Osterreich (ger) - Austria


Gaul - an inhabitant of ancient Gaul, a Frenchman + Gaul (ger) - horse, nag.

mark - the German currency + God save the mark - Used to suggest that a statement one has just made is surprising, untrue or unreasonable.

gosh - an oath or exclamation


Roman - a member or adherent of the Roman Catholic Church; a Roman Catholic + ..."nomads!) / and he missed a soft felt hat and, take this in, six quid fifteen / of conscience money"... (the first *transition* galley proof, Level 6, lacks a full typed line from the typescript which was its model, Level 5. Thus a kind of sense is made by what remains, but it makes a lot more sense of the plot if it is the important six pounds fifteen which is conscience money rather than the eleven shillings rent (a number mostly important for being part of 1132). This would be the first mention of the sum, which appears next when the attacker mocks HCE during the struggle on the hill by asking "Was six victolios fifteen pigeon takee offa you" as they struggle, and which he offers to pay back when he seems to be losing the fight, when "he would pay him back the six vics odd...for what was taken on the man of samples...." (FW82.12-13, 27-8). Joyce clearly intended us to understand that the money taken from the "northroomer", the "man of samples" (he was a "commercial" up until Level 3 when he became a "northroomer"), was the same as that discussed in the obscure fight on the hill, but because of this typesetter's error we have no way of knowing that. Knowing it doesn't solve all the problems of reference in these passages, but it certainly makes a connection we were supposed to have.) (Dirk Van Hulle / Lost & Found).

conscience money - money sent to relieve the conscience, e.g. in payment of a tax previously evaded, esp. in connexion with the income-tax; also, money paid to ease one's conscience + Joyce's note: 'conscience money' Irish Independent 14 Jun 1924, 2/1: 'SPECIAL NOTICES': 'CONSCIENCE Money. - The Minister of Finance acknowledges receipt of £2 10/- from "Kilkenny"'.

Yule (Archaic) - Christmas + first day of July.

weil (ger) - because + while.

swish - to move with a swish, to make the sound expressed by 'swish' + zwischen (ger) - between + mixing business.

pleasure + blessure (fr) - wound.

swob = swap - to exchange, make an exchange + Schwaben (ger) - Swabia.

brogue - a strongly-marked dialectal pronunciation or accent; now particularly used of the peculiarities that generally mark the English speech of Ireland + James Joyce: A Portrait V: 'the broken lights of Irish myth'.

Brocken (ger) - morsel, crumb + The Brocken - the highest peak in the Harz mountains, Germany + Deutch (ger) - German + gebrochenes Deutsch (ger) - broken German.

reporterage - reportage

der Fall Adams (ger) - the case of Adam + Fall Blau - Wehrmacht name for its plan for a 1942 strategic summer offensive in southern Russia between 28 June and November 1942 (ended with failure with beginning of strategic Soviet counteroffensive north and south of Stalingrad).

franco furto (it) - unpunished theft

siding - an action of taking sides + Frankfurter Zeitung has been noted since the 19th century for its commercial and business reporting. 

fastland - mainland, continent

periodical - a magazine published at regular intervals

er - exp. of hesitation + er (ger) - he.

constate - to ascertain, state

Brian O'Linn - Irish ballad hero, first to wear clothes, make them of simple materials like sheepskin, shells, etc.

melton - a heavy woolen cloth used for coats (from the town in Leicestershire, a famous hunting centre. Also, Melton jacket, a kind of jacket formerly worn by hunters).

Lammswolle (ger) - lamb's wool (soft wool shorn from lambs)

FDV: It ought to be always remembered that there was a commercial stopping in the hotel before that and he missed six pounds fifteen and he found his overcoat disturbed. The gate business was all threats & abuse.

wider = whither, wither + und weiter (ger) - and further + entweder... oder (ger) - either... or.

Zurich - the name of a city on Lake Zurich in Switzerland + zurückschicken (ger) - send back.

thousand + tosen (ger) - roar, rage + tausend und abertausend (ger) - thousands and thousands.

ober (ger) - higher, upper

Donnerwetter (ger) - thunder weather + Donnerwetter! (ger) - expletive; literally 'thunder weather'.

monkey business - action likely to cause trouble, esp. tricks or unlawful activities + Affenschande (ger) - crying shame (literally 'monkey-shame', whereas German Artificial: Affenschaden would mean 'monkey-damage').

fransman (Dutch) - Frenchman

heart of glass - a very fragile romantic state + Stanford: Complete Collection of Irish Music as Noted by George Petrie no. 622: 'I'll make my love a breast of glass'.


bandstand - a platform or other structure for the use of a band of musicians

butchery - a slaughter-house, shambles; cruel and wanton slaughter, carnage + Stanford: Complete Collection of Irish Music as Noted by George Petrie no. 991: 'Ree Raw, or The Butchers' March'.

patsy - a person on whom blame is foisted; a butt of ridicule, one with eccentric behavior + Stanford: Complete Collection of Irish Music as Noted by George Petrie no. 1339: 'Paddy O'Snap'.

obuses - pl. of obuse - an artillery shell + obus (French) - artillery shell + LDV: The gate business was in fact all threats and abuse and in this sort.

roebuck - the buck or male of the roe-deer; a male roe + roebuck's laugh + Stanford: Complete Collection of Irish Music as Noted by George Petrie no. 1305: '"I will go to the mountain" or, "to the Roebuck pinnacles"' + Rubek dies on a mountain in Henrik Ibsen's When We Dead Awaken.

pinnacle - any natural peaked formation; esp. a lofty rock or stone pointed at the top, a peak + Finnegans Wake, chorus: 'Lots of fun at Finnegan's Wake'.

davy = affidavit + Sir Humphry Davy - 19th century British chemist and physicist.

Titus - Roman emperor

Buckley + Stanford: Complete Collection of Irish Music as Noted by George Petrie no. 983: 'Ancient Clan March' + Adolf Hitler was an admirer of Karl May, who noted that the novels "overwhelmed" him as a boy.

man about town - a man who frequents clubs, theathers, balls... + Stanford: Complete Collection of Irish Music as Noted by George Petrie no. 852: 'The highly excellent good man of Tipperoughny'.

Stanford: Complete Collection of Irish Music as Noted by George Petrie no. 558: 'The Belfast Mountain'.

starling - any bird of the passerine genus Sturnus + Stanford: Complete Collection of Irish Music as Noted by George Petrie no. 819: 'Alas, that I'm not a little starling bird'.

bierd = burd - lady + Bier (ger) - beer+ Stalingrad

Stanford: Complete Collection of Irish Music as Noted by George Petrie no. 883: 'Long Dance'.

Stanford: Complete Collection of Irish Music as Noted by George Petrie no. 757: 'Adieu ye young men of Claudy green'.

depose - to lay down, put down (anything material); to give evidence upon oath in a court of law + Posen - city in Poland.

black stump - Austral. colloq., a place imagined to be the last outpost of civilization + Bock (ger) - goat + bock (fr) - glass of beer.

quaker - one who, or that which, quakes; a member of the Religious Society of Friends, founded by George Fox in 1648-50 + cracker - a pistol (obs. slang.); a kind of firework which explodes with a sharp report or a succession of sharp reports.

Quaker Oats - a brand of oats (used to make porridge) + oaths.

mouse-hole - a hole used by a mouse for passage or abode; a hole only big enough to admit a mouse. Also transf. and fig.

bleat - to cry as a sheep, babble, prate

gale - a wind of considerable strength

tailor + Stanford: Complete Collection of Irish Music as Noted by George Petrie no. 1211: 'The taylor of the cloth'.

hog-cholera - swine-fever

hirsute - having rough or shaggy hair; hairy, shaggy + suiter = suitor.

Bolshevik - a supporter of Bolshevism. Also transf., esp. as a term of reproach for an out-and-out revolutionary + Earwicker.

heeltap - the liquor left at the bottom of a glass after drinking + Hitler.

gage - an instrument for measuring or testing, a gauging-rod + gate.

lanky - awkwardly or ungracefully lean and long + duckling - a young duck + ugly duckling - the cygnet, in one of Hans Andersen's tales, hatched with a brood of ducklings, and despised for its clumsiness until it grew into a swan.

monkeywrench - a wrench or spanner having a movable jaw

stirabout - a bustle, a state of confusion; a bustling person; a kind of porridge ["It's bad for children," said old Cotter, "because their mind are so impressionable. When children see things like that, you know, it has an effect...." I crammed my mouth with stirabout for fear I might give utterance to my anger. Tiresome old red-nosed imbecile! ('The Sisters')] + Joyce's note: 'paranoia (stirabout)'.

temperance - attrib. usually, Pertaining to, practising, or advocating total abstinence + FDV: Humphrey's unsolicited visitor said through the gate first that he would break his head next that he would than break the gate over his head and finally gave him his (Humphrey's) blood to drink.

blood is thicker than water (proverb) - the relationship between people of the same family is stronger than other relationships + (the drinking of Christ's blood as part of the Mass).

step brother - a son by a former marriage of one's stepfather or stepmother + steppe - one of the vast comparatively level and treeless plains of south-eastern Europe and Siberia + Attila the Hun came to Europe from the steppes of central Asia and killed his brother and co-ruler Bleda to become sole ruler.

Brodhar or Brodar - Danish sorcerer who killed Brian Boru

wood alcohol - crude methyl alcohol obtained from wood by destructive distillation (added to spirits in order to render them undrinkable, so as to avoid having to pay duties imposed on alcoholic beverages) + FDV: He demanded drink and kept abusing him from ten thirty till one in the afternoon without a lunch interval.

pitch in - to begin, to set to work vigorously

allege - to advance (a statement) as being able to prove it; hence, to assert without proof

o'clock + Dan O'Connell + O'Connell Ale (formerly from the Phoenix Brewery) + My Grandfather's Clock (song).

isba - a Russian log hut + izba (Russian) - cottage.

oven - furnace; a cremation chamber; spec. one of the chambers used by the Germans during the war of 1939-45 for the cremation of Jewish corpses.

irsk (Danish) - Irish

Irkutsk - town in Russia + uisce (ishki) (gael) - water + whiskey.

wrath - vehement or violent anger + water flood - a body or mass of water in flood.

artillery + Atilla.

wicked - excellent, splendid, remarkable (slang.)

(to go etc.) at a...rate - degree of speed in moving from one place to another; the ratio between the distance covered and the time taken to traverse it + wicket gate.

weather - to wear away, disintegrate, or discolour by atmospheric action

Mookse + mixed metaphor - the combination of two or more inconsistent metaphors in one figure.

luncheonette - a place where light lunches are sold + Joyce's note: 'luncheonette'.

clod - soil, ground, earth; applied depreciatively to the human body as being a mass of 'clay' + son of God.

Joseph Biggar - hunchbacked supporter of Parnell + Jupiter + Jew.

FDV: Earwicker, longsuffering, under restraint in the sitting-out corner of his conservatory, [though it was as easy as kisshand for him to call up Crumlin Exchange,] with only his thermos flask by him compiled a long list to be kept on file (now feared lost) of all the abusive names he was called (informer, old fruit, funnyface, yellow whig, Bogsides, muddle, plander) but did not other wise reply beyond such sedentarity because, as he afterwards explained, touching his wounded feelings, the dominican mission was on at the time & he thought that might reform him.

pattern - the original proposed to imitation, the archetype, an exemplar

paradigmatic - serving as a pattern, exemplary

receptor - one who receives + representive

Dionysius - two tyrants of Syracuse. Dionysius I deported Plato. The elder listened to the talk of his prisoners by means of a whispering gallery, called "The Ear of Dionysius." 

longsuffering - bearing provocation or trial with patience