skal (Danish) - shall

avant - onward! move on! go on!

haught - haughty, noble, lofty

crest - furnished, topped, or adorned with a crest (a figure or device (originally borne by a knight on his helmet), an erect plume or tuft of feathers, horse-hair, or the like, fixed on the top of a helmet).

elm = helm

valle = fall + phrase vale of tears.

briers - troubles, difficulties, vexations

greenman - a man enclosed in a conical framework covered with leaves and boughs to take a prominent part in the may day games; a fresh, raw, or inexperienced man + greenmans (Slang) - the country + Joyce's note: 'greenman rise O' Douglas: London Street Games 59: 'Green Man Rise-O, a very old game... one of us lay down and cover his self with grass and the others run out and hide then they say greenman greenman rise up then he gets up and trys to catch them and the last one thats cort goes it --'.

dun - an ancient hill-fortress or fortified eminence (in the Highlands of Scotland, or in Ireland).

dale - a valley

ulv (Danish) - wolf

horn - a wind instrument more or less resembling a horn in shape, and originally formed of the horn of some beast, now made of brass or other material.

skal (Danish) - shall

roll - (of thunder) to reverberate, to form deep continious sound + song Roll, Jordan, Roll + Lord Byron: Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage IV.clxxix: 'Roll on, thou deep and dark blue Ocean - roll!'

Roland and Oliver - friends in the Chanson de Roland and Ariosto's Orlando Furioso. They were killed in battle by the Saracens because Roland would not - till too late - blow his horn to summon Charlemagne. When he blew the horn, it cracked.  

deye - dairymaid (a women employed in dairy or dairy farm) + days

Deus (l) - God

pro (l) - for + Genesis 22:1: 'And it came to pass after these things, that God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham: and he said, Behold, here I am'.

Adsum (l) - I am here, here I am (in classic-centered schools [e.g. Clongowes Wood] schoolboy's response at rollcall "Present!").

Anima ad diabolum mene credidisti mortuum? (l) - Soul to the devil did you believe me dead? (Finnegan's Wake 5: 'Thanam o'n dhoul, do you think I'm dead').

festive - joyous, merry + Faust or Faustus - 16th-century magician who sold his soul to the devil, subject of works by Marlowe and Goethe + Thomas Moore, song: Silence Is in Our Festal Halls [air: The Green Woods of Truigha].

Troja (l) - Troy + truig (truig) (gael) - occasion, fact; cause, cause of death.

patriarch - the father and ruler of a family or tribe; a venerable old man; in the Orthodox Eastern Ch., The title of the bishops of the four patriarchates of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem + Thomas Moore, song: There Are Sounds of Mirth: 'There are sounds of mirth in the night-air ringing' [air: The Priest in His Boots].


pullover - used attrib. or absol. to designate articles of clothing that are put on by drawing them over the head; spec. (chiefly in absol. use) a knitted or woven garment for the upper part of the body; a jumper or jersey.

not a bit of it - not at all + sot - to make fool of, befool, to squander sottishly, tipple, guzzle.


cold + cul (kul) (gael) - back of the head.

parritch - porridge (pottage or soup made by stewing vegetables, herbs, or meat) + keep your breath to cool your porridge - look after your own affairs, and do not put your spoke in another person's wheel.

pelt - human skin (humorous or dial.); a skin of an animal worn as a garment

nasty + nass (ger) - wet.

drone - to give forth a continued monotonous sound; to hum or buzz, as a bee or a bagpipe.

blood stream - the stream of blood circulating through the human system + bluid = blood.

acrawl - crawling (to move or progress very slowly)

puff - breath

piff - an imitation of a dull, abrupt sound

extremities - the uttermost parts of the body, the hands and feet

extremely - in an extreme degree; exceedingly, very much

Fionn-glais (finglash) (gael) - Clear Stream; N. Dublin district and stream; anglic. Finglas + feng (Chinese) - wind.

Baile Dubhghaill (boyle dugil) (gael) - Town of the Dark Foreigner (i.e. Dane), N.E. Dublin suburb; anglic. Baldoyle.

humph - a sound expressive of doubt or contempt

doge - the title of the chief magistrate in the formerly existing republics of Venice and Genoa + dose - a short slumber + (notebook 1923): 'Let lying doges sleep'.

weigh - to have heaviness or weight; to be of (much or little) value or account; to be regarded  as considerable or important.

raindrop - a single drop of rain + drip - a falling drop.

Rath Farannain (ra farenin) (gael) - Farannan's (masc. pers. name) Fort; S. Dublin suburb; anglic. Rathfarnham.