autumn

blath (bla) (gael) - flower + Baile Atha Cliath (blaklie) (gael) - Dublin + Arthur's last battle against Saxons took place 'in the country around Bath'.

legends + CAERLEON-ON-USK - Village, on Usk River, Wales. Famous in legend as the chief home of King Arthur and seat of his court. Established ca 50 AD as Isca Silurium, it became Castra Legionum, one of the 3 great legionary fortresses of Roman Brit, and was known as the "City of the Legions." It may be the site where 5 Kings of Cymry rowed Edgar on his barge to acknowledge his sovereignty (973 AD).

Layamon: Brut: 'ever yet the Britons look for Arthur's coming'. 

shuttle - to travel back and forth between two points + shut the pipers down. 

piper - one who plays on a pipe (esp. a strolling musician)

tuigeann tķ? (Irish) - do you understand?

sant (it) - saint

eric - blood fine for murder of an Irishman

abu! (obu) (gael) - to victory! + …ire abķ (Irish) - Ireland to victory! (slogan)

waddle - to walk heavily and clumsily with a pronounced sway + Thomas Moore: song: Oh, Could We Do with This World of Ours [air: Basket of Oysters].

Red Bank - the name of an oyster bed in Co. Clare, Ireland, used attrib. in Red Bank oyster.

massive - imposing in scale or scope + (rhythm of song Phil the Fluter's Ball: 'Then all joined in wid the greatest joviality, Covering the buckle and the shuffle, and the cut, Jigs were danced, of the very finest quality, But the widda bet the company at "handeling the fut"') + {Well, this freely is what must have occurred to our missive [111.30-.31]}

pink - the 'flower', or finest example of excellence; the embodied perfection (of some good quality).

punk - devoid of worth or sense; poor in quality; nonsensical + {negative of a horse melted while drying [111.27-.28]} 

lineal - genealogy, pedigree (obs.); arranged in a line

pondus - an old English measure of weight, usually of wool, perhaps equal to 3 cloves [an old English measure of weight, containing 7 pounds (a unit of weight: of 16 ounces in the avoirdupois system (= 453.592 g))] + pondus (l) - weight.

avoirdupois - the standard system of weights used, in Great Britain, for all goods except the precious metals, precious stones, and medicines.