citadel - the fortress commanding a city + FDV: The city of refuge whither he had fled to forget & expatiate manslaughter, the land in which by the commandment of with promise his apostolic days were to be long, murmured, wd rise against him with all that as it were [with all good things,] do him hurt ghostly & bodily, poor jink, as were he more a curse for them, the corruptible lay quick, the saints of incorruption of an unholy holy nation, the castaway in resurrection of damnation to convince him of their proper sins.  

whither - to which

layman - a man who is an 'outsider' or a non-expert in relation to some particular profession, art, or branch of knowledge; a man who is not a cleric.

count - account (a particular statement or narrative of an event or thing; a relation, report).

outrave - to tear out or apart forcibly, to tear or burst asunder

gale - a wind of considerable strength + waves

Adriatic Sea - arm of the Mediterranean Sea, lying between the Italian and Balkan peninsulas + Atlantic

clue - the information or key that guides through an intricate procedure or maze of difficulties.

barge master - the master or owner of a barge + Burgermeister (ger) - mayor + Henrik Ibsen: "Bygmester Solness" (The Master Builder [Solness]).

hejira - a journey undertaken to escape from undesirable environment or to arrive at a highly desirable destination.

silencieusement (fr) - silently + Herold: La Vie du Bouddha 59: (as Buddha flees his father's palace) 'Le bon cheval se garda de faire aucun bruit dans la nuit sonore... les portes s'ouvrirent d'elles-mÍmes, silencieusement' (French: 'The good horse refrained from making any noise in the resonant night... the doors opened by themselves, silently').

alto - high, tenor + sonority - the quality of being sonorous (giving out, or capable of giving out, a sound, esp. of a deep or ringing character).

raven - the figure of a raven on the flag of the Danish vikings

Mara - the 'Satan' of Buddhist mythology; when Buddha fled home to seek enlightment, he was tempted to remain by love of his baby son, Rahoulas, and he was tempted by Mara (an evil spirit) with the kingdoms of the earth. 

Ostmen - The name given in Ireland and Iceland to invaders or settlers from Denmark and Norway; esp. the Northmen or 'Danes' in Ireland and their descendants settled in some towns on the East coast of that country.

by (Danish) - city + derby

Old Vic - royal Victoria theatre in London, famous for its Shakespearian productions.

expiate - to do away or extinguish the guilt of (one's sin); to offer or serve as a propitiation for.

manslaughter - the slaying of the human being

revert +   rebirth - a second birth + berth - to moor or place (a ship) in a suitable position.

previdence - foresight + divine providence - divine control, direction or guidance.

bilder - a kind of a horse, a nag + Bilder (ger) - pictures.

deep - to plunge or immerse deeply

movietone - system employed in the making of sound films

league - to form or join into a league; to band together with; to confederate.

lot - that which is given to a person by fate or divine providence; esp. one's destiny, fortune, or 'portion' in this life.

patte - a paw, a hand

papish - papist (an adherent of the pope; esp. an advocate of papal supremacy; also, more generally, a member of the Roman Catholic Church; a Roman Catholic or Romanist) + shee (Anglo-Irish) - fairy.

mine kvinne (Danish) - my wife, my woman

gifte (Danish) - marry

husband + Hosenband (ger) - belt.

halter - to fasten up with a halter

wasteland - land in its natural, uncultivated state; transf. and fig., sometimes with allusion to T. S. Eliot's poem The Waste Land (1922).

lotus land - a place inducing dreaming and idleness

luctuous - mournful (obs. rare.)

Emerald Isle - Ireland (on account of its verdure)

TROY - Ancient Troia, Ilion, on Ilium 

pasture - to feed (cattle) by letting them graze on a pasture; to lead or put to pasture.

fourth commandment: ''You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain; for the Lord will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain'' + Exodus 20:12: 'Honour thy father and thy mother' (4th Commandment, according to Roman Catholic tradition).

apostolic - of or belonging to the Apostles, befitting or suited to an apostle

rise against - to make insurrection against (on, upon) one; to offer armed resistance; to rebel or revolt; to take up arms.

enfranchisable - that admits of being enfranchised; capable of being enfranchised (to admit to freedom, set free (a slave or serf)).


asto (gr) - town + astea (gr) - pl. of astu = towns.

agora (gora - gr) - the place of assembly, esp. the market-place + Near the Acropolis is the Agora, the marketplace and site of the Assembly of ancient Athens. 

helot - a serf, a bondsman

jink - a name given to various frolics formerly indulged in at drinking parties (Sc. Obs.) They mostly consisted in deciding by the throw of dice who should perform some ludicrous task for the amusement of the company, or who should empty a large bowl of liquor, failure in either case entailing a forfeit.

corruptible - liable to corruption; subject to natural decay and dissolution; perishable, mortal + I Corinthians 15:53: 'For this corruptible must put on incorruption'.

incorruption - the quality or state of being free from physical decay, freedom from corrupt practises, honesty.

common or garden - common, ordinary + WICKLOW - County, and county town, Leinster province. Wicklow has been called "The Garden of Erin (or Ire)." 

castaway - one who or that which is cast away or rejected; esp. One cast adrift at sea; a shipwrecked man.

resurrection - the rising again of Christ after His death and burial

convince - to prove guilty, convict

Pharaoh - the generic appellation of the ancient Egyptian kings

Hump-pheres (en + gr) - Hump-bearing + pheres (gr) - bearing, carrying (O Hehir, Brendan; Dillon, John M. / A classical lexicon for Finnegans wake).

exarch - a viceroy of a province under the byzantine emperoros + exarchos (gr) - leader, commander.

proper (Archaic) - own

bred - p.p. of breed (to develop, produce, create, cause) + FDV: Business bred to the stiff upper lip, Humphrey took no only good fighting chances. Yet he was subject to terror. 

a stiff upper lip - refusal to complain or show emotion or fear when faced with difficulty or danger, calmness.

wot - to have knowledge of, to know, wit

short of - having an insufficient quantity of. Also, not possessing, lacking (something necessary or desirable).

for all that - in spite of, notwithstanding (that)


perhaps + per ora (it) - for the time being.

the ancient Egyptian title of The Book of the Dead is 'Reu Nu Pert Em Hru' or 'Chapters of Coming Forth by Day'

WEDNESBURY - Market town, England. It was the site of a battle between Saxons and Britons, 592 AD.  

hump - to put or carry on the back or shoulder + (notebook 1923): 'humping a passport' ('passport' not clear) + FDV: When A tall man carrying a suspicious parcel returning late to the old spot had a barking revolver was put to his face by an unknown assailant [[masked] not a Lucalizodite] against whom he had been jealous?

amid - in the middle or centre of; surrounded by

subject - to bring under the operation of an agent, agency, or process

dense - having its constituent particles closely compacted together; thick, compact.

London particular - London fog [(notebook 1922-23): '"particular" = fog'] + particular - something specially belonging to, or characteristic of a place or a person.

second house - a second performance (in a row) of a stage or cinema

Moore - designating an almanac, the first edition of which, compiled by Francis Moore (1657-c 1715), was issued in 1700 under the title of Vox Stellarum, and which was later known as Old Moore's Almanac + boor - peasant, countryman.

burgess - a citizen + Moore and Burgess - blackface minstrels whose troop, Mr Athenton says, came to London in 1862. One of their catch-lines was "Take off that white hat."

Christy Minstrels - the name of a troupe of minstrels imitating Negroes, originated by one George Christy of New York; afterwards in popular use extended to any similar company with blackened faces, who sing Negro melodies accompanied by the banjo and bones, and interspersed with droll jokes.

barker (Slang) - pistol + Barkis is willing - an indication of a person's willingness to do something (from Charles Dickens: David Copperfield, where it indicates Barkis's willingness to marry).

unknowable - that which cannot be known + Joyce's note: 'you're shot' Connacht Tribune 17 May 1924, 6/4: 'John Keogh in the Dock': (of a raid of the Killimore guard barracks in 1923) 'Keogh... pointed a revolver at Guard Temple saying, "You're shot," firing at the same time, and the bullet went through the bedroom window'.

assailant - he who, or that which, assails or attacks

jealous over - jealous of

lotta - lot of

crab tree - the wild apple tree; crooked, knotted + Crabtree, Lotta - 19th-century soubrette.  

Pomona - Italian goddess of fruit and gardens, represented as a beautiful maiden with fruit in her bosom and a pruning knife in her hand.

waylay - to lie in wait for (a person or thing) with evil or hostile intent; to attack in the way + FDV: Yes and when the waylayer aggravated assaulter [mentioning that he had loaded pistol, [there being just two alternatives [as either he would shoot him or, failing that, bash in his face beyond recognition,]] pointedly] asked him where he got the fender he was answered [by the aggravated assaulted] in a disguised voice that that was for him to find out?

diocesan - one of the clergy or people of a diocese

see - the territory under the jurisdiction of a bishop, a diocese (obs.) + (notebook 1924): 'See of Dublin & Glendalough'.

to hail from (a place) - said of a vessel in reference to the port from which she has sailed; to come from (of a person).

prow - a ship; the fore-part of a boat or ship + (notebook 1924): 'prow of France'.

LITTLE BRITAIN - French Bretagne or Brittany, North-West France; aka Armorica. Tristram died there; Amory Tristram, first Lord of Howth, was born there, or so James Joyce believed [(notebook 1924): 'Little Britain (Armor)']. The "prow" of Little Britain is Cap Finistere. The Matiere de Bretagne is the mediaeval Arthurian cycle. Ptolemy called Ireland "Little Britain" + Fleming: Boulogne-sur-Mer 28: (quoting Keating) 'Niall of the Nine Hostages... invaded the country at the time called Armorica, but now Little Brittany'.