copycat - one who slavishly imitates another + Copernicus, Nicholas (1473-1543) - Polish astronomer. 

fellowcommoner - an undergraduate at Oxford, Cambridge or Trinity college, Dublin, formerly permitted to dine at the same table as the fellows of his college.

countenance - appearence, aspect, look + continents

pro tem - for the time being, temporarily

locum - substitute, deputy + pro tem[pore] locum tenens (l) - holding the place for a time. 


acrosskors (Dutch) - across.

Joyce's note (notebook 1923): 'yawning abyss' / snoring (dash dittoes 'abyss'); Woman the Inspirer 127: In love, as in friendship, there are divergencies of idea and feeling which at first are almost imperceptible crevices, though they widen into yawning abysses with the flight of time.; MS 47472-150, TsILA: could simply imagine themselves ^+in their bosom's inmost core+^ ^+, timesported accross the yawning (abyss)+^ | JJA 45:189 | 1927 |

seasider - a frequenter of the seaside

cockshy - an construction of coconuts or other objects set up (as at a fair) to be thrown at with sticks or balls.

evensong - vespers, the time of the evensong (usually shortly before sunset)

evocation - the action of evoking or calling forth into existence or activity

doomed - condemned (to some fate)

ventriloquism - the art or practice of speaking or producing sounds in such a manner that the voice appears to proceed from some person or object other than the speaker, and usually at some distance from him.

agitator - one who agitates, one who acts for others; one who keeps up a political agitation.

plangor - a loud or piercing lamentation, beating the breast in grief.

reef - a narrow ridge or chain of rocks or sand, lying at or near the surface of the water.

silk hat - a cylindrical hat having a light stiff body covered with silk plush or shag.

walrus moustache - a large moustache which overhangs the lips

skumring (Danish) - dusk

fane - a temple; an elf, fairy

muezzin - a muslim crier who calls the hour of daily prayers from the minaret.

phrase holy blazes!

fez - a brimless cone shaped hat with tassel attached

brimless - without a brim

Ghazi -  a champion, esp. against infidels; also used as a title of honour. In modern use, chiefly applied to Muslim fanatics who have devoted themselves to the destruction of infidels.

Power, Frank, "Ghazi" (1858-84) - Dublin journalist, jester, he claimed to have been at Plevna and gained the title of "Ghazi" or "Brave" when he led a Turkish cavalry charge, crying "Hooroo for Dublin!" He tried to hoax Parnell with a story of Dublin (he assured Parnell and his employer, E. D. Gray of the Freeman, that be had been shot at and wounded in a skirmish with "extremists" at Clontarf.), and showed a "bullet wound" in his leg which turned out to be a blind boil or "illconditioned ulcer." Power was killed trying to escape Khartoum. 

manslayer - one who commits homicide

protend - to hold out, extend, to stick out

overgrown - abnormally or excesivelly grown, abnormally large, too big + "Overgrown milestone" - Dublin's Wellington Monument.

leadpencil - a pencil of graphite, often enclosed in cedar or other wood

monumentally - like a monument, in a monumental way or degree

molybdokondylon (gr) - lead-knuckle + molybdokondylon (Modern Greek) - lead pencil.

mausoleum - a stately edifice erected as a commemorative burial place for or by some person  of distinction.

stod - a glottal modification in Danish of the last part of a vowel + stod (Danish) - stood.

tillstone - a fissile rock in coalmines etc. + stena (Serbian) - stone + stillstehen (ger) - stand still + Steyne - a pillar erected by Vikings in Dublin.

meisie - girl, young lady or woman + Meise (ger) - titmouse.

skulde (Danish) - should

pon - upon + Chopin, Frederic (1810-49) - Polish composer. 

all over + olovo (Serbian) - lead (metal).

exculpatory - adapted or intended to clear from blame or a charge of guilt; apologetic, vindicatory.

Roland - the legendary nephew of Charlemagne, celebrated in the Chanson de Roland and many other romances (frequently together with his comrade Oliver); hence, one comparable to Roland in respect of courage or warlike deeds; one who is a full match for another + Roland and Oliver - friends in the Chanson de Roland and Ariosto's Orlando Furioso. They were killed in battle by the Saracens because Roland would not - till too late - blow his horn to summon Charlemagne. When he blew the horn, it cracked + phrase a Roland for an Oliver: a blow for a blow, tit for tat. 

ring - to announce by the sound of bells; to utter sonorously, to proclaim aloud.

-een (Anglo-Irish) - (diminutive)

sillos (gr) - "squint eyed": satirical poem + sillon (fr) - furrow.

joue (fr) - cheek + joujou (fr) - toy.

resignation - a giving up of oneself (to God)

diffuse - to spread abroad over a surface, disperse, disseminate

spectral - resembling, looking like, suggestive of, a spectre or spectres, ghostly, unreal.

appealingness - attractiveness, pleasingness; imploringness

gloat - to gaze with intense or passionate satisfaction (usually implying a lustful, avaricious or malignant pleasure); to look or gaze askance (obs.) +  Thomas Moore: song As a Beam o'er the Face of the Waters May Glow [air: The Young Man's Dream].

accurate - exact, precise, correct, nice; in exact conformity to a standard or to truth + akkurat (Danish) - exactly.

effective - actual, taking effect, impressive

coffin plate - a metal plate set in a coffin-lid, bearing the name of the deceased person, usually with dates of birth and death.


bygning (Danish) - building + Genesis 1:1, John 1:1: 'In the beginning'.

unfriended - having no friends

Van Diemen's Land - the original name of Tasmania

skald - an ancient Scandinavian poet [(notebook 1924): 'skald']

maundering -  wandering aimlessly; doting, drivelling +  maunder (obs) - to beg; a beggar.

pote - thrust, kick, a stick for poking, a poker; a drink + poet

weary willie - one who avoids or dislikes work; tramp + wearily + Weary Willy - tramp character in English comic strip. 

semi - - half, partly

signs of the zodiac - the twelve equal parts into which the zodiac is divided, and through one  of which the sun passes in each month.

lenghtily - in a lenghty manner

flask - a bottle, usually of glass, of spheroidal or bulbous shape, with a long narrow neck.

cracket - a low stool; an insect + cracked + cricket cap + (notebook 1924): 'innsigns / bottleneck = poteen / broken cup = tea / old shoe on pole = ? / wisp of straw = bed / broom = whisky / sod of turf = tobacco'.

downtrodden - trampled down; beaten down by treading

brogue - a rude kind of shoe made of untanned hide

broom - a shrub bearing large yellow flowers

blad - fragment, piece, lump + blad (Danish) = blad (Dutch) - leaf.

stockfish - a name for cod and other gadoid fish cured by splitting open and drying hard in the air without salt + Stockfish (ger) = stockfisch (Danish) - dried cod.

longingly - with yearning desire

herbergery - lodging, entertainment; inn + Herberge (ger) = herberg (Dutch) - shelter, inn.

poteen - whisky distilled in Ireland in small quantities, privately, i.e. the produce of an illicit still.

pratie - potato

baccy - tobacco

width - breadth + with

informally - unofficially, without form or ceremony

quasi - - kind of; resembling or simulating, but not really the same as, that properly so termed.

presque (fr) - almost + presqu'Óle (fr) - peninsula.


windy - violent, vehement, extravagant

nous - mind, intellect; common sense, intelligence + Wyndham Lewis

melancholy hat - mourning hat + Goldsmith's The Traveller opens: "Remote, unfriended, melancholy, slow, Or by the lazy Scheldt, or wandering Po ..." +  Lewis: Time and Western Man: 'there is not very much reflection going on at any time inside the head of Mr James Joyce' .

pragma (gr) - deed, act, matter, affair

causa formalis (l) - one of Aristotle's four metaphysical "causes"; the others being "material," "efficient" and "final".

Thomas Moore: song Oh! Breathe Not His Name: 'Oh! breathe not his name, let it sleep in the shade' [air: The Brown Maid]

kis waste (Hindustani) - why +  kiska (Hindustani) - whose +  kidhar (Hindustani) - whither + kitna (Hindustani) - how much + baja (Hindustani) - suitable.

tal - tale; tall + Tal (ger) - valley + a tale of a tub - an apocryphal tale, a cock and bull story +  tal (Cornish) = tal (Welsh) - tall, high, eminent.

tem - them + tale + tem (Gipsy) - country.

tumulus - an ancient sepulchral mound, a barrow + Mr. Atherton has rightly observed (Books, p. 133) that the word "tumulum" contains a clear reference to the primal mud-heap upon which TM as the creator-god, after masturbating into his mouth, spat out the first beings. Thus, the "tumulum" is both the mound of creation, and the tumulus tomb of burial.

gav (Gipsy) - town, village

Grube (ger) - hole, mine + grob (Serbian) - grave.

cudgel play - a sport or fighting with cudgels + Cosht-killimengreskey tem (Gipsy) - Cudgel players' country: Cornwall (in Borrow: Romano Lavo-Lil).

Match-eneskey gav (Gipsy) - Fishy town: Yarmouth (in Borrow: Romano Lavo-Lil)

leek - a culinary herb, allied to the onion, but differing from it in having the bulbous part cylindrical and the leaves flat and broad + The leek is the well-known symbol for Wales + Porrum-engreskey tem (Gipsy) - Leek-eaters' country: Wales (in Borrow: Romano Lavo-Lil).

Paub-pawnugo tem (Gipsy) - Apple-water country: Hertfordshire (in Borrow: Romano Lavo-Lil) + Pov-engreskey tem (Gipsy) - Potato country: Norfolk (in Borrow: Romano Lavo-Lil) + po-vengerski (Russian) - in Hungarian.

regnare (l) - to reign + regnans (l) - reigning + regnen (ger) - rain.