newsletter - a letter specially written to communicate the news of the day, common in the later part of the 17th and beginning of the 18th century; also, a printed account of the news (sometimes with a blank space left for private additions). Also, a periodical sent or handed out to subscribers, members of an organization, etc.

Massacre of St. Bartholomew - the massacre of the Huguenots of France on the 24th of August 1572.

bugger - damn (Used vaguely (in unconventional speech) in phrases not worth a damn, not to care a damn, not to give a damn).

turmoil - a state of agitation or commotion; disturbance, tumult + churn - to agitate milk or cream in a churn so as to make butter; to agitate, stir, and intermix any liquid.

*S*

ballet master - one who arranges and directs the dancing of the ballet.

goster - to behave in a noisy, boisterous, or swaggering fashion + goster (Anglo-Irish) - conversation (from Irish: gasrán).

old fellow - In addressing or speaking of persons with whom one has an acquaintance of some standing, or whom one treats as such.

Lagener - anagram of General + (notebook 1924): 'Lagener' + Lagan (logan) (gael) - dim. of Lag, "hollow"; N.E. river; anglic. Lagan + Lagen (ger) - situations, positions + Lagenia (l) - Leinster.

Loch Lein (lokhlen) (gael) - Lean's (masc. personal name of anc. artificer: "Loin") Lake; chief lake at Killarney; anglic. Lough Leane + Lochlainn (lokhlin) (gael) - Scandinavia, Norway.

ear - to plough, till (the ground)

wick - a farm; spec. a dairy farm

pierce - the act or process of piercing + piece

railing - a fence or barrier made of rails, or in some other fashion.

liggende (Danish) - lying

dander - ruffled or angry temper; in phr. with one's dander up.

oldtime - of, belonging to, or characteristic of the ancient or olden time.

turner - one who turns or fashions objects of wood, metal, bone, etc., on a lathe + tuner - one who tunes a musical instrument; spec. whose occupation is to tune pianos or organs.

Saturday

early

closing + Dublin public houses in Joyce's day closed at 10 p.m. on Saturday nights, while the normal closing time for Monday-Friday was 11 p.m.

Cronus - dethroned, castrated, killed his father Uranus, and was dethroned, killed by his own son, Zeus, wielding the lightning. To the late Greeks, Cronus was a god of harvests and of time. The Romans identified him with Saturn + kronios (gr) - old man.

skelly - to squint + song Kelly with the Leather Belly.

bald - without hair (feathers, etc.) on other parts of the body than the head; bare or destitute of ornament and grace, unadorned, meagrely simple.

bohereen - a lane, a narrow road

artichoke - a composite plant (Cynara Scolymus), allied to the thistles, originally from Barbary and the south of Europe, widely cultivated in kitchen-gardens + ARTICHOKE ROAD - The old road to Merrion.

moel (Welsh) - bald; hill

Magh-mullaigh (mamuli) (gael) - Plain of the hillock

O'Maoil Charthaigh (o'mwel kharhi) (gael) - descendant of Maol Charthach ("servant of Carthach ['loving']")

ORAN - Port City, Algeria. The Grand Mosque was erected in 18th century with money paid as ransom for Christian slaves.  

mosque - a Muslim temple or place of worship + "Man in the Iron Mask" - Louis XIV's mysterious political prisoner.

confarreation - the highest and most solemn form of marriage among the ancient Romans, made in the presence of the Pontifex Maximus or the Flamen Dialis and ten witnesses, and marked by the offering of a cake made of spelt; a wedding, marriage (obs.) + Joyce's note: 'confarreation'.

'Tim Tom Tracy (whiskey Tracy)' (notebook 1923)

Welshman - a native of Wales

Dr Wangel - old man married to younger woman in Henrik Ibsen's "The Lady from the Sea"

song The Lambeth Walk

conche (fr) - creek, cove

Joyce's note (notebook 1923): 'they knew Greek / used Gr words in / their Latin wrote / verses in Greek / (Scotus Erigena)' Ireland: Its Saints and Scholars 91-2: They had, as M. d'Arbois de Jubainville has shown, a good knowledge of Greek, [...] It was considered good taste amongst the Irish scholars and the other learned men of this period to scatter Greek words through the Latin text which they composed, and this practice points to a certain acquaintance with the language. John Scotus Erigena went even further than this, and wrote verses entirely in Greek. (MS Cornell-4, PrRMA: in their half a Roman hat ^+with an ancient Greek gloss on it+^ | JJA 56:102 | Mar 1924 | )

(notebook 1924): 'gloss' (on a notebook page with several entries from Edward Gibbon's "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire", noted for his numerous footnote glosses).

summarily - without (unnecessary) formality or delay, without hesitation; by summary legal procedure (applied to proceedings in a court of law carried out rapidly by the omission of certain formalities required by the common law). 

byword - a proverb, proverbial saying

rainwater - water that falls from the clouds as rain

Jupiter Pluvius - Jupiter as the dispenser of rain; hence used trivially in reference to a fall or storm of rain.

terpay (Armenian) - impersonal verbal form (a grammatical category)

whilk = which

foretold - predicted

Ballymacarret - an industrial district on Belfast Lough, which, with MacArt's Fort on Cave Hill, North-West of Belfast, is named for Brian MacArt O'Neill, slain 1601 by Lord Deputy Mountjoy. 

fall in with - to come upon by chance, light upon, meet with, get into company with.

lout - an awkward ill-mannered fellow; a bumpkin, clown

Peebles - county in Scotland + "Peebles in the Play" is an ancient ballad which Percy didn't include in his Reliques because it was too obsolete. Peebles is a place in Scotland. A note in Buffalo Workbook #10 suggests it may have to do with Sligo.  

latterly - of late, lately + latte (it) - milk.

The "Holy Maid of Kent" was the 16th-century Elizabeth Barton, who resisted the Reformation, prophesied the doom of Henry VIII, and was hanged for her pains in 1534. 

humble

position

squash - to squeeze, press; to suppress or put down

decree - a judicial decision + decree nisi - the order made by the court for divorce, which remains conditional for at least six months, after which, unless cause to the contrary is shown, it is made absolute. 

Carpery, King (pron. karbri) - several legendary Irish kings. 

kingship - the dominion or territory of a king + Cross & Slover: Ancient Irish Tales 357: 'When Cathar Mor... was in the kingship of Tara'.

Poland

dowager - a woman whose husband is dead and who is in the enjoyment of some title or some property that has come to her from him; familiarly: An elderly lady of dignified demeanour.

voorzitter (Dutch) - chairman

fullbottom - a full-bottomed wig + fullbottomed - Of a wig: Having a full or large bottom + Joyce's note: 'fullbottom wig'.