copycat - one who slavishly imitates another + Copernicus, Nicholas (1473-1543) - Polish astronomer + Coptic language, the final stage of the Egyptian language, was a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 8th century.. 

commuter - a passenger train that is ridden primarily by passengers who travel regularly from one place to another

countenance - appearence, aspect, look + continents + FDV: hearing his cousin's description of that fellowtraveller's features play of countenance,

pro tem - for the time being, temporarily

locum - substitute, deputy + pro tem[pore] locum tenens (l) - holding the place for a time. 

kors (Dutch) - across + transported across.

Joyce's note (notebook 1923): 'yawning abyss' / snoring (dash dittoes 'abyss') Woman the Inspirer 127: In love, as in friendship, there are divergencies of idea and feeling which at first are almost imperceptible crevices, though they widen into yawning abysses with the flight of time.; MS 47472-150, TsILA: could simply imagine themselves ^+in their bosom's inmost core+^ ^+, timesported accross the yawning (abyss)+^ | JJA 45:189 | 1927 |

seasider - a frequenter of the seaside

cockshy - an construction of coconuts or other objects set up (as at a fair) to be thrown at with sticks or balls + cocksure + J A Cockshott (Joyce's list of characters in I.3) + FDV from page 51: during his weekend pasttime of executing empty bottles which had formerly not so (very) long before contained Reid's family stout, by cockshot [with deadly accuracy]. + cockshot (Urban) - a rough unit of measurement approximately equal to a standard ejaculation (a few tablespoons).

evensong - vespers, the time of the evensong (usually shortly before sunset)

evocation - the action of evoking or calling forth into existence or activity

doomed - condemned (to some fate)

ventriloquism - the art of projecting your voice so that it seems to come from another source (as from a ventriloquist's dummy)

agitator - one who agitates, one who acts for others; one who keeps up a political agitation + The Agitator - a nickname of Daniel O'Connell + *E*

plangor - a loud or piercing lamentation, beating the breast in grief + plangent - making the sound of waves beating on the shore.

tonn a' mhaith sháile (Irish) - wave of the good salt-sea + Valhalla.

reef - a narrow ridge or chain of rocks or sand, lying at or near the surface of the water

silk hat - a cylindrical hat having a light stiff body covered with silk plush or shag + silhouetted.

walrus moustache - a large moustache which overhangs the lips

skumring (Danish) - dusk

fane - a temple; an elf, fairy

muezzin - a muslim crier who calls the hour of daily prayers from the minaret

holy blazes! (phrase)

fez - a brimless cone shaped hat with tassel attached

brimless - without a brim

Ghazi - a champion, esp. against infidels; also used as a title of honour. In modern use, chiefly applied to Muslim fanatics who have devoted themselves to the destruction of infidels.

Power, Frank, "Ghazi" (1858-84) - Dublin journalist, jester, he claimed to have been at Plevna and gained the title of "Ghazi" or "Brave" when he led a Turkish cavalry charge, crying "Hooroo for Dublin!" He tried to hoax Parnell that be had been shot at and wounded in a skirmish with "extremists" at Clontarf, and showed a "bullet wound" in his leg which turned out to be a blind boil or "illconditioned ulcer." Power was killed trying to escape Khartoum. 

manslayer - one who commits homicide

protend - to hold out, extend, to stick out + FDV: his hand extended protended towards the monumental leadpencil

overgrown - abnormally or excesivelly grown, abnormally large, too big + 'Overgrown milestone' - Dublin's Wellington Monument.

leadpencil - a pencil of graphite, often enclosed in cedar or other wood

monumentally - like a monument, in a monumental way or degree

molybdokondylon (gr) - lead-knuckle + molybdokondylon (Modern Greek) - lead pencil + (erection).

mausoleum - a stately edifice erected as a commemorative burial place for or by some person of distinction + FDV: which as the molyvdokondolin Molyvdokondylon was to be his mausoleum,

Daniel O'Connell Monument (round tower), Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin + dan (Serbian) - day.

stod - a glottal modification in Danish of the last part of a vowel + stod (Danish) - stood.

tillstone - a fissile rock in coalmines etc. + stena (Serbian) - stone + stillstehen (ger) - stand still + Steyne - a pillar erected by Vikings in Dublin.

meisie - girl, young lady or woman + Meise (ger) - titmouse.

skulde (Danish) - should

pon - upon + Chopin, Frederic (1810-49) - Polish composer + "Or show pon him now, will you! Derg rudd face should take patrick's purge." [582.28-29]

all over + olovo (Serbian) - lead (metal) + FDV: while over his exculpatory features the gost of a resignation unveiled diffused a spectral appealingness

exculpatory - adapted or intended to clear from blame or a charge of guilt; apologetic, vindicatory

Roland and Oliver - friends in the Chanson de Roland and Ariosto's Orlando Furioso. They were killed in battle by the Saracens because Roland would not, till too late, blow his horn to summon Charlemagne. When he blew the horn, it cracked + a Roland for an Oliver (phrase) - a blow for a blow, tit for tat. 

ring - to announce by the sound of bells; to utter sonorously, to proclaim aloud

-een (Anglo-Irish) - (diminutive)

sillon (fr) - furrow

joue (fr) - cheek + joujou (fr) - toy.

resignation - a giving up of oneself (to God)

diffuse - to spread abroad over a surface, disperse, disseminate

spectral - resembling, looking like, suggestive of, a spectre or spectres, ghostly, unreal

appealingness - attractiveness, pleasingness; imploringness

gloat - to gaze with intense or passionate satisfaction (usually implying a lustful, avaricious or malignant pleasure); to look or gaze askance (obs.) +  Thomas Moore: song As a Beam o'er the Face of the Waters May Glow [air: The Young Man's Dream].

accurate - in exact conformity to a standard or to truth + akkurat (Danish) - exactly.

effective - able to accomplish a purpose + FDV: similar in origin and effect to a beam of sunlight upon a coffinplate.

coffin plate - a metal plate set in a coffin-lid, bearing the name of the deceased person, usually with dates of birth and death


bygning (Danish) - building + Genesis 1:1, John 1:1: 'In the beginning'.

unfriended - having no friends

Van Diemen's Land - the original name of Tasmania

skald - an ancient Scandinavian poet + (notebook 1924): 'skald' → Walsh: Scandinavian Relations with Ireland during the Viking Period 71: 'Icelandic sources mention at least three skálds who made their way to Ireland during the tenth century'.

maundering - wandering dreamily or aimlessly; doting, drivelling + maunder (obs) - to beg + wandering

pote - thrust, kick, a stick for poking, a poker; a drink + poet

weary willie - one who avoids or dislikes work; tramp + wearily + Weary Willy - tramp character in English comic strip. 

semi- - half, partly

signs of the zodiac - the twelve equal parts into which the zodiac is divided, and through one of which the sun passes in each month + teach (Irish) - house.

lenghtily - in a lenghty manner

flask - a bottle, usually of glass, of spheroidal or bulbous shape, with a long narrow neck + (astrological sign for Aries (#1) looks vaguely like a flask neck).

cracket - a low stool; an insect + cracked + (astrological sign for Taurus (#2) looks vaguely like a cup).

downtrodden - trampled down, beaten down by treading

brogue - a rude kind of shoe made of untanned hide + (constellation Gemini (#3) looks vaguely like a shoe).

(astrological sign for Cancer (#4) looks vaguely like a rolled lawn turf) + (notebook 1924): 'innsigns / bottleneck = poteen / broken cup = tea / old shoe on pole = ? / wisp of straw = bed / broom = whisky / sod of turf = tobacco'.

broom - a shrub bearing large yellow flowers; a cleaning implement for sweeping (bundle of straws or twigs attached to a long handle) + (constellation Leo (#5) looks vaguely like a broom).

blad - fragment, piece, lump + blad (Danish, Dutch) - leaf + (constellation Aquarius (#11) looks vaguely like a cabbage stalk).

stockfish - a name for cod and other gadoid fish cured by splitting open and drying hard in the air without salt + Stockfish (ger) = stockfisch (Danish) - dried cod + (Pisces (#12)).

longingly - with yearning desire

herbergery - lodging, entertainment; inn + Herberge (ger) = herberg (Dutch) - shelter, inn.

poteen - whisky distilled in Ireland in small quantities, privately, i.e. the produce of an illicit still

pratie - potato

baccy - tobacco

width - breadth + with

informally - unofficially, without form or ceremony

quasi- - kind of; resembling or simulating, but not really the same as, that properly so termed

presque (fr) - almost + presqu'île (fr) - peninsula.


windy - violent, vehement, extravagant

nous - mind, intellect; common sense, intelligence + Windham Lewis: Time and Western Man: 'there is not very much reflection going on at any time inside the head of Mr James Joyce'.

melancholy hat - mourning hat + Goldsmith's The Traveller opens: "Remote, unfriended, melancholy, slow, Or by the lazy Scheldt, or wandering Po ..."

pragma (gr) - deed, act, matter, affair

causa formalis (l) - the structure or essence of a thing caused (one of Aristotle's four metaphysical "causes", the others being "material," "efficient" and "final")

Thoth or Dhwty =- Ibis headed god of writing and mathematics. First symbol is "dhw", loaf is "t", two strokes mean "y", and last symbol stands for "God".

Thomas Moore: Oh! Breathe Not His Name (song): 'Oh! breathe not his name, let it sleep in the shade' [air: The Brown Maid]

kis waste (Hindustani) - why + kiska (Hindustani) - whose + kidhar (Hindustani) - whither + kitna (Hindustani) - how much + budjav (Serbian) - rotten.

tal - tale; tall + tal (Cornish, Welsh) - tall, high, eminent + Tal (ger) - valley.

tem - them + tem (Gipsy) - country + Swift: Tale of a Tub + a tale of a tub - an apocryphal tale, a cock and bull story + - Atum or, as vowels are not written in Ancient Egyptian and we don't know correct pronunciation, "TM". Loaf is "t", owl is "m". Below the loaf is 'sledge' meaning "complete", and therefore Atum is called "complete one". Last symbol is symbol of God.

tumulus - an ancient sepulchral mound, a barrow + Mr. Atherton has rightly observed (Books, p. 133) that the word "tumulum" contains a clear reference to the primal mud-heap upon which TM as the creator-god, after masturbating into his mouth, spat out the first beings. Thus, the "tumulum" is both the mound of creation, and the tumulus tomb of burial.

gav (Gipsy) - town, village

Grube (ger) - hole, mine + grob (Serbian) - grave.

cudgel play - a sport or fighting with cudgels + Cosht-killimengreskey tem (Gipsy) - Cudgel players' country: Cornwall (in Borrow: Romano Lavo-Lil).

Match-eneskey gav (Gipsy) - Fishy town: Yarmouth (in Borrow: Romano Lavo-Lil)

leek - a culinary herb, allied to the onion, but differing from it in having the bulbous part cylindrical and the leaves flat and broad + The leek is the well-known symbol for Wales + Porrum-engreskey tem (Gipsy) - Leek-eaters' country: Wales (in Borrow: Romano Lavo-Lil).

Paub-pawnugo tem (Gipsy) - Apple-water country: Hertfordshire (in Borrow: Romano Lavo-Lil) + Pov-engreskey tem (Gipsy) - Potato country: Norfolk (in Borrow: Romano Lavo-Lil) + Pannonia (l) - Hungary + Ungarn (ger) - Hungary + po-vengerski (Russian) - in Hungarian.

regnare (l) - to reign + regnans (l) - reigning + regnen (ger) - rain.