Sandy - a shortened form of the name Alexander, chiefly used in Scotland; Hence used as a nickname for a Scotchman; having hair of a yellowish-red colour.

goodman - the master or male head of a household or other establishment, the host (of an inn).

upthrow - to throw or cast upwards, to toss or fling up

lotus - the water-lily of Egypt and Asia, Nymphæa Lotus; the plant yielding the fruit which was the food of the Lotophagi of Greek legend.

burly - stout, sturdy, massively built, corpulent; stately, dignified, of noble or imposing  presence or appearance (obs.)

womit (d) - with what?

flat - Music. Of a note or singer: Relatively low in pitch, below the regular or true pitch. B, D, E, etc. flat: a semitone lower than B, D, E, etc.

baited - worried by dogs; fig. harassed, tormented                                                                                                            bated

gamut* - the 'Great Scale' (of which the invention is ascribed to Guido d'Arezzo), comprising the seven hexachords or partial scales, and consisting of all the recognized notes used in mediæval music; Hence in later use: The whole series of notes that are recognized by musicians.

crescendo* - to increase gradually in loudness or intensity

doll - to dress up finely or elaborately, to deck up

dolthead* - a dull and stupid person 

dolittle* - one who does little, a lazy person

dainty* - of delicate or tender beauty or grace

diva - a distinguished female singer, a prima donna

deltic = deltaic - of, pertaining to, or forming a delta; of the nature of a delta.

henpecked - domineered over by, or subject to the rule of, a wife

...Till he becomes acquainted through the bars with the animals that are in future to be his cage-mates.

Caspian Sea

groggy* - intoxicated; shaky, tottering, unsteady

ora pro nobis***

dauby - crudely executed, smeary; given to daubing: dirty, etc.

traverse - to read through or consider thoroughly (a subject, treatise, etc.); Law. To contradict formally (a matter of fact alleged in the previous pleading).

luter - a lute-player

black hole* - The name has become historic, in connexion with the horrible catastrophe in 1756 at the black hole of the barracks in Fort William, Calcutta, into which 146 Europeans were thrust for a whole night, of whom only 23 survived till the morning.

reflect - to turn one's thoughts (back) on, to fix the mind or attention on or upon a subject; to  cast a slight or imputation, reproach or blame, on or upon a person or thing.

administrant - one who administers or conducts any office or affair.

slow poison - Indicating the accumulative effect of a deleterious drug or agent taken for a length of time.

revere - to hold in, or regard with, deep respect or veneration

mein Herr* - Used in a jocular or ironic tone in addressing a German man; so as n., a male German.

confined - shut up, enclosed, imprisoned

guardroom - a room in which prisoners are guarded

understand

pint - a measure of capacity for liquids, equal to half a quart or 18 of a gallon.

Pilsener* - In full Pils(e)ner beer: A pale-coloured lager beer with a strong hop flavour.

due to = owing to - that owes its existence to

par - - beside, beyond;                         apothecary - drugs collectively; attrib. quasi-adj.

sedan chair* - a closed vehicle to seat one person, borne on two poles by two bearers, one in front and one behind.

chemist - one who deals in medicinal drugs

drugger - a dealer in drugs, a druggist (obs.)

V.S. - veterinary surgeon

aural - of or pertaining to the organ of hearing; of or pertaining to the aura.

surgeon - one who practises the art of healing by manual operation; a practitioner who treats wounds, fractures, deformities, or disorders by surgical means. In early use often more widely, a medical man, doctor. Now spec. one who holds a licence or diploma from the Royal College of Surgeons or any other body, legally qualifying him to practise in surgery.

sahib - a respectful title used by the natives of India in addressing an Englishman or other European (= 'Sir'); in native use, an Englishman, a European.

syringa - any of the shrubs of the genus Philadelphus, esp. P. coronarius, the mock-orange, having creamy-white strongly sweet-scented flowers, cultivated as an ornamental shrub.

bollworm - an insect which destroys the cotton boll or pod

pilch - an outer garment made of skin dressed with the hair

knickers - colloq. contraction of knickerbockers (loose-fitting breeches, gathered in at the knee, and worn by boys, sportsmen, and others who require a freer use of their limbs).

yerd = yard - 0.914 m.

slopper - wide baggy breeches or hose, of the kind commonly worn in the 16th and early 17th cent.; loose trousers, esp. those worn by sailors. Now chiefly dial.

forfear - to terrify (obs.)                                                                                                                                                 forever

reverend

misfortune* - bad or adverse fortune, ill-luck

kavvanah* - devotion or fervor in prayer

journal

humpbacked - having a humped or crooked back

entail - to bring on by way of necessary consequence

laxative - Of medicines, food, etc.: Having the property of loosening and evacuating the bowels; Of the bowels, or the bodily constitution: Loose, subject to 'flux' or free discharge of the fæces; having a loosing power, affording remission or relief (rare.)

mary - stomach, belly; marry (obs.)

forbidden fruit - i.e. that forbidden to Adam (Gen. ii. 17), also fig.

secular* - Eccl. Of members of the clergy: Living 'in the world' and not in monastic seclusion, as distinguished from 'regular' and 'religious'.

valvular* - having the form or function of a valve; Chiefly Anat. and Bot;                volvulus - a form of intestinal obstruction caused by a twisting or knotting of the bowel.

basketful - as much as fills a basket; also fig., a considerable quantity.

aroint - In aroint thee! (? verb in the imperative, or interjection) meaning apparently: Avaunt! Begone! [Origin unknown. Used by Shakspere, whence by some modern writers.]                                                                                                                   anoint

tummy - the stomach or intestine; an abdominal pain or complaint.

moor - a tract of unenclosed waste ground; now usually, uncultivated ground covered with heather; a marsh (obs.);
tumor - a permanent circumscribed morbid swelling, consisting in a new growth of tissue, without inflammation.

malady - a specific kind of ill health, an ailment, a disease; fig. A morbid or depraved condition (e.g. of mind, morals, social arrangements, etc.)

thereinafter - after, before, below in that document, statute, etc.

liable - exposed or subject to, or likely to suffer from (something prejudicial); in older use with wider sense, subject to the operation of (any agency), likely to undergo (a change of any kind); Normally const. to.

succumb - to yield to the attacks of a disease, the effect of wounds, etc.; hence, to die.

letters patent* - an open letter or document, usually from a sovereign or person in authority, issued for various purposes, e.g. to put on record some agreement or contract, to authorize or command something to be done, to confer some right, privilege, title, property, or office; now, especially, to grant for a statutory term to a person or persons the sole right to make, use, or sell some invention.

to strike below the belt* - (from the language of pugilists) is used fig. for 'to act unfairly in any contest'.

rupee - the monetary unit of India

repure - to make pure again

reputed* - supposed, accounted, reckoned (to be something specified)

husbandship - the action or office of husband