James Joyce


Book I

chapter 4

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    As the lion, in our teargarten remembers the nenuphars of his
Nile (shall Ariuz forget Arioun or Boghas the baregams of the
Marmarazalles from Marmeniere?) it may be, tots wearsense full
a naggin in twentyg have sigilposted what in our brievingbust,
the besieged bedreamt him stil and solely of those lililiths un-
deveiled which had undone him, gone for age, and knew not
the watchful treachers at his wake, and theirs to stay. Fooi, fooi,
chamermissies! Zeepyzoepy, larcenlads! Zijnzijn Zijnzijn! It may
be, we moest ons hasten selves te declareer it, that he reglimmed?
presaw? the fields of heat and yields of wheat where corngold
Ysit? shamed and shone. It may be, we habben to upseek a bitty
door our good township's courants want we knew't, that with
his deepseeing insight (had not wishing oftebeen but good time
wasted), within his patriarchal shamanah, broadsteyne 'bove citie
(Twillby! Twillby!) he conscious of enemies, a kingbilly white-
horsed in a Finglas mill, prayed, as he sat on anxious seat, (kunt
ye neat gift mey toe bout a peer saft eyballds!) during that three
and a hellof hours' agony of silence, ex profundis malorum, and
bred with unfeigned charity that his wordwounder (an engles to
the teeth who, nomened Nash of Girahash, would go anyold where
in the weeping world on his mottled belly (the rab, the kreepons-
kneed!) for milk, music or married missusses) might, mercy to
providential benevolence's who hates prudencies' astuteness, un-
fold into the first of a distinguished dynasty of his posteriors,

blackfaced connemaras not of the fold but elder children of his
household, his most besetting of ideas (pace his twolve predama-
nant passions) being the formation, as in more favoured climes,
where the Meadow of Honey is guestfriendly and the Mountain
of Joy receives, of a truly criminal stratum, Ham's cribcracking
yeggs, thereby at last eliminating from all classes and masses with
directly derivative decasualisation: sigarius (sic!) vindicat urbes
(sicker!): and so, to mark a bank taal she arter, the
obedience of the citizens elp the ealth of the ole.
    Now gode. Let us leave theories there and return to here's here.
Now hear. 'Tis gode again. The teak coffin, Pughglasspanelfitted,
feets to the east, was to turn in later, and pitly patly near the
porpus, materially effecting the cause. And this, liever, is the
thinghowe. Any number of conservative public bodies, through
a number of select and other committees having power to add to
their number, before voting themselves and himself, town, port
and garrison, by a fit and proper resolution, following a koorts
order of the groundwet, once for all out of plotty existence, as
a forescut, so you maateskippey might to you cuttinrunner on a
neuw pack of klerds, made him, while his body still persisted,
their present of a protem grave in Moyelta of the best Lough
Neagh pattern, then as much in demand among misonesans as
the Isle of Man today among limniphobes. Wacht even! It was
in a fairly fishy kettlekerry, after the Fianna's foreman had taken
his handful, enriched with ancient woods and dear dutchy deep-
linns mid which were an old knoll and a troutbeck, vainyvain of
her osiery and a chatty sally with any Wilt or Walt who would
ongle her as Izaak did to the tickle of his rod and watch her
waters of her sillying waters of and there now brown peater
arripple (may their quilt gild lightly over his somnolulutent
form!) Whoforyou lies his last, by the wrath of Bog, like the
erst curst Hun in the bed of his treubleu Donawhu.
    Best. This wastohavebeen underground heaven, or mole's
paradise which was probably also an inversion of a phallopharos,
intended to foster wheat crops and to ginger up tourist trade
(its architecht, Mgr Peurelachasse, having been obcaecated lest

he should petrifake suchanevver while the contractors Messrs
T. A. Birkett and L. O. Tuohalls were made invulnerably vener-
able) first in the west, our misterbilder, Castlevillainous, openly
damned and blasted by means of a hydromine, system, Sowan and
Belting, exploded from a reinvented T.N.T. bombingpost up
ahoy of eleven and thirty wingrests (circiter) to sternbooard out
of his aerial thorpeto, Auton Dynamon, contacted with the ex-
pectant minefield by tins of improved ammonia lashed to her
shieldplated gunwale, and fused into tripupcables, slipping
through tholse and playing down from the conning tower into
the ground battery fuseboxes, all differing as clocks from keys
since nobody appeared to have the same time of beard, some
saying by their Oorlog it was Sygstryggs to nine, more holding
with the Ryan vogt it was Dane to pfife. He afterwards whaan-
ever his blaetther began to fail off him and his rough bark was
wholly husky and, stoop by stoop, he neared it (wouldmanspare!)
carefully lined the ferroconcrete result with rotproof bricks and
mortar, fassed to fossed, and retired beneath the heptarchy of
his towerettes, the beauchamp, byward, bull and lion, the white,
the wardrobe and bloodied, so encouraging (insteppen, alls als
hats beliefd!) additional useful councils public with hoofd off-
dealings which were welholden of ladykants te huur out such as the
Breeders' Union, the Guild of Merchants of the Staple et, a.u.c. to
present unto him with funebral pomp, over and above that, a stone
slab with the usual Mac Pelah address of velediction, a very fair-
worded instance of falsemeaning adamelegy: We have done ours
gohellt with you, Heer Herewhippit, overgiven it, skidoo!
    But t'house and allaboardshoops! Show coffins, winding sheets,
goodbuy bierchepes, cinerary urns, liealoud blasses, snuffchests,
poteentubbs, lacrimal vases, hoodendoses, reekwaterbeckers,
breakmiddles, zootzaks for eatlust, including upyourhealthing
rookworst and meathewersoftened forkenpootsies and for that
matter, javel also, any kind of inhumationary bric au brac for
the adornment of his glasstone honophreum, would, met these
trein of konditiens, naturally follow, halas, in the ordinary course,
enabling that roundtheworlder wandelingswight, did suches pass

him, to live all safeathomely the presenile days of his life of
opulence, ancient ere decrepitude, late lents last lenience, till
stuffering stage, whaling away the whole of the while (hypnos
chilia eonion!
) lethelulled between explosion and reexplosion
(Donnaurwatteur! Hunderthunder!) from grosskopp to megapod,
embalmed, of grand age, rich in death anticipated.
    But abide Zeit's sumonserving, rise afterfall. Blueblitzbolted
from there, knowing the hingeworms of the hallmirks of habita-
tionlesness, buried burrowing in Gehinnon, to proliferate through
all his Unterwealth, seam by seam, sheol om sheol, and revisit
our Uppercrust Sideria of Utilitarios, the divine one, the hoar-
der hidden propaguting his plutorpopular progeniem of pots and
pans and pokers and puns from biddenland to boughtenland, the
spearway fore the spoorway.
    The other spring offensive on the heights of Abraham may
have come about all quite by accidence, Foughtarundser (for
Breedabrooda had at length presuaded him to have himself to be
as septuply buried as the murdered Cian in Finntown), had not
been three monads in his watery grave (what vigilantes and ridings
then and spuitwyne pledges with aardappel frittling!) when
portrifaction, dreyfussed as ever, began to ramp, ramp, ramp, the
boys are parching. A hoodenwinkle gave the signal and a bless-
ing paper freed the flood. Why did the patrizien make him scares
with his gruntens? Because the druiven were muskating at the
door. From both Celtiberian camps (granting at the onset for the
sake of argument that men on the two sides in New South Ire-
land and Vetera Uladh, bluemin and pillfaces, during the ferment
With the Pope or On the Pope, had, moors or letts, grant ideas,
grunted) all conditions, poor cons and dives mor, each, of course,
on the purely doffensive since the eternals were owlwise on their
side every time, were drawn toowards their Bellona's Black
Bottom, once Woolwhite's Waltz (Ohiboh, how becrimed,
becursekissed and bedumbtoit!) some for want of proper feeding
in youth, others already caught in the honourable act of slicing
careers for family and carvers in conjunction; and, if emaciated
nough, the person garrotted may have suggested to whomever he

took the ham of, the plain being involved in darkness, low cirque
waggery, nay, even the first old wugger of himself in the flesh,
whiggissimus incarnadined, when falsesighted by the ifsuchhewas
bully on the hill for there had circulated freely fairly among his
opposition the feeling that in so hibernating Massa Ewacka, who,
previous to that demidetached life, had been known of barmi-
cidal days, cook said, between soups and savours, to get outside
his own length of rainbow trout and taerts atta tarn as no man
of woman born, nay could, like the great crested brebe, devour
his threescoreten of roach per lifeday, ay, and as many minnow a
minute (the big mix, may Gibbet choke him!) was, like the salmon
of his ladderleap all this time of totality secretly and by suckage
feeding on his own misplaced fat.
    Ladies did not disdain those pagan ironed times of the first
city (called after the ugliest Danadune) when a frond was a friend
inneed to carry, as earwigs do their dead, their soil to the earth-
ball where indeeth we shall calm decline, our legacy unknown.
Venuses were gigglibly temptatrix, vulcans guffawably eruptious
and the whole wives' world frockful of fickles. Fact, any human
inyon you liked any erenoon or efter would take her bare godkin
out, or an even pair of hem, (lugod! lugodoo!) and prettily pray
with him (or with em even) everyhe to her taste, long for luck,
tapette and tape petter and take pettest of all. (Tip!) Wells she'd
woo and wills she's win but how the deer knowed where she'd
marry! Arbour, bucketroom, caravan, ditch? Coach, carriage,
wheelbarrow, dungcart?
    Kate Strong, a widow (Tiptip!) — she pulls a lane picture for
us, in a dreariodreama setting, glowing and very vidual, of old
dumplan as she nosed it, a homelike cottage of elvanstone with
droppings of biddies, stinkend pusshies, moggies' duggies, rotten
witchawubbles, festering rubbages and beggars' bullets, if not
worse, sending salmofarious germs in gleefully through the
smithereen panes — Widow Strong, then, as her weaker had
turned him to the wall (Tiptiptip!), did most all the scavenging
from good King Hamlaugh's gulden dayne though her lean
besom cleaned but sparingly and her bare statement reads that,

there being no macadamised sidetracks on those old nekropolitan
nights in, barring a footbatter, Bryant's Causeway, bordered
with speedwell, white clover and sorrel a wood knows, which
left off, being beaten, where the plaintiff was struck, she
left down, as scavengers, who will be scavengers must, her
filthdump near the Serpentine in Phornix Park (at her time called
Finewell's Keepsacre but later tautaubapptossed Pat's Purge),
that dangerfield circling butcherswood where fireworker oh
flaherty engaged a nutter of castlemallards and ah for archer
stunned's turk, all over which fossil footprints, bootmarks,
fingersigns, elbowdints, breechbowls, a. s. o. were all succes-
sively traced of a most envolving description. What subtler
timeplace of the weald than such wolfsbelly castrament to will
hide a leabhar from Thursmen's brandihands or a loveletter,
lostfully hers, that would be lust on Ma, than then when ructions
ended, than here where race began: and by four hands of fore-
thought the first babe of reconcilement is laid in its last cradle
of hume sweet hume. Give over it! And no more of it! So pass
the pick for child sake! O men!
    For hear Allhighest sprack for krischnians as for propagana
fidies and his nuptial eagles sharped their beaks of prey: and
every morphyl man of us, pome by pome, falls back into this
terrine: as it was let it be, says he! And it is as though where
Agni araflammed and Mithra monished and Shiva slew as maya-
mutras the obluvial waters of our noarchic memory withdrew,
windingly goharksome, to some hastyswasty timberman torch-
priest, flamenfan, the ward of the wind that lightened the fire that
lay in the wood that Jove bolt, at his rude word. Posidonius
O'Fluctuary! Lave that bloody stone as it is! What are you
doing your dirty minx and his big treeblock way up your path?
Slip around, you, by the rare of the ministers'! And, you, take
that barrel back where you got it, Mac Shane's, and go the way
your old one went, Hatchettsbury Road! And gish! how they
gushed away, the pennyfares, a whole school for scamper, with
their sashes flying sish behind them, all the little pirlypettes!
Issy-la-Chapelle! Any lucans, please?

    Yes, the viability of vicinals if invisible is invincible. And we
are not trespassing on his corns either. Look at all the plotsch!
Fluminian! If this was Hannibal's walk it was Hercules' work.
And a hungried thousand of the unemancipated slaved the way.
The mausoleum lies behind us (O Adgigasta, multipopulipater!)
and there are milestones in their cheadmilias faultering along
the tramestrack by Brahm and Anton Hermes! Per omnibus
secular seekalarum. Amain. But the past has made us this present
of a rhedarhoad. So more boher O'Connell! Though rainy-
hidden, you're rhinohide. And if he's not a Romeo you may
scallop your hat. Wereupunder in the fane of Saint Fiacre! Halte!
    It was hard by the howe's there, plainly on this disoluded and a
buchan cold spot, rupestric then, resurfaced that now is, that
Luttrell sold if Lautrill bought, in the saddle of the Brennan's
(now Malpasplace?) pass, versts and versts from true civilisation,
not where his dreams top their traums halt (Beneathere! Bena-
there!) but where livland yontide meared with the wilde, saltlea
with flood, that the attackler, a cropatkin, though under medium
and between colours with truly native pluck, engaged the Adver-
sary who had more in his eye than was less to his leg but whom for
plunder sake, he mistook in the heavy rain to be Oglethorpe or
some other ginkus, Parr aparrently, to whom the headandheel-
less chickenestegg bore some Michelangiolesque resemblance,
making use of sacrilegious languages to the defect that he would
challenge their hemosphores to exterminate them but he would
cannonise the b — y b — r's life out of him and lay him out
contritely as smart as the b — r had his b — y nightprayers
said, three patrecknocksters and a couplet of hellmuirries (tout
est sacré pour un sacreur, femme à barbe ou homme-nourrice
) at the
same time, so as to plugg well let the blubbywail ghoats out of
him, catching holst of an oblong bar he had and with which he
usually broke furnitures he rose the stick at him. The boarder
incident prerepeated itself. The pair (whethertheywere Nippo-
luono engaging Wei-Ling-Taou or de Razzkias trying to recon-
noistre the general Boukeleff, man may not say), struggled
apairently for some considerable time, (the cradle rocking equally

to one and oppositely from the other on its law of capture and
recapture), under the All In rules around the booksafe, fighting
like purple top and tipperuhry Swede, (Secremented Servious of
the Divine Zeal!) and in the course of their tussle the toller man,
who had opened his bully bowl to beg, said to the miner who
was carrying the worm (a handy term for the portable distillery
which consisted of three vats, two jars and several bottles though
we purposely say nothing of the stiff, both parties having an
interest in the spirits): Let me go, Pautheen! I hardly knew ye.
Later on, after the solstitial pause for refleshmeant, the same
man (or a different and younger him of the same ham) asked in
the vermicular with a very oggly chew-chin-grin: Was six vic-
tolios fifteen pigeon takee offa you, tell he me, stlongfella, by
picky-pocky ten to foul months behindaside? There were some
further collidabanter and severe tries to convert for the best part
of an hour and now a woden affair in the shape of a webley (we
at once recognise our old friend Ned of so many illortemporate
letters) fell from the intruser who, as stuck as that cat to that
mouse in that tube of that christchurch organ, (did the imnage of
Girl Cloud Pensive flout above them light young charm, in
ribbons and pigtail?) whereupon became friendly and, saying not
his shirt to tear, to know wanted, joking and knobkerries all
aside laying, if his change companion who stuck still to the in-
vention of his strongbox, with a tenacity corrobberating their
mutual tenitorial rights, happened to have the loots change of
a tenpound crickler about him at the moment, addling that hap
so, he would pay him back the six vics odd, do you see, out of
that for what was taken on the man of samples last Yuni or Yuly,
do you follow me, Capn? To this the other, Billi with the Boule,
who had mummed and mauled up to that (for he was hesitency
carried to excelcism) rather amusedly replied: Woowoo would
you be grossly surprised, Hill, to learn that, as it so happens, I
honestly have not such a thing as the loo, as the least chance of
a tinpanned crackler anywhere about me at the present moho-
moment but I believe I can see my way, as you suggest, it
being Yuletide or Yuddanfest and as it's mad nuts, son, for you

when it's hatter's hares, mon, for me, to advance you something
like four and sevenpence between hopping and trapping which
you might just as well have, boy baches, to buy J. J. and S. with.
There was a minute silence before memory's fire's rekindling and
then. Heart alive! Which at very first wind of gay gay and whisk-
wigs wick's ears pricked up, the starving gunman, strike him
pink, became strangely calm and forthright sware by all his lards
porsenal that the thorntree of sheol might ramify up his Sheo-
fon to the lux apointlex but he would go good to him suntime
marx my word fort, for a chip off the old Flint, (in the Nichtian
glossery which purveys aprioric roots for aposteriorious tongues
this is nat language at any sinse of the world and one might as
fairly go and kish his sprogues as fail to certify whether the
wartrophy eluded at some lives earlier was that somethink like a
jug, to what, a coctable) and remarxing in languidoily, seemingly
much more highly pleased than tongue could tell at this opening
of a lifetime and the foretaste of the Dun Bank pearlmothers
and the boy to wash down which he would feed to himself in
the Ruadh Cow at Tallaght and then into the Good Woman at
Ringsend and after her inat Conway's Inn at Blackrock and, first
to fall, cursed be all, where appetite would keenest be, atte,
funeral fare or fun fain real, Adam and Eve's in Quantity Street
by the grace of gamy queen Tailte, her will and testament: You
stunning little southdowner! I'd know you anywhere, Declaney,
let me truthfully tell you in or out of the lexinction of life and
who the hell else, be your blanche patch on the boney part!
Goalball I've struck this daylit dielate night of nights, by golly!
My hat, you have some bully German grit, sundowner! He
spud in his faust (axin); he toped the raw best (pardun); he
poked his pick (a tip is a tap): and he tucked his friend's leave. And,
with French hen or the portlifowlium of hastes and leisures, about
to continue that, the queer mixture exchanged the pax in embrace
or poghue puxy as practised between brothers of the same breast,
hillelulia, killelulia, allenalaw, and, having ratified before the
god of the day their torgantruce which belittlers have schmall-
kalled the treatyng to cognac, turning his fez menialstrait in the

direction of Moscas, he first got rid of a few mitsmillers and
hurooshoos and levanted off with tubular jurbulance at a bull's
run over the assback bridge, spitting his teeths on rooths, with the
seven and four in danegeld and their humoral hurlbat or other
uncertain weapon of lignum vitae, but so evermore rhumanasant of
a toboggan poop, picked up to keep some crowplucking ap-
pointment with some rival rialtos anywheres between Pearidge
and the Littlehorn while this poor delaney, who they left along
with the confederate fender behind and who albeit ballsbluffed,
bore up wonderfully wunder all of it with a whole number of
plumsized contusiums, plus alasalah bruised coccyx, all over him,
reported the occurance in the best way he could, to the flabber-
gaze of the whole lab, giving the Paddybanners the military
salute as for his exilicy's the O'Daffy, in justifiable hope that,
in nobiloroman review of the hugely sitisfactuary conclusium
of their negotiations and the jugglemonkysh agripment dein-
derivative, some lotion or fomentation of poppyheads would be
jennerously exhibited to the parts, at the nearest watchhouse in
Vicar Lane, the white ground of his face all covered with digon-
ally redcrossed nonfatal mammalian blood as proofpositive of the
seriousness of his character and that he was bleeding in self
defience (stanch it!) from the nostrils, lips, pavilion and palate,
while some of his hitter's hairs had been pulled off his knut's
head by Colt though otherwise his allround health appeared to
be middling along as it proved most fortunate that not one of
the two hundred and six bones and five hundred and one muscles
in his corso was a whit the whorse for her whacking. Herwho?
    Nowthen, leaving clashing ash, brawn and muscle and brass-
made to oust earthernborn and rockcrystal to wreck isinglass but
wurming along gradually for our savings backtowards mother-
waters so many miles from bank and Dublin stone (olympiading
even till the eleventh dynasty to reach that thuddysickend Ham-
laugh) and to the question of boney's unlawfully obtaining a
pierced paraflamme and claptrap fireguard there crops out the
still more salient point of the politish leanings and town pursuits
of our forebeer, El Don De Dunelli, (may his ship thicked stick

in the bottol of the river and all his crewsers stock locked in the
burral of the seas!) who, when within the black of your toenail,
sir, of being mistakenly ambushed by one of the uddahveddahs,
and as close as made no matter, mam, to being kayoed offhand
when the hyougono heckler with the Peter the Painter wanted
to hole him, was consistently practising the first of the primary
and imprescriptible liberties of the pacific subject by circulating
(be British, boys to your bellybone and chuck a chum a chance!)
alongst one of our umphrohibited semitary thrufahrts, open to
buggy and bike, to walk, Wellington Park road, with the curb
or quaker's quacknostrum under his auxter and his alpenstuck in
his redhand, a highly commendable exercise, or, number two of
our acta legitima plebeia, on the brink (beware to baulk a man at
his will!) of taking place upon a public seat, to what, bare by
Butt's, most easterly (but all goes west!) of blackpool bridges, as
a public protest and naturlikevice, without intent to annoy either,
being praisegood thankfully for the wrathbereaved ringdove and
the fearstung boaconstrictor and all the more right jollywell
pleased, which he was, at having other people's weather.
    But to return to the atlantic and Phenitia Proper. As if that
were not to be enough for anyone but little headway, if any, was
made in solving the wasnottobe crime cunundrum when a child
of Maam, Festy King, of a family long and honourably associ-
ated with the tar and feather industries, who gave an address in
old plomansch Mayo of the Saxons in the heart of a foulfamed
potheen district, was subsequently haled up at the Old Bailey
on the calends of Mars, under an incompatibly framed indictment
of both the counts (from each equinoxious points of view, the one
fellow's fetch being the other follow's person) that is to see, flying
cushats out of his ouveralls and making fesses immodst his forces
on the field. Oyeh! Oyeh! When the prisoner, soaked in methyl-
ated, appeared in dry dock, appatently ambrosiaurealised, like
Kersse's Korduroy Karikature, wearing, besides stains, rents and
patches, his fight shirt, straw braces, souwester and a policeman's
corkscrew trowswers, all out of the true (as he had purposely torn
up all his cymtrymanx bespokes in the mamertime), deposing for

his exution with all the fluors of sparse in the royal Irish vocabulary
how the whole padderjagmartin tripiezite suet and all the sulfeit
of copperas had fallen off him quatz unaccountably like the
chrystalisations of Alum on Even while he was trying for to stick
fire to himcell, (in feacht he was dripping as he found upon strip-
ping for a pipkin ofmalt as he feared the coold raine) it was
attempted by the crown (P.C. Robort) to show that King, elois
Crowbar, once known as Meleky, impersonating a climbing boy,
rubbed some pixes of any luvial peatsmoor o'er his face, plucks
and pussas, with a clanetourf as the best means of disguising him-
self and was to the middlewhite fair in Mudford of a Thoorsday,
feishts of Peeler and Pole, under the illassumed names of
Tykingfest and Rabworc picked by him and Anthony out of a
tellafun book, ellegedly with a pedigree pig (unlicensed) and a
hyacinth. They were on that sea by the plain of Ir nine hundred
and ninetynine years and they never cried crack or ceased from
regular paddlewicking till that they landed their two and a
trifling selves, amadst camel and ass, greybeard and suckling,
priest and pauper, matrmatron and merrymeg, into the meddle
of the mudstorm. The gathering, convened by the Irish Angri-
cultural and Prepostoral Ouraganisations, to help the Irish muck
to look his brother dane in the face and attended thanks to
Larry by large numbers, of christies and jew's totems, tospite of
the deluge, was distinctly of a scattery kind when the bally-
bricken he could get no good of, after cockofthewalking through
a few fancyfought mains ate some of the doorweg, the pikey
later selling the gentleman ratepayer because she, Francie's sister,
that is to say, ate a whole side of his (the animal's) sty, on a
struggle Street, Qui Sta Troia, in order to pay off, hiss or lick,
six doubloons fifteen arrears of his, the villain's not the rumbler's
    Remarkable evidence was given, anon, by an eye, ear, nose
and throat witness, whom Wesleyan chapelgoers suspected of
being a plain clothes priest W.P., situate at Nullnull, Medical
Square, who, upon letting down his rice and peacegreen cover-
disk and having been sullenly cautioned against yawning while

being grilled, smiled (he had had a onebumper at parting from
Mrs Molroe in the morning) and stated to his eliciter under his
morse mustaccents (gobbless!) that he slept with a bonafides and
that he would be there to remember the filth of November,
hatinaring, rowdy O, which, with the jiboulees of Juno and the
dates of ould lanxiety, was going, please the Rainmaker, to
decembs within the ephemerides of profane history, all one with
Tournay, Yetstoslay and Temorah, and one thing which would
pigstickularly strike a person of such sorely tried observational
powers as Sam, him and Moffat, though theirs not to reason why,
the striking thing about it was that he was patrified to see, hear,
taste and smell, as his time of night, how Hyacinth O'Donnell,
B.A., described in the calendar as a mixer and wordpainter, with
part of a sivispacem (Gaeltact for dungfork) on the fair green
at the hour of twenty-four o'clock sought (the bullycassidy of
the friedhoffer!) to sack, sock, stab and slaughter singlehanded
another two of the old kings, Gush Mac Gale and Roaring
O'Crian, Jr., both changelings, unlucalised, of no address and
in noncommunicables, between him and whom, ever since wal-
lops before the Mise of Lewes, bad blood existed on the ground
of the boer's trespass on the bull or because he firstparted his
polarbeeber hair in twoways, or because they were creepfoxed
andt grousuppers over a nippy in a noveletta, or because they
could not say meace, (mute and daft) meathe. The litigants, he
said, local congsmen and donalds, kings of the arans and the dalk-
eys, kings of mud and tory, even the goat king of Killorglin,
were egged on by their supporters in the shape of betterwomen
with bowstrung hair of Carrothagenuine ruddiness, waving crim-
son petties and screaming from Isod's towertop. There were
cries from the thicksets in court and from the macdublins on the
bohernabreen of: Mind the bank from Banagher, Mick, sir! Pro-
dooce O'Donner. Ay! Exhibit his relics! Bu! Use the tongue
mor! Give lip less! But it oozed out in Deadman's Dark Scenery
Court through crossexanimation of the casehardened testis that
when and where that knife of knifes the treepartied ambush was
laid (roughly spouting around half hours 'twixt dusk in dawn,

by Waterhose's Meddle Europeic Time, near Stop and Think,
high chief evervirens and only abfalltree in auld the land) there
was not as much light from the widowed moon as would dim a
child's altar. The mixer, accordingly, was bluntly broached, and
in the best basel to boot, as to whether he was one of those
lucky cocks for whom the audible-visible-gnosible-edible world
existed. That he was only too cognitively conatively cogitabun-
dantly sure of it because, living, loving, breathing and sleeping
morphomelosophopancreates, as he most significantly did, when-
ever he thought he heard he saw he felt he made a bell clipper-
clipperclipperclipper. Whether he was practically sure too of his
lugs and truies names in this king and blouseman business? That
he was pediculously so. Certified? As cad could be. Be lying! Be
the lonee I will. It was Morbus O' Somebody? A'Quite. Szer-
day's Son? A satyr in weddens. And how did the greeneyed
mister arrive at the B.A.? That it was like his poll. A cross-
grained trapper with murty odd oogs, awflorated ares, inquiline
nase and a twithcherous mouph? He would be. Who could bit
you att to a tenyerdfuul when aastalled? Ballera jobbera. Some
majar bore too? Iguines. And with tumblerous legs, redipnomi-
nated Helmingham Erchenwyne Rutter Egbert Crumwall Odin
Maximus Esme Saxon Esa Vercingetorix Ethelwulf Rupprecht
Ydwalla Bentley Osmund Dysart Yggdrasselmann? Holy Saint
Eiffel, the very phoenix! It was Chudley Magnall once more
between the deffodates and the dumb scene? The two childspies
waapreesing him auza de Vologue but the renting of his rock
was from the three wicked Vuncouverers Forests bent down
awhits, arthou sure? Yubeti, Cumbilum comes! One of the ox-
men's thingabossers, hvad? And had he been refresqued by the
founts of bounty playing there — is — a — pain — aleland in
Long's gourgling barral? A loss of Lordedward and a lack of sir-
philip a surgeonet showeradown could suck more gargling
bubbles out of the five lamps in Portterand's praise. Wirrgeling
and maries? As whose wouldn't, laving his leaftime in Black-
pool. But, of course, he could call himself Tem, too, if he had
time to? You butt he could anytom. When he pleased? Win and

place. A stoker temptated by evesdripping aginst the driver who
was a witness as well? Sacred avatar, how the devil did they
guess it! Two dreamyums in one dromium? Yes and no error.
And both as like as a duel of lentils? Peacisely. So he was pelted
out of the coram populo, was he? Be the powers that be he was.
The prince in principel should not expose his person? Mac-
chevuole! Rooskayman kamerad? Sooner Gallwegian he would
say. Not unintoxicated, fair witness? Drunk as a fishup. Askt to
whether she minded whither he smuked? Not if he barkst into
phlegms. Anent his ajaciulations to his Crosscann Lorne, cossa?
It was corso in cursu on coarser again. The gracious miss was
we not doubt sensible how yellowatty on the forx was altered?
That she esually was, O'Dowd me not! As to his religion, if
any? It was the see-you-Sunday sort. Exactly what he meant by
a pederast prig? Bejacob's, just a gent who prayed his lent. And
if middleclassed portavorous was a usual beast? Bynight as useful
as a vomit to a shorn man. If he had rognarised dtheir gcourts
marsheyls? Dthat nday in ndays he had. Lindendelly, coke or
skilllies spell me gart without a gate? Harlyadrope. The grazing
rights (Mrs Magistra Martinetta) expired with the expiry of the
goat's sire, if they were not mistaken? That he exactly could not
tell the worshipfuls but his mother-in-waders had the recipis for
the price of the coffin and that he was there to tell them that
herself was the velocipede that could tell them kitcat. A maun-
darin tongue in a pounderin jowl? Father ourder about the
mathers of prenanciation. Distributary endings? And we recom-
mends. Quare hircum? No answer. Unde gentium fe . . . ? No ah.
Are you not danzzling on the age of a vulcano? Siar, I am deed.
And how olld of him? He was intendant to study pulu. Which
was meant in a shirt of two shifts macoghamade or up Finn,
threehatted ladder? That a head in thighs under a bush at the
sunface would bait a serpent to a millrace through the heather.
Arm bird colour defdum ethnic fort perharps? Sure and glomsk
handy jotalpheson as well. Hokey jasons, then, in a pigeegeeses?
On a pontiff's order as ture as there's an ital on atac. As a gololy
bit to joss? Leally and tululy. But, why this hankowchaff and

whence this second tone, son-yet-sun? He had the cowtaw in his
buxers flay of face. So this that Solasistras, setting odds evens at
defiance, took the laud from Labouriter? What displaced Tob,
Dilke and Halley, not been greatly in love with the game. And,
changing the venders, from the king's head to the republican's
arms, as to the pugnaxities evinxed from flagfall to antepost
during the effrays round fatherthyme's beckside and the regents
in the plantsown raining, with the skiddystars and the morkern-
windup, how they appealed to him then? That it was wildfires
night on all the bettygallaghers. Mickmichael's soords shrieking
shrecks through the wilkinses and neckanicholas' toastingforks
pricking prongs up the tunnybladders. Let there be fight? And
there was. Foght. On the site of the Angel's, you said? Guinney's
Gap, he said, between what they said and the pussykitties. In the
middle of the garth, then? That they mushn't toucht it. The de-
voted couple was or were only two disappainted solicitresses on
the job of the unfortunate class on Saturn's mountain fort? That
was about it, jah! And Camellus then said to Gemellus: I should
know you? Parfaitly. And Gemellus then said to Camellus: Yes,
your brother? Obsolutely. And if it was all about that, egregious
sir? About that and the other. If he was not alluding to the whole
in the wall? That he was when he was not eluding from the whole
of the woman. Briefly, how such beginall finally struck him now?
Like the crack that bruck the bank in Multifarnham. Whether he
fell in with what they meant? Cursed that he suppoxed he did.
Thos Thoris, Thomar's Thom? The rudacist rotter in Roebuck-
dom. Surtopical? And subhuman. If it was, in yappanoise lan-
guage, ach bad clap? Oo! Ah! Augs and ohrs with Rhian O'-
kehley to put it tertianly, we wrong? Shocking! Such as turly
pearced our really's that he might, that he might never, that he
might never that night? Treely and rurally. Bladyughfoulmoeck-
lenburgwhurawhorascortastrumpapornanennykocksapastippata -
ppatupperstrippuckputtanach, eh? You have it alright.
    Meirdreach an Oincuish! But a new complexion was put upon
the matter when to the perplexedly uncondemnatory bench
(whereon punic judgeship strove with penal law) the senior

king of all, Pegger Festy, as soon as the outer layer of stuccko-
muck had been removed at the request of a few live jurors,
declared in a loudburst of poesy, through his Brythonic inter-
preter on his oath, mhuith peisth mhuise as fearra bheura muirre
hriosmas, whereas take notice be the relics of the bones of the
story bouchal that was ate be Cliopatrick (the sow) princess
of parked porkers, afore God and all their honours and king's
commons that, what he would swear to the Tierney of Dundal-
gan or any other Tierney, yif live thurkells folloged him about
sure that was no steal and that, nevertheless, what was deposited
from that eyebold earbig noseknaving gutthroat, he did not fire
a stone either before or after he was born down and up to that
time. And, incidentalising that they might talk about Markarthy
or they might walk to Baalastartey or they might join the nabour
party and come on to Porterfeud this the sockdologer had the
neck to endorse with the head bowed on him over his outturned
noreaster by protesting to his lipreaders with a justbeencleaned
barefacedness, abeam of moonlight's hope, in the same trelawney
what he would impart, pleas bench, to the Llwyd Josus and the
gentlemen in Jury's and the four of Masterers who had been all
those yarns yearning for that good one about why he left
Dublin, that, amreeta beaker coddling doom, as an Inishman was
as good as any cantonnatal, if he was to parish by the market steak
before the dorming of the mawn, he skuld never ask to see sight or
light of this world or the other world or any either world, of Tyre-
nan-Og, as true as he was there in that jackabox that minute, or
wield or wind (no thanks t'yous!) the inexousthausthible wassail-
horn tot of iskybaush the hailth up the wailth of the endknown ab-
god of the fire of the moving way of the hawks with his heroes in
Warhorror if ever in all his exchequered career he up or lave a
chancery hand to take or throw the sign of a mortal stick or stone
at man, yoelamb or salvation army either before or after being
puptised down to that most holy and every blessed hour. Here,
upon the halfkneed castleknocker's attempting kithoguishly to
lilt his holymess the paws and make the sign of the Roman God-
helic faix, (Xaroshie, zdrst!— in his excitement the laddo had

broken exthro Castilian into which the whole audience perse-
guired and pursuited him olla podrida) outbroke much yellach-
ters from owners in the heall (Ha!) in which, under the mollifi-
cation of methaglin, the testifighter reluctingly, but with ever so
ladylike indecorum, joined. (Ha! Ha!)
    The hilariohoot of Pegger's Windup cumjustled as neatly
with the tristitone of the Wet Pinter's as were they isce et ille
equals of opposites, evolved by a onesame power of nature or of
spirit, iste, as the sole condition and means of its himundher
manifestation and polarised for reunion by the symphysis of
their antipathies. Distinctly different were their duasdestinies.
Whereas the maidies of the bar, (a pairless trentene, a lunarised
score) when the eranthus myrrmyrred: Show'm the Posed:
fluttered and flattered around the willingly pressed, nominating
him for the swiney prize, complimenting him, the captivating
youth, on his having all his senses about him, stincking thyacinths
through his curls (O feen! O deur!) and bringing busses to his
cheeks, their masculine Oirisher Rose (his neece cleur!), and
legando round his nice new neck for him and pizzicagnoling his
woolywags, with their dindy dandy sugar de candy mechree me
postheen flowns courier to belive them of all his untiring young
dames and send treats in their times. Ymen. But it was not un-
observed of those presents, their worships, how, of one among
all, her deputised to defeme him by the Lunar Sisters' Celibacy
Club, a lovelooking leapgirl, all all alonely, Gentia Gemma of the
Makegiddyculling Reeks, he, wan and pale in his unmixed admir-
ation, seemed blindly, mutely, tastelessly, tactlessly, innamorate
with heruponhim in shining aminglement, the shaym of his hisu
shifting into the shimmering of her hers, (youthsy, beautsy, hee's
her chap and shey'll tell memmas when she gays whom) till the
wild wishwish of her sheeshea melted most musically mid the
dark deepdeep of his shayshaun.
    And whereas distracted (for was not just this in effect which
had just caused that the effect of that which it had caused to oc-
cur?) the four justicers laid their wigs together, Untius, Mun-
cius, Punchus and Pylax but could do no worse than promulgate

their standing verdict of Nolans Brumans whereoneafter King,
having murdered all the English he knew, picked out his pockets
and left the tribunal scotfree, trailing his Tommeylommey's tunic
in his hurry, thereinunder proudly showing off the blink pitch to
his britgits to prove himself (an't plase yous!) a rael genteel. To
the Switz bobbyguard's curial but courtlike: Commodore valley O
hairy, Arthre jennyrosy?: the firewaterloover returted with such a
vinesmelling fortytudor ages rawdownhams tanyouhide as would
the latten stomach even of a tumass equinous (we were prepared
for the chap's clap cap, the accent, but, took us as, by surprise
and now we're geshing it like gush gash from a burner!) so that all
the twofromthirty advocatesses within echo, pulling up their briefs
at the krigkry: Shun the Punman!: safely and soundly soccered
that fenemine Parish Poser, (how dare he!) umprumptu right-
oway hames, much to his thanks, gratiasagam, to all the wrong
donatrices, biss Drinkbattle's Dingy Dwellings where (for like
your true venuson Esau he was dovetimid as the dears at
Bottome) he shat in (zoo), like the muddy goalbind who he was
(dun), the chassetitties belles conclaiming: You and your gift of
your gaft of your garbage abaht our Farvver! and gaingridando:
Hon! Verg! Nau! Putor! Skam! Schams! Shames!
    And so it all ended. Artha kama dharma moksa. Ask Kavya for
the kay. And so everybody heard their plaint and all listened to
their plause. The letter! The litter! And the soother the bitther!
Of eyebrow pencilled, by lipstipple penned. Borrowing a word
and begging the question and stealing tinder and slipping like
soap. From dark Rosa Lane a sigh and a weep, from Lesbia
Looshe the beam in her eye, from lone Coogan Barry his arrow
of song, from Sean Kelly's anagrim a blush at the name, from
I am the Sullivan that trumpeting tramp, from Suffering Duf-
ferin the Sit of her Style, from Kathleen May Vernon her Mebbe
fair efforts, from Fillthepot Curran his scotchlove machree-
ther, from hymn Op. 2 Phil Adolphos the weary O, the leery,
O, from Samyouwill Leaver or Damyouwell Lover thatjolly
old molly bit or that bored saunter by, from Timm Finn again's
weak tribes, loss of strenghth to his sowheel, from the wedding

on the greene, agirlies, the gretnass of joyboys, from Pat Mullen,
Tom Mallon, Dan Meldon, Don Maldon a slickstick picnic made
in Moate by Muldoons. The solid man saved by his sillied woman.
Crackajolking away like a hearse on fire. The elm that whimpers
at the top told the stone that moans when stricken. Wind broke
it. Wave bore it. Reed wrote of it. Syce ran with it. Hand tore
it and wild went war. Hen trieved it and plight pledged peace.
It was folded with cunning, sealed with crime, uptied by a harlot,
undone by a child. It was life but was it fair? It was free but was
it art? The old hunks on the hill read it to perlection. It made
ma make merry and sissy so shy and rubbed some shine off Shem
and put some shame into Shaun. Yet Una and Ita spill famine
with drought and Agrippa, the propastored, spells tripulations
in his threne. Ah, furchte fruchte, timid Danaides! Ena milo melo-
mon, frai is frau and swee is too, swee is two when swoo is free,
ana mala woe is we! A pair of sycopanties with amygdaleine
eyes, one old obster lumpky pumpkin and three meddlars on
their slies. And that was how framm Sin fromm Son, acity arose,
finfin funfun, a sitting arrows. Now tell me, tell me, tell me then!
                   What was it?
                    A .......... !
                    ? ..........O!
     So there you are now there they were, when all was over
again, the four with them, setting around upin their judges'
chambers, in the muniment room, of their marshalsea, under the
suspices of Lally, around their old traditional tables of the law
like Somany Solans to talk it over rallthesameagain. Well and
druly dry. Suffering law the dring. Accourting to king's evelyns.
So help her goat and kiss the bouc. Festives and highajinks and
jintyaun and her beetyrossy bettydoaty and not to forget now
a'duna o'darnel. The four of them and thank court now there
were no more of them. So pass the push for port sake. Be it soon.
Ah ho! And do you remember, Singabob, the badfather, the
same, the great Howdoyoucallem, and his old nickname, Dirty
Daddy Pantaloons, in his monopoleums, behind the war of the
two roses, with Michael Victory, the sheemen's preester, before

he caught his paper dispillsation from the poke, old Minace and
Minster York? Do I mind? I mind the gush off the mon like Bal-
lybock manure works on a tradewinds day. And the O'Moyly
gracies and the O'Briny rossies chaffing him bluchface and play-
ing him pranks. How do you do, todo, North Mister? Get into
my way! Ah dearome forsailoshe! Gone over the bays! When
ginabawdy meadabawdy! Yerra, why would he heed that old
gasometer with his hooping coppin and his dyinboosycough and
all the birds of the southside after her, Minxy Cunningham, their
dear divorcee darling, jimmies and jonnies to be her jo? Hold
hard. There's three other corners to our isle's cork float. Sure, 'tis
well I can telesmell him H
2CE3 that would take a township's
breath away! Gob and I nose him too well as I do meself, heav-
ing up the Kay Wall by the 32 to 11 with his limelooking horse-
bags full of sesameseed, the Whiteside Kaffir, and his sayman's
effluvium and his scentpainted voice, puffing out his thundering
big brown cabbage! Pa! Thawt I'm glad a gull for his pawsdeen
fiunn! Goborro, sez he, Lankyshied! Gobugga ye, sez I! O
breezes! I sniffed that lad long before anyone. It was when I was
in my farfather out at the west and she and myself, the redheaded
girl, firstnighting down Sycomore Lane. Fine feelplay we had
of it mid the kissabetts frisking in the kool kurkle dusk of the
lushiness. My perfume of the pampas, says she (meaning me)
putting out her netherlights, and I'd sooner one precious sip at
your pure mountain dew than enrich my acquaintance with that
big brewer's belch.
    And so they went on, the fourbottle men, the analists, ungu-
am and nunguam and lunguam again, their anschluss about her
whosebefore and his whereafters and how she was lost away
away in the fern and how he was founded deap on deep in anear,
and the rustlings and the twitterings and the raspings and the
snappings and the sighings and the paintings and the ukukuings
and the (hist!) the springapartings and the (hast!) the bybyscutt-
lings and all the scandalmunkers and the pure craigs that used to
be (up) that time living and lying and rating and riding round
Nunsbelly Square. And all the buds in the bush. And the laugh-

ing jackass. Harik! Harik! Harik! The rose is white in the darik!
And Sunfella's nose has got rhinoceritis from haunting the roes
in the parik! So all rogues lean to rhyme. And contradrinking
themselves about Lillytrilly law pon hilly and Mrs Niall of the
Nine Corsages and the old markiss their besterfar, and, arrah,
sure there was never a marcus at all at all among the manlies and
dear Sir Armoury, queer Sir Rumoury, and the old house by the
churpelizod, and all the goings on so very wrong long before
when they were going on retreat, in the old gammeldags, the
four of them, in Milton's Park under lovely Father Whisperer
and making her love with his stuffstuff in the languish of flowers
and feeling to find was she mushymushy, and wasn't that very
both of them, the saucicissters, a drahereen o machree!, and (peep!)
meeting waters most improper (peepette!) ballround the garden,
trickle trickle trickle triss, please, miman, may I go flirting?
farmers gone with a groom and how they used her, mused her,
licksed her and cuddled. I differ with ye! Are you sure of your-
self now? You're a liar, excuse me! I will not and you're an-
other! And Lully holding their breach of the peace for them. Pool
loll Lolly! To give and to take! And to forego the pasht! And
all will be forgotten! Ah ho! It was too too bad to be falling
out about her kindness pet and the shape of O O O O O O O O
Ourang's time. Well, all right, Lelly. And shakeahand. And
schenkusmore. For Craig sake. Be it suck.
    Well, even should not the framing up of such figments in the
evidential order bring the true truth to light as fortuitously as
a dim seer's setting of a starchart might (heaven helping it!) un-
cover the nakedness of an unknown body in the fields of blue
or as forehearingly as the sibspeeches of all mankind have foli-
ated (earth seizing them!) from the root of some funner's stotter
all the soundest sense to be found immense our special mentalists
now holds (securus iudicat orbis terrarum) that by such playing
possum our hagious curious encestor bestly saved his brush with
his posterity, you, charming coparcenors, us, heirs of his tailsie.
Gundogs of all breeds were beagling with renounced urbiandor-

bic bugles, hot to run him, given law, on a scent breasthigh,
keen for the worry. View! From his holt outratted across the
Juletide's genial corsslands of Humfries Chase from Mullinahob
and Peacockstown, then bearing right upon Tankardstown, the
outlier, a white noelan which Mr Loewensteil Fitz Urse's basset
beaters had first misbadgered for a bruin of some swart, led
bayers the run, then through Raystown and Horlockstown and,
louping the loup, to Tankardstown again. Ear canny hare for
doubling through Cheeverstown they raced him, through
Loughlinstown and Nutstown to wind him by the Boolies. But
from the good turn when he last was lost, check, upon Ye Hill
of Rut in full winter coat with ticker pads, pointing for his room-
ing house his old nordest in his rolltoproyal hessians a deaf fuch-
ser's volponism hid him close in covert, miraculously ravenfed
and buoyed up, in rumer, reticule, onasum and abomasum, upon
(may Allbrewham have his mead!) the creamclotted sherriness of
cinnamon syllabub, Mikkelraved, Nikkelsaved. Hence hounds
hied home. Preservative perseverance in the reeducation of his
intestines was the rebuttal by whilk he sort of git the big bulge
on the whole bunch of spasoakers, dieting against glues and gra-
vies, in that sometime prestreet protown. Vainly violence, viru-
lence and vituperation sought wellnigh utterly to attax and a-
bridge, to derail and depontify, to enrate and inroad, to ongoad
and unhume the great shipping mogul and underlinen overlord.
    But the spoil of hesitants, the spell of hesitency. His atake is
it ashe, tittery taw tatterytail, hasitense humponadimply, heyhey-
heyhey a winceywencky.
    Assembly men murmured. Reynard is slow!
    One feared for his days. Did there yawn? 'Twas his stom-
mick. Eruct? The libber. A gush? From his visuals. Pung? De-
livver him, orelode! He had laid violent hands on himself, it was
brought in Fugger's Newsletter, lain down, all in, fagged out,
with equally melancholy death. For the triduum of Saturnalia
his goatservant had paraded hiz willingsons in the Forum while
the jenny infanted the lass to be greeted raucously (the Yardstat-
ed) with houx and epheus and measured with missiles too from

a hundred of manhood and a wimmering of weibes. Big went
the bang: then wildewide was quiet: a report: silence: last Fama
put it under ether. The noase or the loal had dreven him blem,
blem, stun blem. Sparks flew. He had fled again (open shun-
shema!) this country of exile, sloughed off, sidleshomed via the
subterranean shored with bedboards, stowed away and ankered
in a dutch bottom tank, the Arsa, hod S.S. Finlandia, and was
even now occupying, under an islamitic newhame in his seventh
generation, a physical body Cornelius Magrath's (badoldkarak-
ter, commonorrong canbung) in Asia Major, where as Turk of
the theater (first house all flatty: the king, eleven sharps) he had
bepiastered the buikdanseuses from the opulence of his omni-
box while as arab at the streetdoor he bepestered the bumbashaws
for the alms of a para's pence. Wires hummed. Peacefully general
astonishment assisted by regrettitude had put a term till his exis-
tence: he saw the family saggarth, resigned, put off his remain-
ders, was recalled and scrapheaped by the Maker. Chirpings
crossed. An infamous private ailment (vulgovarioveneral) had
claimed endright, closed his vicious circle, snap. Jams jarred.
He had walked towards the middle of an ornamental lilypond
when innebriated up to the point where braced shirts meet knic-
kerbockers, as wangfish daring the buoyant waters, when rod-
men's firstaiding hands had rescued un from very possibly several
feel of demifrish water. Mush spread. On Umbrella Street where
he did drinks from a pumps a kind workman, Mr Whitlock,
gave him a piece of wood. What words of power were made fas
between them, ekenames and auchnomes, acnomina ecnumina?
That, O that, did Hansard tell us, would gar ganz Dub's ear
wag in every pub of all the citta! Batty believes a baton while
Hogan hears a hod yet Heer prefers a punsil shapner and Cope
and Bull go cup and ball. And the Cassidy — Craddock rome
and reme round e'er a wiege ne'er a waage is still immer and
immor awagering over it, a cradle with a care in it or a casket
with a kick behind. Toties testies quoties questies. The war is
in words and the wood is the world. Maply me, willowy we,
hickory he and yew yourselves. Howforhim chirrupeth evereach-

bird! From golddawn glory to glowworm gleam. We were
lowquacks did we not tacit turn. Elsewere there here no con-
cern of the Guinnesses. But only the ruining of the rain has
heard. Estout pourporteral! Cracklings cricked. A human pest
cycling (pist!) and recycling (past!) about the sledgy streets, here
he was (pust!) again! Morse nuisance noised. He was loose at
large and (Oh baby!) might be anywhere when a disguised ex-
nun, of huge standbuild and masculine manners in her fairly fat
forties, Carpulenta Gygasta, hattracted hattention by harbitrary
conduct with a homnibus. Aerials buzzed to coastal listeners of
an oertax bror collector's budget, fullybigs, sporran, tie, tuft,
tabard and bloody antichill cloak, its tailor's (Baernfather's) tab
reading V.P.H., found nigh Scaldbrothar's Hole, and divers
shivered to think what kaind of beast, wolves, croppis's or four-
penny friars, had devoured him. C.W. cast wide. Hvidfinns lyk,
drohneth svertgleam, Valkir lockt. On his pinksir's postern, the
boys had it, at Whitweekend had been nailed an inkedup name
and title, inscribed in the national cursives, accelerated, regres-
sive, filiform, turreted and envenomoloped in piggotry: Move
up. Mumpty! Mike room for Rumpty! By order, Nickekellous
Plugg; and this go, no pentecostal jest about it, how gregarious
his race soever or skilful learned wise cunning knowledgable
clear profound his saying fortitudo fraught or prudentiaproven,
were he chief, count, general, fieldmarshal, prince, king or Myles
the Slasher in his person, with a moliamordhar mansion in the
Breffnian empire and a place of inauguration on the hill of Tully-
mongan, there had been real murder, of the rayheallach royghal
raxacraxian variety, the MacMahon chaps, it was, that had done
him in. On the fidd of Verdor the rampart combatants had left
him lion with his dexter handcoup wresterected in a pureede
paumee bloody proper. Indeed not a few thick and thin well-
wishers, mostly of the clontarfminded class, (Colonel John Bawle
O'Roarke, fervxamplus), even ventured so far as to loan or beg
copies of D. Blayncy's trilingual triweekly, Scatterbrains' Aften-
ing Posht, so as to make certain sure onetime and be satisfied of
their quasicontribusodalitarian's having become genuinely quite

beetly dead whether by land whither by water. Transocean
atalaclamoured him; The latter! The latter! Shall their hope then
be silent or Macfarlane lack of lamentation? He lay under leagues
of it in deep Bartholoman's Deep.
    Achdung! Pozor! Attenshune! Vikeroy Besights Smucky
Yung Pigeschoolies. Tri Paisdinernes Eventyr Med Lochlanner
Fathach I Fiounnisgehaven. Bannalanna Bangs Ballyhooly Out
Of Her Buddaree Of A Bullavogue.
    But, their bright little contemporaries notwithstanding, on
the morrowing morn of the suicidal murder of the unrescued ex-
patriate, aslike as asnake comes sliduant down that oaktree onto
the duke of beavers, (you may have seen some liquidamber exude
exotic from a balsam poplar at Parteen-a-lax Limestone. Road
and cried Abies Magnifica! not, noble fir?) a quarter of nine,
imploring his resipiency, saw the infallible spike of smoke's jutstiff
punctual from the seventh gable of our Quintus Centimachus'
porphyroid buttertower and then thirsty p.m. with oaths upon
his lastingness (En caecos harauspices! Annos longos patimur!) the
lamps of maintenance, beaconsfarafield innerhalf the zuggurat, all
brevetnamed, the wasting wyvern, the tawny of his mane, the
swinglowswaying bluepaw, the outstanding man, the lolllike lady,
being litten for the long (O land, how long!) lifesnight, with
suffusion of fineglass transom and leadlight panes.
    Wherefore let it hardly by any being thinking be said either or
thought that the prisoner of that sacred edifice, were he an Ivor
the Boneless or an Olaf the Hide, was at his best a onestone par-
able, a rude breathing on the void of to be, a venter hearing his
own bauchspeech in backwords, or, more strictly, but tristurned
initials, the cluekey to a worldroom beyond the roomwhorld, for
scarce one, or pathetically few of his dode canal sammenlivers
cared seriously or for long to doubt with Kurt Iuld van Dijke
(the gravitational pull perceived by certain fixed residents and
the capture of uncertain comets chancedrifting through our sys-
tem suggesting an authenticitatem of his aliquitudinis) the canoni-
city of his existence as a tesseract. Be still, O quick! Speak him
dumb! Hush ye fronds of Ulma!

    Dispersal women wondered. Was she fast?
    Do tell us all about. As we want to hear allabout. So tellus tel-
las allabouter. The why or whether she looked alottylike like
ussies and whether he had his wimdop like themses shut? Notes
and queries, tipbids and answers, the laugh and the shout, the
ards and downs. Now listed to one aneither and liss them down
and smoothen out your leaves of rose. The war is o'er. Wimwim
wimwim! Was it Unity Moore or Estella Swifte or Varina Fay
or Quarta Quaedam? Toemaas, mark oom for yor ounckel! Pig-
eys, hold op med yer leg! Who, but who (for second time of
asking) was then the scourge of the parts about folkrich Luca-
lizod it was wont to be asked, as, in ages behind of the Homo
Capite Erectus, what price Peabody's money, or, to put it
bluntly, whence is the herringtons' white cravat, as, in epochs
more cainozoic, who struck Buckley though nowadays as then-
times every schoolfilly of sevenscore moons or more who know-
her intimologies and every colleen bawl aroof and every red-
flammelwaving warwife and widowpeace upon Dublin Wall for
ever knows as yayas is yayas how it was Buckleyself (we need
no blooding paper to tell it neither) who struck and the Russian
generals, da! da!, instead of Buckley who was caddishly struck
by him when be herselves. What fullpried paulpoison in the spy
of three castles or which hatefilled smileyseller? And that such
a vetriol of venom, that queen's head affranchisant, a quiet stink-
ingplaster zeal could cover, prepostered or postpaid! The lounge-
lizards of the pumproom had their nine days' jeer, and pratsch-
kats at their platschpails too and holenpolendom beside, Szpasz-
pas Szpissmas, the zhanyzhonies, when, still believing in her
owenglass, when izarres were twinklins, that the upper reaches
of her mouthless face and her impermanent waves were the better
half of her, one nearer him, dearer than all, first warming creature
of his early morn, bondwoman of the man of the house, and
murrmurr of all the mackavicks, she who had given his eye for
her bed and a tooth for a child till one one and one ten and one
hundred again, O me and O ye! cadet and prim, the hungray and
anngreen (and if she is older now than her teeth she has hair that

is younger than thighne, my dear!) she who shuttered him after
his fall and waked him widowt sparing and gave him keen and
made him able and held adazillahs to each arche of his noes, she
who will not rast her from her running to seek him till, with the
help of the okeamic, some such time that she shall have been after
hiding the crumbends of his enormousness in the areyou looking-
for Pearlfar sea, (ur, uri, uria!) stood forth, burnzburn the gorg-
gony old danworld, in gogor's name, for gagar's sake, dragging
the countryside in her train, finickin here and funickin there,
with her louisequean's brogues and her culunder buzzle and her
little bolero boa and all and two times twenty curlicornies for her
headdress, specks on her eyeux, and spudds on horeilles and a
circusfix riding her Parisienne's cockneze, a vaunt her straddle
from Equerry Egon, when Tinktink in the churchclose clinked
Steploajazzyma Sunday, Sola, with pawns, prelates and pookas
pelotting in her piecebag, for Handiman the Chomp, Esquoro,
biskbask, to crush the slander's head.
    Wery weeny wight, plead for Morandmor! Notre Dame de la
, mercy of thy balmheartzyheat! Ogrowdnyk's beyond her-
bata tay, wort of the drogist. Bulk him no bulkis. And let him
rest, thou wayfarre, and take no gravespoil from him! Neither
mar his mound! The bane of Tut is on it. Ware! But there's a
little lady waiting and her name is A.L.P. And you'll agree. She
must be she. For her holden heirheaps hanging down her back.
He spenth his strenth amok haremscarems. Poppy Narancy, Gial-
lia, Chlora, Marinka, Anileen, Parme. And ilk a those dames had
her rainbow huemoures yet for whilko her whims but he coined a
cure. Tifftiff today, kissykissy tonay and agelong pine tomauran-
na. Then who but Crippled-with-Children would speak up for
      Sold him her lease of ninenineninetee,
      Tresses undresses so dyedyedaintee,
      Goo, the groot gudgeon, gulped it all.
      Hoo was the C. O. D.?


      At Island Bridge she met her tide.
      Attabom, attabom, attabombomboom!
      The Fin had a flux and his Ebba a ride.
      Attabom, attabom, attabombomboom!
      We're all up to the years in hues and cribies.
      That's what she's done for wee!

      Nomad may roam with Nabuch but let naaman laugh at Jor-
dan! For we, we have taken our sheet upon her stones where we
have hanged our hearts in her trees; and we list, as she bibs us,
by the waters of babalong.


Tiergarten - zoo + Lyons' tea rooms - English chain of restaurants, the only place where women could use public toilets.

nenuphar - water lily, Egyptian lotus

aryuz (Armenian) - lion + Sirius

aryun (Armenian) - blood + Orion

Pegasus - Winged horse of Greek myth, symbol of the sacred king's or hero's journey to heaven; an image of death and apotheosis, like the mythic death-hordes of northern Europe. He sprang from the "wise blood" of the Moon-goddess Medusa, who embodied the principle of medha, the Indo-European root word for female wisdom. Or, alternately, he was the magic horse Arion, "the moon creature on high," born of the Goddess Demeter and ridden by Heracles in his role of sacred king in Elis + bogha (boa) (gael) - bow (in archery); bow (of a boat) + Bôghos (Armenian) - Paul.

baregam (Armenian) - friend + gam - a leg.

mademoiselle - an unmarried Frenchwoman; a (foreign) serving-maid + marmara (gr) - marbles + Marmor (ger) - marble + marmnaser (Armenian) - carnal, sensual.

Marmeniere - Armenia + marmin (Armenian) - flesh, body + 'Mademoseille from Armentières' (British soldiers' song).

tot weerziens (Dutch) - goodbye, au revoir ('to the seeing again') + tot (Dialect) - a very small drinking vessel (or measure of drink).

full (obs.) - a drinking vessel, cup, goblet + full (Colloquial) - drunk.

negen en twintig (Dutch) - "29", Issy and twenty-eight + naggin (Archaic) - noggin, a small drinking vessel (or measure of drink) + tyg (Archaic) - a drinking vessel with two or more handles.

post zegel (Dutch) - postage stamp + Sihlpost - Zurich's main post office + Kenneth Grant: "The sigil is a receptacle or chalice enshrining a given quantity and type of energy. It matters little what form the sigil takes so long as it is simple and complete in itself. It is important not to add superfluous ornament since this will enable the subconscious to breed unwanted images or phantoms which will obscure and therefore distort the original desire. This also is a principle of artistic creation; useless decoration is "bad" art. Great art is always simple; each line is genetic and functional in a sense not to be confused with utility. It is functional in that it appeals immediately to the subconscious component of the observer. This appeal is hindered, even destroyed, by useless decoration. Art then degenerates into something which appeals only to surface consciousness; it expresses a merely transient fashion, whereas true art expresses Eternity. The simpler the sigil the more potent it is, yet completeness should not be sacrificed to simplicity for its own sake for if the sigil is incomplete it is also inaccurate and will breed a monster".

wat (Dutch) - something, a few; what? + that

brievenbus (Dutch) - letterbox, postbox + grieving breast.

besieged - invested or surrounded by hostile forces

stil (Dutch) - silent, quiet

Lilith - female demon of Jewish folklore; her name and personality are derived from the class of Mesopotamian demons called lilû (feminine: lilitu). In rabbinic literature Lilith is variously depicted as the mother of Adam's demonic offspring following his separation from Eve + lithos (gr) - stone.

Isis Unveiled - first major work of Helena Petrovna Blavatsky. In this book she criticized the science and religion of her day and asserted that mystical experience and doctrine were the means to attain true spiritual insight and authority.

watchful - engaged in or accustomed to watching or close observation, vigilant

treacher - a deceiver, a cheat, one who deceives by trickery, a traitor

that is to say - Used to introduce a more explicit or intelligible re-statement of what immediately precedes, or a limiting clause necessary to make the statement correct; Sometimes used sarcastically to introduce a statement of the real fact which a quoted statement misrepresents or euphemistically veils.

fooi (Dutch) - tip, gratuity, what one gives to a chambermaid + foei! (Dutch) - fie, for shame!

kamermeisje (Dutch) - chamber maid + Mistress Kate

zeep (Dutch) - soap + soep (Dutch) - soup.

laarzen (Dutch) - boots + laarzenlade (Dutch) - boot-drawer, boot-shelf.

zijn (Dutch) - two meanings: 1) To be 2) His "Zijn zijn": his being + we zijn (Dutch) - we are + zinzin (sound of a bell which summons Man Servant; "tip tip" is characteristic of Kate).

we moesten ons haasten (Dutch) - we had to hurry

te (Dutch) - to

declareer (Dutch) - declare  

glim - to take a look at, watch

preseeing = foreseeing

heat - intensity or great warmth of feeling; fervour, ardour, passion

yield - the action of yielding crops or other products, production; that which is produced, produce; esp. amount of produce.

corn - a grain, a seed + Iseult's hair was as fine and gold as cornsilk.

shame - to make ashamed, to cause to feel shame + shim - to shine (obs.) + Shem + Lord Byron: Don Juan III.lxxxvi: 'The Isles of Greece, the Isles of Greece! Where burning Sappho loved and sung'.

habben (Gipsy) - food, victuals + happen + we hebben (Dutch) - we have.

upseek - to seek or search out, to search through + haben aufzusuchen (ger) - have to look up + opzoeken (Dutch) - to look up, seek out, see, make a call on.

a bit - a little, somewhat + bitty - tiny, (charmingly) small + een beetje (Dutch) - a little bit.

door (Dutch) - through, by

township - the inhabitants of a town; manor, village, town

courant - a paper containing news, a published newsletter or newspaper. (Now only in names of newspapers, esp. in Scotland and northern counties) + courant (Dutch) - newspaper.

want (Dutch) - for (causal conj.) + Anglicised Dutch: "We have to look it up a bit in our township's newspapers, because we knew it"; (We hebben - We have; Opzoeken - "Seek up", to look something up; Beetje - "Bittie", a little bit; Door - through; Courants - Newspapers; Want - because; 't - it).  

't (Dutch) - it, the (reduced form of 'het')

insight - the fact of penetrating with the eyes of the understanding into the inner character or hidden nature of things; a glimpse or view beneath the surface.

patriarchal - of or belonging to a patriarch; of or characteristic of the patriarchs or their times.

seamanna (shamena) (gael) - quotations, sophistries, rigmarole + Let's say that "shaman" was a word. If it does come from the word "saman" (exalted), it describes a state of consciousness, not a role. The whole idea of Shaman culture is to be able to connect with the Divine through ecstasy. + REFERENCE

broadstone - hewn or squared stone, masonry of such stone + Steyne - a pillar formerly standing in Dublin, erected by the Vikings near their landing place.

George du Maurier: Trilby (1894 best-selling horror novel): 'Trilby! Trilby!' + by (Danish) - town (i.e birth of a city).

STATUE OF WILLIAM III - The equestrian statue erected in College Green 1 July 1701 was long a symbol of the Protestant Ascendancy, a point of contention between the Orange faction, for whom it was a rallying point, and Irish nationalists. Before it was finally blown up in 1929, and removed, it was frequently covered with tan and grease, defaced, or partially blown up. Generations of Dubliners commented on the fact that the statue faced the Castle, turning its back on TCD + billy - lad, fellow, boy.

white horsed - bearing the figure of the white horse (reputed as the ensign of the Saxons when they invaded Britain; also as the sign, and hence the name, of an inn); having or driving a white horse or horses.

William III stayed at Finglas after the Battle of Boyne, 1690

anxious seat - a seat near the pulpit; a state of worry or anxiety caused by uncertianity.

kun je niet geef mij (Dutch) - can you not give me + gift (Dutch) - gift, present; poison, venom + geef mij, geef me (Dutch) - give me + geef mij toe (Dutch) - grant me, admit to me, give in to me.

Tobit - Apocryphal book. Tobit was blind and saw again + toe bout a peer = to peer about + toegift (Dutch) - makeweight, extra + toe! (Dutch) - please! + bout (Dutch) - bolt, leg of animal or bird considered as a joint for the table, drumstick.

peer (Dutch) - pear + pair

zacht ei (Dutch) - soft-boiled egg + can ye not give me to boot a pair of soft boiled eggs.

helluf - Dutch informal pronunciation of 'helft' = half + hell of → The Three Hours' Agony or "Tre Ore" is a service held in some Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches on Good Friday from noon till 3 o'clock to commemorate the Passion of Christ.

ex profundis malorum (l) - "out of the depths of evil"

bred - p.p. of breed (to give rise to, engender, develop, produce, create)

unfeigned - sincere, genuine, true + Joyce's note: 'unfeigned charity' → Flood: Ireland, Its Saints and Scholars 28: (Saint Columcille) 'sat up during the night on his pallet, a bare rock, exhorting the Brothers to preserve mutual and unfeigned charity and peace amongst themselves'.

charity - love, kindness, affection, natural affection: now esp. with some notion of generous or spontaneous goodness.

wounder - wonder; one who wounds, that which wounds + (abuser).

Engels (Dutch) - English + Engel (Dutch) - Angel.

nomen (l) - name

nash - soft, tender, gentle; to go away, quit + Nash, Thomas (1567-1601) - English poet, playwright, pamphleteer. Wyndham Lewis, meaning to be uncomplimentary, compared the opening of "Shem the Penman" to Nash and said Joyce and Nash met on the common ground of Rabelais + nahash (Hebrew) - "serpent".

any old how = any how

mottled - dappled with spots or blotches + Genesis 3:14: 'Upon thy belly shalt thou go' (God's curse of the serpent).

rab (rob) (gael) - hog + rab (Pan-Slavonic) - slave.

Ulysses.15.2447: 'Serpents too are gluttons for woman's milk'

missus - missis + J.H. Voss: 'wine, women and song'.

benevolence - an expression of goodwill, an act of kindness; favourable feeling or disposition.

prudency - ability to discern the most suitable, politic, or profitable course of action, esp. as regards conduct; practical wisdom.

astuteness - mental subtlety, shrewdness, keenness of penetration or discernment

unfold - to open or unwrap the folds of, to spread open (transf. or fig.)

posteriors = descendants (notebook 1924)

blackfaced - impudent; having a black or dark-coloured face + Black-faced Connemara - a breed of sheep.

Connemara - district in Connacht province, Ireland

fold - a pen or enclosure for domestic animals, esp. sheep; fig., esp in a spiritual sense.

household - the inmates of a house collectively

besetting - that besests (to surround, assail: said of temptations, dangers, difficulties, obstacles, evil influences; to set or place (one's mind, affections, faith, trust, love) on or upon).

pace - with all due respect or courtesy to

predominant - prevailing, prevalent + (notebook 1922-23): 'Odyss = 12 predom passions'.

formation - formal structure + FDV: With deepseeing insight he may have prayed in silence that his wordwounder might become the first of a long distinguished dinasty his most cherished idea being a formation, as in more favoured climes, of a truly criminal class, thereby eliminating much general delinquency from all classes & masses. 

favoured - favoured by Nature, fortune, or Providence; having unusual advantages or blessings.

clime - a tract or region of the earth; now often considered in relation to its distinctive climate + ..."climes, / on the occasion of his liberal mission's jubilee / of a truly criminal stratum"... (Lost line).

Clonmel - town, County Tipperary (its name means 'meadow of honey'; site of a prison).

gastfreundlich (ger) - hospitable

Mountjoy Prison, Dublin

stratum - a portion of a body of institutions, beliefs, etc., proceeding from one historical period or representing one stage of development; a level or grade in social position or culture; the part of a population belonging to a particular level in station or education, as social stratum; and the like.

Château de Ham - famous prison on the Somme in France (housed several famous prisoners, including Mirabeau and the future Napoleon III).  

cribcracker - a burglar

yegg - robber, travelling burglar or safebreaker + ham and eggs.

thereby - by that

from / the oppidump much desultory delinquency from / all classes and masses... (The Finnegans Wake printer preparing the galley proofs haplographically jumps from the word "from" to the word "from" in the next line, thereby eliminating "from the oppidump much desultory delinquency" and leaving the final part of the sentence without an object. Already in 1944, in their Skeleton Key, Campbell & Robinson noticed the difference between the transition text of Work in Progress and the sentence in Finnegans Wake. The passage is already there in the very first draft, so can't be ignored as if it were a relatively late, obscure and not very important embellishment, it is an essential part of the narrative which is unfolding.) (Robbert-Jan Henkes, 18.05.2002)

derivative - characterized by being derived, drawn, obtained, or deduced from another; coming or emanating from a source.

decasualization - doing away with the casual employment of (labor) + Casual Labor - 'Unskilled help, employed and discharged at frequent intervals, and dependent upon the varying demand of the labor market from day to day, without any prospect of continuous employment.'

sicarius vindicat urbes terrorum (l) - the assassin sets free the cities of terrors + securus iudicat orbis terrarum (l) - untroubled, the world judges +

vindicat (l) - to revenge.

sicker - assuredly, certainly + sic (l) - thus (i.e. misspeling sigarius is correctly transcribed) + sic-er (fake l) - thuser (i.e. improbable reading terrorum is even more correctly transcribed) (O Hehir, Brendan; Dillon, John M. / A classical lexicon for Finnegans wake).

to make a long story short - in few words, briefly

taal - a language developed in southern Africa; tale + taal (Dutch) - language.

arter - after

Obedientia civium urbis felicitas - the municipal motto of Dublin

help the health of the (w)hole

gode - goad; good + Nauw goed (Dutch) - (literally) "Now good", used as opening words to a sentence similarly to "Well," or "OK," in English, or "Enfin" in French. From this point in the book, for about three pages, Joyce has worked in a high proportion of Dutch words and phrases + nu goed, nou goed (Dutch) - all right.

't is goed (Dutch) - it's all right

teak - a large East Indian tree; more usually, its timber, a dark, heavy, oily wood of great strength and durability.

PUGH'S GLASS FACTORY - T. and R. Pugh, flint glass manufacturers, in Potter's Alley off Marlborough Street in the 19th century.  

turn in - to deliver up, hand over + FDV: The coffin was to come in handy later & in this way. A number of public bodies presented him made him a present of a grave which nobody had been able to dig much less to occupy, it being all rock. This he blasted and then carefully lined the result with bricks & mortar, encouraging the public bodies to present him over & above that with a stone slab.  

patly - aptly, suitably + pitpat - with a succession of light rapid pats.

near - to draw or come near, to approach (in place or time) + naar de (Dutch) - to the.

corpus - the body of a man or animal + purpose

effect - to bring about (an event, a result)

cause - a matter of concern, an affair, business + cause and effect.

liever (Dutch) - preferably, rather; sweeter, dearer

THING MOTE - The assembly place, usually on a mound, established by the Vikings whenever they settled. In Dublin, the Thing Mote was on a low hill South of the present Dame Street. The hill of the Thing Mote was called the Howe, Haugh, or "Howe over the Stein" (Steyne), from haugr, Old Danish "hill, sepulchral mound."   

committee - a body of (two or more) persons appointed or elected (by a society, corporation, public meeting, etc.) for some special business or function + Joyce's note: 'Select & other committees' Irish Independent 13 Feb 1924, 4/4: 'Sir J. G. Butcher, New Bron, M. P. for York City, 1892-1906, 1910-23, and served on many Select and other Committees'.

vote - to choose, elect, or enact by vote; to ratify or determine by formal expression of will.

garrison - a place in which troops are quartered for defensive or other military purposes.

court order - a direction issued by a court or judge, usu. requiring a person to do or refrain from doing something; a decision of a court or judge, made or entered in writing + kurz (ger) - short + koorts (Dutch) - fever.

grondwet (Dutch) - constitution (of the country)

once for all - now and for the last time, once as a final act, once and done with

plotty - marked by intricacy of plot or intrigue; Also, of a novel, play, or the like: having an elaborate or complicated plot.

afore said - earlier in time or order, previously in document + voorschot (Dutch) - overdraft, disbursement, advance payment (on loan) + voorschoot (Dutch) - (butcher's) apron + schoot (Dutch) - lap, womb (of time), bosom (of the Church).

maatschappij (Dutch) - company, corporation, society, community + maat (Dutch) - measure, size, metre, bar (in music); mate, partner + scheepsmaat, scheepsmaatje (Dutch) - ship mate + kip (Dutch) - hen + ei (Dutch) - egg.

cut and run - to make off promptly, hurry off

Nieuw pak kleren (Dutch) - a new suit of clothes + een nieuw pak (Dutch) - a new suit of clothes + kleed (Dutch) - cloth, garment (plural 'kleren').

persist - to remain in existence, to last, endure

protem - for the time, temporary

MOYELTA - The plain running North and North-East from Dublin was anciently called the Sean Magh Ealta Eadair, the "Old Plain of the Bird Flocks of Howth." Moyelta is recorded as the site of Parthalon's settlement.

Lough Neagh - a freshwater lake in Northern Ireland. With an area of 392 square kilometres, it ranks among the forty largest lakes of Europe and is the largest lake in Great Britain and Ireland. An old Irish story tells how the Lough was formed when Ireland's legendary giant Fionn mac Cumhaill (sometimes known as Finn McCool) scooped up a portion of the land and tossed it at a Scottish rival. He missed, and the chunk of earth landed in the Irish Sea, thus creating the Isle of Man. 

misoneism - intolerance of something new or changed + miso (gr) - half + misos (gr) - hatred + nesos (gr) - island + misonesiotai (gr) - island-haters, hate-islanders (O Hehir, Brendan; Dillon, John M. / A classical lexicon for Finnegans wake).

limni- - freshwater lake + limne (gr) - lake + phobos (gr) - fear + limnephobos (gr) - lake-fearer.

wacht - to drink in large draughts + Wacht (ger) - guard; awake + wacht even (Dutch) - wait a minute!

fishy - abounding in fish + kettle of fish (phrase).

James Joyce: Letters I.256: letter 01/07/27 to Michael Healy: (of the people of Holland) 'curry which they call kerry'.

fianna (Irish) - 'band of hunters'

foreman - the chief or leader

handful - the amount that a hand can hold

enrich - to make 'richer' in quality, flavour, colour, etc

dutchy - characteristically Dutch or German

linn (Irish) - pool

knoll - a small hill or eminence of more or less rounded form; a hillock

beck - a brook or stream: the ordinary name in those parts of England from Lincolnshire to Cumbria which were occupied by the Danes and Norwegians; hence, often used spec. in literature to connote a brook with stony bed, or rugged course, such as are those of the north country.

osiery - an area where osiers are grown, an osier bed; a mass of osiers (osier: a species of willow used to make baskets).

chatty - given to chat or light easy talk

sally - old world willow, european wren

wilt - the action or an act of wilting

Walton, Isaac (1593-1683) - author of The Compleat Angler + compleat - arch. spelling of complete.    

ogle - to eye with amorous, admiring, or insinuating glances + angle

tickle - a tickling sensation, a tickled or pleasantly excited feeling

rod - an angling-rod, a fishing-rod; penis (erect)

silly - to act foolishly, to fool about

ripple - to have or present a ruffled surface, to form little waves upon

quilt - a thick covering + song The Quilt (Oh Molly, I can't say you're honest): 'May the quilt lie light on your beautiful form'.

gild over - to cover with gilding, so as to conceal defects

somnolent - inclined to sleep; heavy with sleep; drowsy + somnolentus (l) - sleepy, drowsy + lutensis (l) - living in mud.

Bog (Serbian, Russian) - God

erst - formerly + erst (ger) = eerst (Dutch) - first.

curst - cursed

true blue - faithful, staunch and unwavering (in one's faith, principles, etc.), genuine, real.

Donau (ger) - Danube + The O'Donoghue - chieftain supposedly living in a palace under Lake of Killarney, supposed to emerge annually if good harvests were on the way + Strauss: The Blue Danube.

best (Dutch) - very well!, all right! (Used to open a sentence or discussion, similar to "bien" in French. Listed by Joyce among Dutch phrases in his notebooks of foreign words. Similar to opening of previous paragraph).

heaven underground (notebook 1924) → Czarnowski: Le Culte des Héros, Saint Patrick XIX: 'L'Olympe de l'Irlande est souterrain' (French 'Ireland's Olympus is subterranean').

mole - a small animal about six inches in length, having a velvety fur, usually blackish, exceedingly small but not blind eyes, and very short strong fossorial fore-limbs with which to burrow in the earth in search of earthworms and to excavate the galleried chambers in which it dwells.

inversion - a turning upside down, a reversal of position, order, sequence, or relation.

phallos (gr) - penis +

pharos (gr) - piece of cloth: plough; a lighthouse to guide seamen, a conspicious light + phallopharos (gr) - phallos-cloth; phallos-plough; phallos-lighthouse (phallos the size of the lighthouse).

foster - to encourage or help to grow, to promote the growth of (plant)

wheat crop - the yield or produce of wheat in a single season or in a particular locality.

ginger up - to spirit up (to stimulate, animate, encourage)

mgr. - monsieigneur

PERE LACHAISE CEMETERY - In East Paris; Oscar Wilde is buried there, among many other notables + peur (fr) - fear + chasse (fr) - hunting.

obcaecate - to blind

petrify - to convert into a stone + make

suchanever (Joyce's note)

contractor - one who contracts or undertakes to supply certain articles, or to perform any work or service (esp. for government or other public body), at a certain price or rate.

Saint Thomas à Becket and Saint Laurence O'Toole

invulnerably - so as to be invulnerable (incapable of being damaged or injuriously affected by attack; not effectively assailable).

Osiris was also known as 'First (or Foremost) of the Westerners'

master builder - a person notably proficient in the art of building + Henrik Ibsen: The Master Builder.

Cassivelaunus - British chieftain defeated by Julius Caesar, 54 B.C. 

blast - to blow up (rocks, etc.) by explosion + FDV: This he blasted and then carefully lined the result with bricks & mortar, encouraging the public bodies to present him over & above that with a stone slab. 

Samhain (souwen) (gael) - November; Feast of the dead; close of the harvest, beginning of winter half-year.

Bealtaine (byoultini) (gael) - May; May Day; Spring Festival; close of winter, beginning of summer half-year.

bombing - an attacking with bombs; bombarding + post - a place at which a body of soldiers is stationed, or the force occupying this + (notebook 1923): 'bombing post' → Campbell (Cornwallis-West): My Life and Some Letters 300: (from an official report about her son in Gallipoli, 1915) 'Ordered by Brigadier down from bombing post in German strong point, to conduct two tanks up'.

ahoy - to call ahoy (Cf. to hurrah, halloo) + ahead

circiter - about

sternboard = starboard (the right-hand side of a ship)

aerial torpedo - torpedo dropped from an aircraft + (notebook 1923): 'convert torpedos into electrical contact land mines by tins of ammonia, lashed to sides of aerial torpedoes trip wiring to contact pieces into electric batteries' ('pieces' not clear) → Campbell (Cornwallis-West): My Life and Some Letters 300: (from an official report about her son in Gallipoli, 1915) 'he invented a means of converting the remainder of the large "Dumezil" torpedoes into electrical contact land mines, by means of tins of ammonal, lashed to the sides of the aerial torpedoes, and trip wires to contact pieces into electric batteries'.

auto dynamikon (gr) - self powerful 

expectant - characterized by expectation or waiting for the course of events.

minefield - a portion of the sea in which mines have been laid; also, an area of land in which mines have been laid + Joyce's note: 'minefield' → Campbell (Cornwallis-West): My Life and Some Letters 300: (from an official report about her son in Gallipoli, 1915) 'The mine fields started from between the firing line and support line'.

tin - a vessel made of tin, or more usually of tinned iron

improved - made better or more serviceable; brought to a higher or more desirable condition.

ammonia - a colourless gas with pungent smell and strong alkaline reaction

lashed - fastened with a lash or cord

plate - to cover with plate or plates, to overlay with metal plates + Viking boats carried a row of shields along each side.

gunwale - the upper edge of a ship's side

fused - liquefied by heat, melted

trip-up cables  

slip - to slide on or down a slippery surface

thole - a peg (often coming in pairs) inserted into a gunwale to support an oar + Tholsel - the medieval Dublin city-hall and guild-hall (from tholsel: tolsel, guildhall) + the holes.

play down - to minimize, to try to make (something) appear smaller or less important than it really is; to make little of.

conning tower - the pilot-house of a war-ship, esp. the shot-proof pilot-house of an iron-clad.

fusebox - box of fuses (a strip or wire of easily fusible metal (or a device containing this) inserted in an electric circuit, which melts (or 'blows') and thus interrupts the circuit when the current increases beyond a certain safe strength).

phrase 'as different as chalk and cheese'

orologios (gr) = horologe (French) - clock + oorlog (Dutch) - war.

Sigtrygg - a Norwegian name usually rendered as Sitric (e.g. Sigtrygg Silkbeard, the 11th century king of Dublin) + sixteen.  

Ryan, John - last bailiff of Dublin; title afterward changed to sheriff + an rioghan bhocht (un rien vukht) (gael) - the poor queen: Ireland.

Vogt (ger) - bailiff, warden + Rhine Vogt (Danish) - the Watch on the Rhine.

Pfeife (ger) - pipe + five

wanneer (Dutch) - when + whaanever (Ulster Pronunciation) - whenever.

Blatter (ger) - leaves + blather - voluble foolish talk.

rough - having a surface diversified with small projections, points, bristles, etc., so as to be harsh or disagreeable to the touch; not even or smooth.

bark (Slang) - the (human) skin  

wholly - completely, entirely

husky - dry, as a husk; without natural moisture

step by step

Woodman, Spare That Tree (song)

line - to cover the outside of

ferroconcrete - armoured concrete or reinforced concrete

rotproof - proof against damage by rot

mortar - a material consisting of lime and sand mixed with water, which is used to make the joints between stones and bricks in building, and which, when set, binds them together into a solid mass.

fosse - a ditch or dike formed to serve as a barrier against an advancing foe, a moat surrounding a fortified place + face to face

heptarchy - a government by seven persons

toweret - a little tower + TOWER OF LONDON - On Tower Hill, City of London. The White Tower is the Norman keep; among the towers on the walls are the Byward, the Beauchamp, the Bell, the Wardrobe, and the Bloody. 

byward - a ward or guard which is not a main one (as byward tower)

bloodied - smeared with blood + seven towers of the Tower of London: Beauchamp, Byward, Bell, Lion, White, Wardrobe, and Bloody.

instep - the arched midle portion of foot + instappen, als 't u belieft (Dutch) - get in, please!, take your seats, please! all aboard, please! + {This harks back to entering the Wellington museum in the first chapter}.

alls - pl. of all + als het U belieft (Dutch) - if you please, I beg you (usually contracted as alstublieft) + liefde (Dutch) - love.

als = also + als hatt's (ger) - as though it had.

council - a body of men associated with the president (or directors) of a society or institution, to consult upon its business and share in its administration; a deliberative and administrative committee.

lit. Abteilungen (ger) - compartments, departments + Hoofdafdeling (Dutch) - principal section, division or department (such as a phylum in biology) + hoofd (Dutch) - head + afdeeling (Dutch) - department.

holde af (Danish) = houde van (Dutch) - to like + ik houd wel van (Dutch) - I am pleased with + houden (Dutch) - to hold, to keep.

ladykind - ladies + konnt's d'Uhr (ger) - could you [tell me] the time + Ledikants te huur (Dutch) - Beds for hire + ledikant (Dutch) - bed, bedstead + te huur (Dutch) - for hire, to let.

hear out - to listen to to the end + Hure (ger) - whore.

breeder - one who breeds cattle or other animals + Joyce's note: 'Breeders' Society' Leader 12 Jan 1924, 549/1: 'Current Topics': 'The Third Annual Congress of the Irish Dairy Shorthorn Breeders' Society'.

guild of merchants - an incorporated society of the merchants of a town or city, having exclusive rights of trading within the town.

staple - a town or place, appointed by royal authority, in which was a body of merchants having the exclusive right of purchase of certain classes of goods destined for export; also, the body of merchants so privileged.

et (l) - and

a.u.c. (l) - anno urbis conditae or ab urbe condita = in the year of the founded city or since the city was founded (designation of Roman-era years, reckoned from 753 B.C.) (O Hehir, Brendan; Dillon, John M. / A classical lexicon for Finnegans wake).

unto - to

funebrial - of or pertaining to funerals; sad, gloomy

pomp - splendid display or celebration, magnificent show

over and above - in addition

CAVE OF MACHPELAH - According to Genesis 25:9 and 50:13, the burial place of Abraham, and also of Sarah, Isaac, Rebecca, and Leah. 

valediction - the action of bidding or saying farewell; an utterance, discourse, etc., made at (or by way of) leave-taking or bidding farewell.

fair words - pleasant or attractive speech

gehellt (ger) - illuminated + geheel (Dutch) - whole, entire; entirely, completely; a whole + geheeld (Dutch) - healed, cured + go to hell.

Heer (ger) - army + Herr (ger) - Mr + Heer (Dutch) - sir, gentleman; Lord.

overgive - to give over; surrender, desist, cease; to give in addition + overgeven (Dutch) - give up, vomit, hand over, surrender.

skidoo - used as an exclamation of disrespect (for a person) + skidoo! (Slang) - depart!

thuis (Dutch) - at home (derived from te huis)

winding sheet - a sheet in which a corpse is wrapped for burial; a shroud

goedkoop (Dutch) - cheap (literally 'good buy')

bier (Dutch) = Bier (German) - beer

cinerary urn - an urn for the ashes of cremated bodies

blass (ger) - pale + brass - memorial plaque.

snuff box - a box for holding snuff, usually small enough to be carried in the pocket.

poteen - whisky distilled in Ireland, privately, i.e. the produce of an illicit still.

lacrimal - Of a vase: Intended to contain tears

Hoden (ger) - testicles + Dose (ger) - box, canister + hoedendoos (Dutch, pronounced 'hoodendose') - hatbox.

Reichwasser (ger) - perfume + Becher (ger) - A large drinking vessel with a wide mouth; an open cup or goblet + riekwater (Flamish slang) - perfume (lit. smelly water) + reukwater (Dutch) - scented water, perfume + waterbeker (Dutch) - water beaker or goblet + bekers (Dutch) - cups.

Literal translation of 'Braakmiddel' (Dutch) - emetic

zoutzak (Dutch) - salt-sack, salt bag; also: milksop, weak-kneed fellow + zoet (Dutch) - sweet + soutzoukia (Modern Greek) - smoked sausages.

eetlust (Dutch) - appetite + lit. Esslust (ger) - appetite.

Op je gezondheid! (Dutch) - 'To your health!' (literally, 'Up your health!'), a toast when drinking.

rookworst (Dutch) = Rauchwurst (ger) - smoked sausage.

vleeschhouwer (Dutch) - butcher (literally 'meat-hewer')

varkenpootjes (Dutch) - pig's feet + forken - forked.

javel - a vagabond or worthless fellow; jail; a quantity of stalks of flax, corn, etc. laid in the sun to dry + Javel - A quarter of Paris that "Eau-de-javel" (bleach) is named after → Javel water - a type of bleach and disinfectant.

inhumation - the action or practice of burying in the ground

bric a brac - old curiosities of artistic character, knick-knacks, antiquarian odds-and-ends, such as old furniture, plate, china, fans, statuettes, and the like.

adornment - the action of adorning, or embellishing; embellishment, ornamentation.

Honophreum - the tomb of Honophreus (modeled on Latin Mausoleum: the tomb of king Mausolus).

met deze trein (Dutch) - with this train + met de trein (Dutch) - by train.


onditie (Dutch) - condition

halas - alas

wandeling (Dutch) - a walk, perambulation + Wandelung (ger) - transformation + wight - human being.

ze passen hem (Dutch) - they fit him (i.e. the shoes) + Schuh (ger) - shoe.

presenile - Med. Occurring in or characteristic of the period of life preceding old age, esp. the two or three decades immediately before.

opulence - abundance of resources or power; wealth, riches

ere - rather, in preference to; before

decrepitude - a state of feebleness and decay, esp. that due to old age

lent - post, loan + lente (Dutch) - spring.

lenience - lenient (gentle, tolerant) action or behaviour, indulgence.

stuffer - a person who stuffs or fills (dead animals or cushions) + stofferig (Dutch) - dusty.

whale away - to make a vigorous attack on a person or thing; to preach, talk, or lecture away continuously or vehemently.

all the while - during the whole time + all of (P) - completely, quite (used to emphasize how great, how small etc. something is).

while - a period of time, a time marked by bad conditions, trouble

Hypnos - name of the god of sleep in Greek mythology + hypnos chilia aionon (gr) - a sleep for thousands of ages. 

Lethe - a river in Hades, the water of which produced, in those who drank it, forgetfulness of  the past. Hence, the 'waters of oblivion' or forgetfulness of the past + lulled - quieted; reduced to calmness.

Donnerwetter (ger) - thunder, thunderstorm, thunderweather

hunder - hundred + Joyce's note: 'Greeks believe thunderbolts form mines'.

gross - massive, big + Kopf (ger) = kop (Dutch) - head.

mega (gr) - great + pod (gr) - foot + megapodos (gr) - large foot.

embalm - to impregnate (a dead body) with spices, to preserve it from decay.

anticipated - looked for, expected

abide - to wait for, await; remain ready for, watch for, expect

Zeus - the ruler of gods and men, and the god of the heavens, whose weapon was the thunderbolt (Greek myth.) + Zeit (ger) - time.

summon - an authoritative call to attend at a specified place for a specified purpose.

after all - after considering everything to the contrary, nevertheless + Upon hearing of her father’s death Lucia Joyce said, “What is he doing under the ground, that idiot?
When will he decide to come out? He’s watching us all the time.”

Blitz (ger) - lightning + blitzblau (ger) - black and blue + bolt - to dart off or away, take flight, escape; to rush suddenly off or away + {he burrows his way out - all the way to the surface}.

hinge - the movable joint or mechanism by which a gate or door is hung upon the side-post.

hallmark - a distinctive mark or token of genuineness, good breeding, or excellence.

habitation - a place of abode or residence

burrow - to dig a hole or tunnel in or through

gehenna [heb. - valley of hinnom] - hell, a place or state of misery

proliferate - to produce new individuals, to reproduce prolifically

Unterwelt (ger) - underworld

seam - Geol. A thin layer or stratum separating two strata of greater magnitude

Sheol - the underworld; the abode of the dead or departed spirits, conceived by the Hebrews as a subterranean region clothed in thick darkness, return from which is impossible.

uppercrust - having the characteristics of the highest class of society; the human head; the aristocracy.

sideris (l) - star + siderea (l) - starry, pertaining to constellations + sidêreia (gr) - iron mines + Siberia.

utilitários (Portuguese) - useful, to be useful + utilitas (l) - usefulness, profit.

hoarder - one who hoards or stores up, esp. money; a keeper of the hoard or treasure.

propagate - to breed, to produce offspring; to reproduce itself, i.e. its kind

plut- - wealth + Pluto - Greek god of the underworld + "There seemed to be an awful, immemorial linkage in several definite stages betwixt man and nameless infinity. The blasphemies which appeared on earth, it was hinted, came from the dark planet Yuggoth [Pluto], at the rim of the solar system; but this was itself merely the populous outpost of a frightful interstellar race whose ultimate source must lie far outside even the Einsteinian space-time continuum or greatest known cosmos." (H.P.Lovecraft: The Whisperer in Darkness

progeniem (l) - descent, posterity, offspring.

bidden - p.p. of bid, arhaic p.p. of bide + binnenland (Dutch) - interior (of a country) + in binnenland en buitenland (Dutch) - at home and abroad.

boughten = bought (ppl. a.) Used poet. for the sake of metre; otherwise only dial. and in U.S. in application to purchased as opposed to home-made articles + buitenland (Dutch) - abroad. 

spur way - a Horse-way through a Man's Ground, which one may ride in by right of Custom.

spoorweg (Dutch) - railway, railroad

FDV: The other spring offensive seems to have been may have come about all quite by accident, though granted, of course [for the sake of argument] men on both sides had grand ideas. All conditions were drawn into the conflict, some for lack of proper feeding, others already carving honourable careers for themselves and, if emaciated, the person garotted may have suggested whigging or the grand old whig in person the flesh when falsesighted by the wouldbe burglar, a tory of the tories, for there circulated pretty clearl freely the feeling that in so hibernating Earwicker was feeding on his own fat. Kate Strong, a widow, did all the scavenging in from good King Charles' days but she cleaned sparingly and her statement was that, there being no macadamised sidewalks barring footpaths which left off where the man was struck, at the time in those R J C days she left, as scavengers will, a filth dump near the dogpond in the park on which fossil boot bootmarks, elbowdints, breechbowls, kneecaves, & fingerprints were all successively found of a very involved description. There It was on that resurfaced spot evidently the attacker, though under medium, with truly native pluck tackled him whom he took to be, saying he wd have his life & lay him out & [made use of sacriligeous language &] catching hold of a long bar he had & with which he usually broke furniture. The struggle went on They struggled for a considerable time and in the course of it the masked man said to the other: Let me go, Pat. Later on the same man asked: Was six pounds fifteen taken from you by anyone two or three months ago? There was severe mauling and then a wooden affair in the shape of a revolver fell from the intruder who thereupon became friendly & wanted to know whether his chance companion who had the fender happened to have the change of a ten pound note because, if so, he would pay the six pounds odd out of that for what was lost last summer. The other then said: Would you be surprised to hear that I have not such a thing as the change of a ten pound note but I am able to see my way to give you at for the present four and 7 pence to buy whisky. At the mention of whisky the wouldbe burglar became calm and left the place said he wd go good to him [remarking [gleefully]: You plucky stunning little Southdowner! You have some pluck Southdowner! This is my goalball, I've' struck this day!] He then went away with the four & ______ (seven) and his huribat while the fenderite who bore up under all of it [with a no of bruises on him] reported the occurrence to the [Vicar Street] watch house, his face being all covered with nonfatal blood as a good proof that he was bleeding from the nose, mouth & ears while some of his hair had been pulled off his head though otherwise his allround health was good middling enough. As regards the fender pierced fender & fireguard the question of unlawfully obtaining is subsidiary to the far more capital point of the political bias of a person who, when mistakenly molested ambushed, was simply exercising one of the most primary liberties of the subject by walking along a public thoroughfare in broad daylight.

Abraham's bosom - the abode of bliss, paradise

Vater Unser (ger) - Our Father (*E*)

breed (Dutch) - broad + brood (Dutch) - bread.

at length - after a long time, in the end

septuply - sevenfold

Cian - Irish chief, father of Lug. When his murderers tried to bury him, the ground rejected him seven times + (notebook 1923): 'C had been 40 yrs in his grave'.  

monad - An ultimate unit of being, an absolutely simple entity. Chiefly used with reference to the philosophy of Leibniz (1646-1716), according to which the universe of existence consists of entities without parts, extension, or figure, and possessing, in infinitely various degrees, the power of perception. Those among these 'monads' which have the perceptive power in the higher degrees are souls; the rest are formed in the view of the percipient mind into aggregates, which constitute bodies. The term was adopted by Leibniz from Giordano Bruno (d. 1600), with whom the 'monad' has the twofold aspect of a material atom and an ultimate element of psychical existence + Monat (ger) - month.

vigilante - a member of vigilance committee (a volunteer committee of citizens for the oversight and protection of an interest); a night watchman + vigilante (Dutch) - taxi, cab.

riding - a festival or pageant marked by a procession

sweet wine - wine having a sweet taste (as distinguished from dry wine) + spuitwijn (Dutch) - sparkling wine.

pledge - the drinking of a health to a person, party, etc.; a toast

aardappel (Dutch) - potato

putrifaction - the decomposition of animal and vegetable substances, with its attendant unwholesome loathsomeness of smell and appearance; decomposed or putrid matter.

drei Fusse (ger) - three feet (*E*)

ramp - to trample in triumph; to go about in a loose, immodest way

parch - to dry to extremity, to make hot and dry + Tramp, Tramp, Tramp, the Boys Are Marching (song).

hoodwink - one who hoodwinks (to blind by covering the eyes, to prevent (any one) from seeing the truth or fact; to 'throw dust in the eyes' of, deceive, humbug); a deceiver + hoedenwinkel (Dutch) - hat store.

freed - p. of free

Patrizier (ger) - patrician + In Ireland before the potato famine, pigs were usually housed close to the main dwelling, and sometimes in a wing attached to the house by a covered breezeway. Not only did this help keep the pigs warm and safe from predators, it was more convenient access for feeding kitchen scraps and collecting manure so very necessary for growing healthy crops. Pigs were butchered in the fall, around St. Martin’s in November. This meant that the animals wouldn’t need scarce fodder over the winter (stocking up enough hay was tedious and land-intensive for a small-holder) but also that cooler weather would slow down spoilage until the salted meat could cure. Cottagers would preserve enough ham, bacon, sausage & lard to see them through the year, and sell the rest to the butcher, providing enough cash to pay the annual rent, hence the phrase “the gentleman who pays the rent”.

scare - a state of fear, panic + scared.

grunter - an animal or person that grunts; esp. a pig + groenten (Dutch) - vegetables + grunts.

druiven (Dutch) - grapes

muscat - variety of grapes of the species Vitis vinifera widely grown for wine, raisins and table grapes. Their color ranges from white to near black.

Celtiberian - rel. to Celtiberia, a mountanous district of ancient Spain; one of the Celts that inhabited ancient Celtiberia.

onset - beginning, start

New Sth Ireland (Joyce's note)

ULSTER - North province of Ireland. The name is from ancient Uladh or Ulidia, Ir. "tomb" + Vetera Uladh (l + gael) - Old Ulster, Ancient Ulster. 

BLAALAND - Old Norse name ("Blueland") for Africa. In the Sagas, Africans (usually Moors) are called 'bluemen' + Blumen (ger) = bloemen (Dutch) - flowers.


ferment - a process of the nature of that resulting from the operation of leaven on dough or on saccharine liquids; in Alchemy, it was the name of an internal change supposed to be produced in metals by a 'ferment', operating after the manner of leaven; fig. Agitation, excitement, tumult.

Pope, John (1822-95) - Union general who lost the 2d battle of Bull Run + {come back from a battle either with a shield or on it}

more or less - in a greater or less degree; to a greater or less extent

Ulysses S. Grant - 18th President of the United States (1869–1877) as well as military commander during the Civil War. Under the command of Grant, the Union Army defeated the Confederate military and ended the Confederate States of America.

con - a reason, argument, or arguer against, esp. in pros and cons (reasons for and against) + con (French, Slang) - vulva.

dives -  The Latin word for 'rich (man)', occurring in the Vulgate, Luke xvi; whence commonly taken as the proper name of the rich man in that parable; and used generically for 'rich man'.

mor - humus which forms a discrete layer on top of the soil with little or no mineral soil mixed with it, which is characteristic of coniferous forests and is generally strongly acid in reaction + mor (mor) (gael) - big, great.

on the defensive - in a state of defense

the eternal - God


Bellona - proper name of the Roman goddess of war; transf. a spirited woman of commanding presence.

black bottom - the name of a dance, esp. popular in and for a time after 1926

ohibò! (it) - fie!

becrime - to make guilty of crime

carver - one who carves wood, ivory, stone, etc.; a sculptor: most frequently (when not otherwise qualified) applied to one who carves in wood.

in conjunction - in union, association or combination

emaciated - made lean, atrophied, deprived of flesh

'nough - An aphetic form of enough

garotte - to strangle + FDV: All conditions were drawn into the conflict, some for lack of proper feeding, others already carving honble careers for themselves and, if emaciated, the person garroted may have suggested whigging or the grand old whig in person the flesh when falsesighted by the wouldbe burglar, a tory of the tories, for there circulated pretty clear freely the feeling that in so hibernating Earwicker was feeding on his own fat.

whomever = whoever - whatever person, no matter who

take the time off - to use a certain amount of one's time + ham - town, village, a plot of pasture ground; mawkish sentimentality.

plain - plan; a level or flat surface (ideal or material)

involve - to wrap, envelop

cirque - any circular space, esp. for games or the like; a circle or ring, of any sort (poetic.)

waggery - mischievous merriment

nay - no

Whiggism - principles and polices associated with Whigs + [whig]issimus (l) - whiggest, most whig, superlatively whig + ipsissimus (l) - own very self (Ipsissimus 10=1).

incarnadine - to dye flesh colored, pink or red + William Shakespeare: Macbeth II.2.61: 'incarnadine'.

bully - a ruffian hired for purposes of violence or intimidation (arch.) + 'Billy in the Bowl' - legless beggar and strangler in old Dublin.

hibernate - to remain in a torpid or inactive state

massa - master

demi - half + (notebook 1923): 'semidetached life'.

barmecidal - imaginarily satisfying or sumptuous; unreal, illusory + Barmecide's feast (phrase) - not eating (after The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night, vol. I, 343: The Barber's Tale of his Sixth Brother, a story about make-belief food).

savour - flavouring, spice (obs.) + from soup to savoury - from the beginning to the end of a meal [(notebook 1924): 'from soup to savoury'].

eat his own length in mackerel (notebook 1923) Daily News 28 Jul 1923, 5/1: 'Sands Hermits': 'After living for 10 years... on the beach... Huggett, aged 76, and his wife... received notice to quit... Huggett boasts that he makes a breakfast of 12 eggs and can eat his own length in mackerel'. 

rainbow trout - a large stout bodied trout [Joyce's note: 'rainbow trout']

taert, young salmon, (Joyce's note)

atta - wheaten flour or meal + ait tigh (at'ti) (gael) - house site; anglic. -atta- in place-names.

tarn - a mountain lake (especially one formed by glaciers)

William Shakespeare: Macbeth IV.1.80: 'for none of woman born Shall harm Macbeth' + (notebook 1924): 'Adam not born of W' ('not' not clear).

great crested grebe - the largest European species of diving birds of the genus Podiceps or family Podicipedidæ that feeds on fish (including roach).

threescore - 60 + Psalms 90:10: 'The days of our years are threescore years and ten'.

roach - a small freshwater fish of the Carp family, common in the rivers of northern Europe.

life day - a day or some period of man's life

minnow - a small cyprinoid freshwater fish, Leuciscus phoxinus or Phoxinus lævis, common in the streams, lakes, and ponds of Europe. Often loosely applied to any small fish.

gibbet - originally synonymous with gallows, but in later use signifying an upright post with projecting arm from which the bodies of criminals were hung in chains or irons after execution.

Salmon Leap (Joyce's note) → Salmon Leap: a former waterfall of the Liffey in Leixlip (a Scandinavian name, meaning 'salmon leap') + salmon leap - a precipitous fall in a river (either natural or contrived artificially) over which salmon leap in ascending the river for breeding.

salmon ladder (Joyce's note) Note: Salmon Ladder. See OED. A series of steps to enable salmon to ascend a fall or dam by a succession of leaps. MS 47472-133, ILA: Earwicker ^+, who previous to that semidetached life had been known to eat his own length in rainbow trout,+^ was ^+, like the salmon of his ladderleap,+^ secretly feeding on his own misplaced fat | JJA 46:023 | Dec 1923 |

totality - sum, whole; absolute or indiscriminate oppression

misplaced - put in a wrong place + Joyce's note: 'misplaced fat' + {of his hump}.

ironed - fitted, furnished, covered, armed, or strengthened with iron + Irish Times (newspaper).

Joyce's note: '*C* calls city after eldest' ('*C*' written over a 'C' (for Cain))  Lamy: Commentarium in Librum Geneseos I.257: 'Not until two hundred or three hundred years after the birth of Enoch did Cain found a city, to which he gave the name in honour of his eldest son' (Genesis 4:17).

Dana-dun (donedun) (gael) - Fort of Dana (Ana) [goddess of dead] + Danair-Dun (danirdun) (gael) - Danes' Fort.

frond - large compound leaf, e.g. of the palm, banana, etc.; friend + Joyce's note: 'a ship was a ship indeed'.

earwig - An insect, Forficula auricularia, so called from the notion that it penetrates into the head through the ear.

deed - that which is done, acted, or performed by an intelligent or responsible agent; an act + (legend that Cain got the idea of burial from seeing an earwig burrowing in the soil by Abel's body).

soil - ordure, excrement; the dung of animals used as a compost; manure.

earthball - subterranean fruiting body of fungi

decline - said of the day (evening, etc.), also fig. of one's life: To draw towards its close + Thomas Moore: The Legacy (song): 'When in death I shall calmly recline' [air: unknown].

legacy - anything handed down by an ancestor or predecessor, what one bequeaths.

Venus - Mythol. The ancient Roman goddess of beauty and love (esp. sensual love), the wife of Vulcan; a beautiful and charming woman.

giggle - to laugh continuously in a manner not uproarious, but suggestive either of foolish levity or uncontrollable amusement.

tentatrix (l) - [female] assailant, attempter, tempter; (eccl. l) temptress.

guffaw - to laugh loudly or boisterously; to laugh coarsely or harshly.

Forficula - Latin "small shears or scissors," pincers (of an earwig), diminutive of forfex, the typical genus of the earwig family. 

fickle - inconstant and capricious in nature or character; Of places: Treacherous, dangerous + {wives' frocks full of fickles}.

inghean (inyen) (gael) - daughter, young woman

efter - after + {any erenoon or afternoon}

godkin - a lokal deity + William Shakespeare: Hamlet III.1.76: 'bare bodkin' ("For who would bear the whips and scorns of time, / The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely, / The pangs of despised love, the law's delay, / The insolence of office and the spurns / That patient merit of the unworthy takes, / When he himself might his quietus make / With a bare bodkin?")

hem (Archaic) - them

Lugh (lu) (gael) - god of sun and genius

dubh (du) (gael) - black

prettily - in a pretty manner; nicely; gently, softly

em - them

tapette - a passive male homosexual; an effeminate man (from French taper: to strike, beat, type) + tapette (French Slang) - tongue; homosexual.

I Know Where I'm Going (song): '...the dear knows who I'll marry'

arbour - a garden of herbs or flowers; a flower-garden; orchard + a, b, c, d + Rich Man, Poor Man, Beggarman, Thief (nursery rhyme).

wheelbarrow - a barrow or shallow open box mounted between two shafts that receive the axle of a wheel at the front ends, the rear ends being shaped into handles and having legs on which it rests.

dung cart - a cart used to convey manure + four-stage Viconian cycle: Book I (birth), Book II (marriage), Book III (death), Book IV (ricorso).

Strong, Kate - Chart says: "The most odious of Dublin tax collectors... a woman, Kate Strong. The people erected an effigy of her, armed with a toll-dish of utterly unfair proportions." Fitzpatrick says: "Katherine Strong, a widow, inherited from her deceased husband the post of city scavenger, and a grant of tolls for performing the duties of that office. The lady... seems to have been much more active in collecting her dues than in removing the abundant filth of the city, notwithstanding the oath the city scavengers were bound to take." 

lane - lone, lonesome; a narrow passageway between fences + Lane, Sir Hugh (1875-1915) - nephew of Lady Gregory's who offered some good paintings to Dublin, but when Dublin dragged its feet, he gave them to the Tate. When he went down on the Lusitania, he left a will, again giving the paintings to Dublin, but a legal flaw let the Tate keep them. A celebrated controversy followed. 

diorama - a mode of scenic representation in which a picture, some portions of which are translucent, is viewed through an aperture, the sides of which are continued towards the picture; the light, which is thrown upon the picture from the roof, may be diminished or increased at pleasure, so as to represent the change from sunshine to cloudy weather, etc.

vidual - of or belonging to, befitting, a widow or widowhood + visual


nose - to smell out, to pry or search, to discover by the smell

homelike - having the qualities of family living, simple and wholesome

cottage - a dwelling-house of small size and humble character, such as is occupied by farm-labourers, villagers, miners, etc.

elvan - the name given in Cornwall to intrusive rocks of igneous origin, so hard as to resist the pick, as quartz-porphyry, whinstone, etc.

dropping - dung of animals (Now only pl.) + Kate, who has the job of emptying the chamberpots, understandably and typically describes both privy ('Pat's Purge') and adjoining yard and path as she usually sees it, a repellant heap of 'droppings of biddies... (there is at least one chicken and hence presumably a henhouse, the elm and a gravel path) (John Gordon: Finnegans Wake: a plot summary).

biddy - domestic fowl, a young chicken; woman + Biddy Doran, the hen.

stinkend (German, Dutch) - stinking

fishes + pussies (Colloquial) - cats.

moggy - cow, calf; slut, prostitute + moggies (Slang) - cats + doggies.


fester - to putrefy, rot; to become pestiferous or loathsome by corruption

rubbage = rubbish

beggars' bullets (Slang) - stones + {stones thrown at his home}

omnifarious - Of all kinds or forms: exceedingly various + salmo (l) - salmon + Salmo Fario - species of trout (salmon-trout).

germ - In early use, vaguely, the 'seed' of a disease. In mod. use, a micro-organism or microbe; often, one of the microbes which are believed to cause disease.

gleefully - in a gleeful manner, with glee

smithereen - to smash or blow up into tiny fragments + {broken windows from stones thrown at his home}

pane - one of the compartments of a window, etc. consisting of one sheet or square of glass held in place by a frame of lead, wood, etc.; the piece of glass itself, or of horn, paper, or the like substituted for it.

the weakest goes to the wall - the weakest are the first to be sacrificed + {her husband had died} + Earwicker + the wall with a hole in it is, in part, the pierced dyke of the Dutch story; Earwicker's plugging it is obscene (Hart, Clive / Structure and motif in Finnegans wake).

scavenge - to remove dirt or waste + FDV: Kate Strong, a widow, did all the scavenging in from good King Charles' days but she cleaned sparingly and her statement was that, there being no macadamised sidewalks barring footpaths which left off where the man was struck, at the time in those R J C days she left, as scavangers will, a filth dump near the dogpond in the park on which fossil boot bootmarks, elbowdints, breechbowls, kneecaves, & fingerprints were all successively found of a very involved description. There It was on that resurfaced spot evidently the attacker, though under medium, with truly native pluck tackled him whom he took to be, saying he wd have his life & lay him out & [made use of sacriligeous language &] catching hold of a long bar he had & with which he usually broke furniture. 

king Hamlet (name derived from Danish prince Olaf)

gulden - a gold coin (obs.); the name was subsequently transferred to a silver coin + gulden (Dutch) - golden.

dayne - to think it worthy of oneself (to do something); disdain + days + The Vicar of Bray (song): 'In good King Charles's golden days'.

lean - wanting in flesh, not plump or fat, thin

besom - an implement for sweeping, a broom + bosom.

make a clean breast - to make a full disclosure or confession + Sir James Carroll, Lord-Mayor of Dublin, on Katherine Strong: 'she cleans but sparingly and very seldom'.

macadamized - (road) made of macadam

sidetrack - a side path

nekropolitan - of or belonging to necropolis (cemetery, an ancient burying place)

barring - excepting

footbeat - foot step, pace, tread + bothar (boher) (gael) - road, path; anglic. -batter in place-names.

Giant's Causeway - a natural formation in county Antrim, Ireland, consisting of a collection of basaltic columns extending like a mole or pier into the sea.

bordered - having a border, edged

speedwell - one or other species of Veronica, an extensive genus of small herbaceous plants with leafy stems and small blue (rarely pink or white) flowers.

white clover - trefoil T. repens

sorrel or spinach dock - slender plant about 60 cm high, with juicy stems and edible, oblong leaves + sorra a foot knows (Anglo-Irish) - no one knows.

beaten - worn out, dilapidated

plaintiff -  Law. The party who brings a suit into a court of law; a complainant, prosecutor; opposed to defendant.

scavanger - one who collects filth, one who does 'dirty work'

dump - a pile or heap of refuse or other matter 'dumped' or thrown down + "I asked him what he had done to me, and he said that I was in pieces. His tone was reproachful, and he seemed to be annoyed or dissatisfied with me. He repeated various times that I was in pieces and that I had to come together again. He tried to feign a severe tone, but he laughed in the middle of his harangue. He was telling me that it was just terrible that I was spread all over the place, and that he would have to use a broom to sweep all my pieces into one heap ... Don Juan then turned my body around and pointed to a lump on the ground. Don Genaro pulled me closer to it and made me go around it. The lump was a man lying on the ground. He was lying on his stomach with his face turned to his right. They kept on pointing out the man to me as they spoke. They pulled me and twisted me around him. I could not focus my eyes on him at all, but finally I had a feeling of quietness and sobriety and I looked at the man. I had a slow awakening into the realization that the man lying on the ground was me." (Carlos Castaneda: Tales of Power).

serpentine - a winding path, something that winds sinuously + Although the long pond which curves from one end of the Zoo in Phoenix Park to the other resembles the Serpentine lake in Hyde Park, London, it has no name, official or popular. The avenue of elms laid out by Lord Chesterfield along the line of the present Main Road was serpentine. 

fornix (l) - arch, vault, brothel + porneion (gr) - brothel + Phoenix Park. 


keepsake - anything kept or given to be kept for the sake of, or in remembrance of, the giver + trans. Pairc an Fionnuisce (park un finishki) (gael) - Field of the Clear Water; Pronunciation 'park un finishki', anglic. Phoenix Park.

baptized + tau (gr) - letter T + tauf- (ger) - baptize + Tau (ger) - dew + taub (ger) - deaf + "mishe mishe to tauftauf thuartpeatrick".

purge - that which purges; spec. an aperient medicine, a purgative; the act of purging + Patrick's Purgatory - a cave on an island in Lough Derg, which Christ revealed to St Patrick, saying that whoever spent a day and a night there would witness hell's torments, heaven's bliss. It was a favorite resort of pilgrims, but was closed by the pope's order on St Patrick's Day, 1497, following reports of diabolic visions there. Also, according to legend it was the last stronghold of the devil in Ireland until St Patrick drove the devil out by 40 days of fasting and prayer.

BUTCHER'S WOOD - South of Castleknock Gate, Phoenix Park. In Le Fanu's The House by the Churchyard, Dr Sturk is bludgeoned and left for dead in Butcher's Wood by Paul Dangerfield (alias Charles Archer), who is overheard by Charles Nutter, agent for Lord Castlemallard's Irish properties, as Dangerfield is his English agent. Fireworker O'Flaherty, of the artillery regiment stationed in Chapelizod, is not involved. Mr Nutter later fights an abortive duel with Lt Hyacinth 'Fireworker' O'Flaherty, also in Phoenix Park.

fireworker - one who makes a fireworks; an artillery officer

O' Flaithbheartaigh (o'flaverti) (geal) - descendant of Flaithbheartach ("bright ruler").

nutter - a gatherer of nuts; an insane person, an eccentric person + Nutter - in LeFanu's House by the Churchyard, Nutter is steward to Lord Castlemallard; he fights a comic duel in the Phoenix Park with Fireworker O'Flaherty.

Archer, Charles - villain of LeFanu's (q.v.) "House by the Churchyard". Through most of the novel, Archer is known as Dangerfield; with deadly intent, he stuns Sturk, who later is, so to speak, "resurrected." The crime is done in Butcher's Wood in the Phoenix Park + A Was an Archer (nursery rhyme). 

Sturk - occupant of LeFanu's House by the Churchyard, he is attacked in Butcherswood in the Phoenix Park. Sturk is "resurrected" by Black Dillon + sturc (sturk) (geal) - corpse of one who dies upright + torc (turk) - wild boar, hog.

footprint - the print or impression left by the foot; spec. in Geol. a fossilized one + Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu's The House by the Churchyard, ch. 53 has drawing of footprint left by Nutter's boot at scene of murder.

breech - the buttocks, posteriors, rump, seat

envolve = involve - to entangle (a matter), to render intricate

subtle - not easily grasped, understood, or perceived, intricate, fine or delicate, esp. to such an extent as to elude observation or analysis.

weald - a heavily wooded area, forest

wolfberry - sort of shrub, mountain cranberry

castra (l) - camp (pl. of castrum: fort) + castramentor (l) - to pitch camp + castratio (l) - pruning; castration.

leabhar (lyour) (geal) - book + {Irish monks hid books from the Vikings}

pointedly asked with gaeilish gall wodkar blizzard's business Thornton had with that Kane's fender only to be answered by the aggravated assaulted that that that was the snaps for him...

brand (Danish) - fire

loveletter - a letter written by a lover to the beloved, and expressing amatory sentiments + MAGIC WAS brought to perfection, historically speaking, in ancient Egypt. But long anterior to the systematized exploration and control of subconsciousness, the African sorcerer was already controlling unseen forces by means of a peculiar charm or fetish known as the d-mammu or "effigy of blood", which was later typified by the mummy. Being the true magical link with the unseen world the d-mammu is still the basis of all practical occultism, although its form changes with the times. In antiquity it often took the form of a "chance" object which has become associated by the sorcerer with the object of his desire, or somehow identified with his magical power. Once it had been charged with his vitality it was no longer an ordinary object, and it was then burnt or concealed. According to whether the magical working involved the element earth, fire, air or water, the object was buried, burnt, hidden in the foliage of a lofty tree or submerged in a lake or river. This act affirmed a forgetting by the conscious mind, a sinking of the talisman in the abyss of subconsciousness. It was in the dark womb of forgetfulness that the hidden desire germinated. (Kenneth Grant)

ruction - a disturbance, riot, tumult

forethought - previous thought or consideration; thought for the future, provident care.

reconcilement - the fact of reconciling or being reconciled to another or to each other.

give over - to leave off, finish, cease from (an action); to give up, abandon (an attempt, a habit, a mode of life).

pick - a tool consisting of an iron bar, usually curved, steel-tipped, tapering squarely to a point at one end, and a chisel-edge or point at the other (but sometimes blunt at one end), attached through an eye in the centre to a wooden handle placed perpendicularly to its concave side. Archæol. A prehistoric implement used for breaking up rocks, soil, etc. Fishing. A kind of gaff, an eel-spear.

Sprache (ger) - language + sprak (Dutch) - spoke + crack.

Krishna - Hindu god of fire and storm + christians.

propaganda fide (l) - things of the faith to be propagated (name of a Vatican agency) (O Hehir, Brendan; Dillon, John M. / A classical lexicon for Finnegans wake).

nuptial - of or pertaining to marriage or the marriage ceremony

bird of prey - a predatory or rapacious bird + (notebook 1924): 'eagles sharpen beak before battle'.

mortal + morphê (gr) - shape + murphy (Slang) - potato.

pome - a fruit of the apple kind or resembling an apple; a jocular alteration of 'poem' + pomme de terre (French) - potato (literally 'apple of earth').

terrine - a French meat-dish cooked in an earthenware cooking vessel (also, the vessel itself) + terrenus (l) - consisting of earth, earthy.

Agni - [Sanskrit: "Fire"] fire-god of the Hindus, second only to Indra in the Vedic mythology of ancient India. He is equally the fire of the sun, of lightning, and of the hearth that men light for purposes of worship.

aflame - in or into flame; ablaze + ara (l) - altar + flamen (l) - priest of one particular deity + aurea flamma (l) - golden flame + oriflamme - a banner or standard serving as a rallying point (after the sacred banner of Saint Denis, used by early French kings) + Flamme (ger) - flame.

Mithra - [Sanskrit: "friend" or "contract."; In short, Mithra may signify any kind of communication between men and whatever establishes good relations between them] the Iranian god of the sun, justice, contract, and war in pre-Zoroastrian (6th century BC or earlier) Iran.

monish - admonish (to give authoritative or warning advice)

Shiva - [Sanskrit: "Auspicious One"] one of the main deities of Hinduism and one of the most complex gods of India, embodying seemingly contradictory qualities. He is both the destroyer and the restorer, the great ascetic and the symbol of sensuality, the benevolent herdsman of souls and the wrathful avenger.

slew - p.p. of slay

maya - [Sanskrit: "wizardry," or "illusion"] powerful force that creates the cosmic illusion that the phenomenal world is real + mahamudra - [Sanskrit: "the great seal"] , in Tantric Buddhism, the final goal, the union of all apparent dualities. Mudra, in addition to its more usual meaning, has in Tantric Buddhism the esoteric meaning of "female partner," which in turn symbolizes prajña ("wisdom"). The union of the Tantric initiate with his sexual partner signifies the symbolic union of the upaya (the "means," or method of teaching the goal) with prajña and--on the highest level--the identity of samsara (the phenomenal world) with Nirvana (ultimate reality).

oblivial - causing oblivion + obluvius (l) - "washed for" (modeled on Latin alluvius: "washed to" land washed to the shore by flowing of water) + in Greek mythology, the waters of the Lethe river induced a complete memory loss.

Noah (flood) + archical (obs) - primordial; governmental.

windingly - in a winding manner, with twists and turns

gehorsam (ger) - obedient

hasty - quickly excited to anger, quick-tempered, passionate, irritable

wasty - wasteful, destructive, desolate, given to waste

timberman - one who makes things of timber; a carpenter

archpriest - a chief priest

flamen - a priest devoted to the particular god of the roman pantheon + fan - an enhusiastic devotee, enthusiast.

lighten - to kindle, ignite

Jove - Jupiter + This is the rat, That ate the malt, That lay in the house that Jack built (nursery rhyme).

Poseidon - Greek sea-god. The reference here is to Poseidon and Apollo building the walls of Troy + Posidonius (b. 135 B.C.) - Stoic philosopher, historian, teacher of Cicero.  

fluctuary - having the character of waves, fluctuating

lave - to wash, bathe + lave (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - leave.

minx - a pert, flirtatious or impudent young woman + minxit (l) - [he, she] has urinated + mix - to join in sexual intercourse.

rare = rear - the back part of something

minister - an Anglican clergyman; the church of a monastery

shane - p. of shine (obs.)

bury the hatchet - to lay down one's arms, to cease from hostilities + Heytesbury Street, Dublin.

gush - to flow or rush out with violence

Isolda and 28 girls cross Dublin by tram

scamper - the action of scampering (to run or caper about nimbly; to go or journey hastily from place to place) + Richard Brinsley Sheridan: School for Scandal.

sash - a scarf, often with fringe at each end, worn by men, either over one shoulder or round the waist.

lucan - rel. to evangelist Luke + {Westbound conductor shouting: current stop Chapelizod, anybody to Lucan?}

viability - the ability to live or to succeed; the condition of being traversable + Julius Caesar: 'Veni, vedi, vici' (Latin 'I came, I saw, I conquered').

vicinal - neighbouring, adjacent, near + vicinus (l) - neighbor + vicinal way or road - a local common way as distinguished from a highway; a by-road or crossroad.

tread on someone's corns - to offend a person + trespass - to transgress, offend.

flumineus (l) - of, in or belonging to a river + [Via] Flaminia (l) - ancient Roman road, extending north from Rome (built by Gaius Flaminius, consul 223 B.C.)


unemancipated - held in slavery, not freed

slave - to employ at hard labor, to wear out by hard work + to pave the way - to prepare the way (for, to something to come); to facilitate or lead on to a result or an object in view.

mausoleum - the magnificent tomb of Mausolus, King of Caria, erected in the middle of the 4th c. b.c. at Halicarnassus by his queen Artemisia, and accounted one of the seven wonders of the world; a stately tomb.

gigas (gr) - giant

multipopulipater (Latin artificial) - many-people's-father

milestone - a pillar set up on a highway or other road or course to mark the miles.

cead mile failte (ked mili falti) (geal) - a hundred thosand welcomes + faulter = falter - to move as if irresolutely or hesitatingly; to tremble, quiver.

trame = tram - silk thread consisting of two or more single strands loosely twisted together + trame (fr) - thread (of life) + Strecke (ger) - track, line + tram tracks.

Brahm = Brahma - the supreme god of post vedic Hindy mythology

Hermes - Greek messenger of the gods (led souls to the realm of the dead, equated with Mercury).

per omnia saecula saeculorum (l) - in ages of ages, to all eternity, forever and ever + omnibus (l) - for all, for everyone.

amain - with full force, violently, suddenly + amen

r[h]aeda (l) - four-wheeled carriage + r[h]aeda-r[h]oad (l-eng) - carriage-road (O Hehir, Brendan; Dillon, John M. / A classical lexicon for Finnegans wake).

BOHERMORE - The name is from Bothar Mor, Ir. "Great Road." There were 5 "great roads" built in Ireland in the 2nd century, but none was uniquely called the Bothar Mor + Seo morbhothar Ui Chonaill (shu morvoher i khunil) (geal) - This is O' Connell highway.

rainy - wet, like rain, affected with rain + ridden - broken in, oppressed, taken advantage of.


Romeo - a lover, a passionate admirer; a seducer, a habitual pursuer of women.

scallop - To bake (oysters, etc.) in a scallop-shell or similar-shaped pan or plate with bread crumbs, cream, butter, and condiments + I'll eat [swallow] my (old Rowley's) hat - an asseveration stating one's readiness to do this, if an event of which one is certain should not occur + (cockleshells in hats of pilgrims to Saint James's shrine).

wonder + weapon.

fane - a temple

fiacre - a small hackney coach + SAINT FIACRE - Hotel Saint Fiacre, Rue St Martin, Paris. Vehices for hire in Paris are called "fiacres" after the hackney coaches which once were stationed at the hotel + Fiacre, St - 7th-century Irish saint + Fiachra (fikhre) (geal) - "Raven"; name of Irish founder of Breuil monastery, France.

halte (ger) - stop

hard by - close by

howe - valley; the middle part of a night or winter; a hill, hillock; tumulus, barrow, burial mound + Howe - site of Thingmote (Dublin Viking assembly) + house + who's there? (sentry calling).

plainly - in a clear or distinct manner; so as to be clearly seen, heard, or understood.

desolated - made or left desolate

Buchan - the name of a Scottish meteorologist, Alexander Buchan (1829-1907), used to designate certain specified periods of cold weather ("cold spots") foretold by him as of annual occurrence.

cold spot - Physiol., a spot upon the skin which is sensitive to cold, but insensitive to warmth, pain, or pressure.

rupes (l) - stone, rock + rupestrian - done on rock or cave walls + (notebook 1924): 'rupestre' + arte rupestre (Spanish) - cave paintings + rupestre (Italian) - rocky.

resurface - to provide with a new surface; to come to the surface again

Luttrell, Henry (1655-1717) - Irish soldier who betrayed Limerick to the Williamite besiegers in 1691 (his grave was violated and his skull broken with a pickax in 1800). 

saddle - a low point in a ridge + Cnoc Breanainn (knuk brenen) (geal) - Brendan's Hill, Co. Kerry, has ancient stone causeway leading to summit.

BRENNER PASS - Alpine pass, between Austria and Italy. The lowest and one of the oldest of the important Alpine passes.  

Malpas, Colonel - erected an obelisk on Killiney Hill, called thereafter Malpas High Hill. 

verst - a Russian measure of length (about two-thirds of an English mile) [Joyce's note: 'shako verst' Jespersen: The Growth and Structure of the English Language 155 (sec. 152): 'There is, of course, nothing peculiarly English in the adoption of such words as... verst from Russian... shako from Hungarian'].

Traum (ger) - dream + traumhaft (ger) - like dream, charming + stop their trams halt (Sutton and Howth Electric Tramway ran to the summit of Howth, at the northern edge of Dublin Bay).

Ben Edar - anciently Howth, said to be named for Edar, a Dedanaan chief, buried on the hill + (conductor shouting).  

lowland - low or level land; the less mountainous region of Scotland, situated south and east of the Highlands. (now always pl.) + Livland - a Baltic province (better known as Livonia).

mear - to mark out (land) by means of 'meres' or boundaries; to be bounded by (obs.).

wilde = wild

lea - a tract of open ground, either meadow, pasture, or arable land; used loosely for 'ground'.

Kropotkin, Prince (1842-1921) - Russian author, revolutionary + Cruach Phadraig (krukh fadrig) (geal) - Patrick's Rick (conical heap), mountain, Co. Mayo; anglic. Croagh Patrick.

medium - average

off-color - not in good health or spirits

native - belonging to, or natural to, one by reason of the place or country of one's birth, or of the nation to which one belongs.

pluck - courage, boldness, spirit

engage - to attack, enter into a combat with

adversary - an opponent, antagonist; an enemy, foe + Maitland: Life and Legends of St. Martin of Tours 22: 'The devil, in human form, accosted him... and asked him where he was going. "I go where God calls me", said Martin. "Know then", said the Adversary, "that go where you may, do what you will, I will constantly oppose you"'.

"And why behold you the mote that is in your brother's eye, but consider not the beam that is in your own eye?" (Matthew 7:3:)

plunder - the acquisition of property by violent, questionable, or dishonest means + (notebook 1924): 'for plunder' sake' Fleming: Boulogne-sur-Mer 62: 'Irish fleets were accustomed to sail over to Britain for the sake of plunder, and to bring to Ireland whomsoever they made prisoners'.

mistook - p. of mistake (to err as to the identity or nature of; to take to be somebody or something else).

Oglethorpe, James Edward (1696 - 1785) - founded the state of Georgia with the aim of helping criminals. 

gink - person, fellow, guy + Genghis (Khan).

parr - a young salmon before it becomes a smolt + Parr, Thomas, "Old Parr" (1483-1635) - lived in the reigns of ten princes, got a girl with child when oven a hundred. 

Johnny I Hardly Knew Ye (song): 'Ye eyeless, noseless, chickenless egg'

Michelangelesque - pertaining to or after the manner of Michelangelo

sacrilegious - involving sacrilege (the profanation of anything held sacred)


hemisphere - each of the halves of the cerebrum of the brain

canonize - to sanction by the authority of the church; to give authoritative sanction or approval to.

bloody bugger's

contritely - in a contrite (crushed in spirit by a sense of sin, and so brought to complete penitence) manner + completely



paternoster - the Lord's Prayer, esp. in the Latin version + Cnoc Phadraig (knuk fadrig) (geal) - Patrick's Hill; anglic. Knockpatrick.

Hail Mary! - the angelic salutation to the Virgin (Luke i. 28), combined with that of Elizabeth, used as a devotional recitation, with the addition (in more recent times) of a prayer to the Virgin, as Mother of God + Muire (mwiri) (geal) - Mary (name of mother of Jesus only).

tout est sacré pour un sacreur, femme à barbe ou homme-nourrice (fr) - all is sacred for a sacreur, bearded woman, or male nurse → Black beard notwithstanding, Sackerson is apparently an old man who, like Eliot's Tiresias, has an old man's breasts. This hint of androgyny pairs him with his fellow servant Kate, who is distinguished by her facial hair. Together, as 'femme a barbe ou homme-nourrice', they illustrate a recurring Wake theme: 'when older links lock older hearts then he'll resemble she' (135.32-3) (John Gordon: Finnegans Wake: a plot summary)..

ghost - the soul or spirit, as the principle of life + bloody well let the bloody well ghost.

catch hold of - to take hold of, seize + Holst (ger) - holly + FDV: There It was on that resurfaced spot evidently the attacker, though under medium, with truly native pluck tackled him whom he took to be, saying he wd have his life & lay him out & [made use of sacriligeous language &] catching hold of a long bar he had & with which he usually broke furniture. 

oblong - elongated in one direction (usually as a deviation from an exact square or circular form).

boarder - a jouster + border + broader

Napoleon + Nippon (Japanese) - Japan + Sino-Japanese War, 1894-1895.

Wellington + wei (Chinese) - awe + ling (Chinese) - honourable + tau (Chinese) - way, path + ta-ou (Chinese) - 'Great Europe'.

Russian + razzia (fr) - a military raid.

reconnoitre - to make an inspection or take observations of (an enemy, his strength, etc.)


capture - catching, seizure

recapture - to capture again

all in - in Wrestling: Without restrictions, having almost no holds barred

safe - a fire-proof and burglar-proof receptacle for plate, money, deeds, and other valuables. Usually made of steel and iron, with one or more doors secured by elaborate locks.

all purple top swede (notebook 1924) Connacht Tribune 26 Apr 1924, 6/6: (Advertisement) 'T. NAUGHTON'S Carefully Selected and Tested SEEDS... Best of All Purple Top Swede'.

Tipperary - county in Ireland + Tiobraid Arann (tibrid aren) (geal) - "Well of Ara [name of district]"; anglic. Tipperary + Purple Top, Tipperary Swede - types of turnip.

sacramented - consecrated, made sacred, sealed by a sacrament

service + Servius - Roman proper name + Marius Servius Honoratus - 4th C commentator on Vergil + Servius Tullius - sixth king of Rome.

divine - religious, sacred

tussle - a vigorous or disorderly conflict; a severe struggle, a hard contest

taller + John Toller - apparently a seven-or-eight-foot tall giant (died 1819) + {tallness fits *E*; bell tolling fits *Y*}

bully - of the best quality, first rate + bull beggar (Slang) - bogey, someone who scares children + Billy-in-the-Bowl - legless beggar and strangler in old Dublin.

{living in a mine fits *E*; being a minor fits *Y*}

worm - spiral condenser used for whiskey distilling

handy - conveniently situated for

portable - capable of being carried by hand or on the person; capable of being moved from place to place.

distillery - the establishment or works in which the distilling of spirits is carried on.

vat - a cask, tun, or other vessel used for holding or storing water, beer, or other liquid.

stuff + stiff (Slang) - money.

potheen - whisky distilled in Ireland in small quantities, i.e. the produce of an illicit still + Paidin (pad'in) (geal) - Paddy (dim. of Padraig) + Johnny I Hardly Knew Ye (song) + FDV: The struggle went on They struggled for a considerable time and in the course of it the masked man said to the other: Let me go, Pat.

solstitial - of or belonging to, connected with, a solstice or the solstices (21st June or 22nd December).

ham - the region back of the knee joint; the back of the thigh; the thigh of a hog cured for food; an actor with an especially showy or exaggerated style.

vermicular - resembling a worm + vernacular - the native speech or language of a particular country or district; also, the informal, colloquial, or distinctive speech of a people or a group + Joyce's note: 'vermicular' Jespersen: The Growth and Structure of the English Language 134 (sec. 131): 'It is... surprising how many pairs we have of native nouns and foreign adjectives, e.g.... worm: vermicular'.


chin chin - Used as a drinking toast; as v. intr., to say 'chin-chin'

Victoria - a sovereign minted in the reign of Queen Victoria

offa = off; of + FDV: Later on the same man asked: Was six pounds fifteen taken from you by anyone two or three months ago?

Tell he me = Lei (Joyce's note) Caradoc Evan, 53: "[The Way of the Earth] 'Tell he me, when shall I say to Beca thus: "On such and such a day is the wedding"? Say him a month this day?'" Note: It was a local custom to address one's betters in the third person. MS 47472-158, TsILS: taken off you, tell us by anyone ^+takee offa you, tell he me, strongfella by pickypocky+^ | JJA 46:034 | 1926-7 |

strongfella = malts (notebook 1924)

pickpocket - one who steals from or 'picks' pockets; a thief who follows the practice of stealing things from the pockets of others.

collaborate - to work in conjunction with another or others, to co-operate; to co-operate traitorously with the enemy + collidabantur (l) - they were brought into collision + collide and banter.

severe - pressing hardly, rigorous, making great demands on one's powers or resources

Woden = Odin + (notebook 1924): 'Woden' Jespersen: The Growth and Structure of the English Language 62 (sec. 60): (quoting from J.R. Green's A Short History of the English People) 'England still remained England; the conquerors sank quietly into the mass of those around them; and Woden yielded without a struggle to Christ'.

Webley - the proprietary name of various types of revolver and other small arms, etc., originally made by the firm of P. Webley and Son.

illtempered - having a bad temper; ill-conditioned; morose, cross, peevish + in illo tempore (l) - 'at that time'; Latin formula used in the Mass to introduce Gospel.

intruse = intrude + intruder - one who intrudes into an estate or benefice or usurps on the rights or privileges of another.

Cad's pipe is of course a smoking implement but can also be a lead pipe, one of the weapons conventionally favored by the kind of goons swelling the ranks of Hitler's SA. Another, apparently, was a heavy oak stick, similar to a policeman's billyclub. The association may help explain the train of metamorphoses undergone by the assailant's pipe. In later accounts it becomes a wooden affair - in fact, expanded in May 1927 from "wooden" to a "woden affair" - or, alternately, a "humoral hurlbat or other uncertain weapon of lingum vitae" - in short, a stick. Since in some versions it is traded back and forth in the encounter, it can be remembered, in three instances that first appear in the composition between 1933 and 1936, as a "swapstick" (FW 342.30) and yet later as a "swopsib" (FW 568.12) shared by the two antagonists and finally a "swaystick" (FW 569.19) brandished aloft by the victor. Thus does cad, hitter, and stick fade into the age's archetypal cad, Hitler, with his swastika. (John Gordon: Joyce's Hitler).  

Christchurch Cathedral - The catholic church of the Protestant archdiocese of Dublin and Glendalough; in the crypt of Christ Church Cathedral are the skeletons of a cat and a rat it chased behind the organ pipes; both got stuck in the tubes and died of starvation.

organ - a musical instrument (in its modern form the largest and most comprehensive of all), consisting of a number of pipes, supplied with wind or compressed air by means of bellows, and sounded by means of keys.


pensive - thoughtful, meditative, musing; reflective: often with some tinge of seriousness or melancholy.

flout - to mock, jeer, insult; to express contempt for, either in word or action + float

pigtail - a tight braid of hair

knobkerrie - a short thick stick with a knobbed head, used as a weapon or missile by South African peoples.

change - exchange

stuck - p. of stick

strongbox - a chest or case for money made very strongly, a small safe + Strongbow - leader of the Anglo-Normans who invaded Ireland in the 12th century (his tomb is in Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin) + (notebook 1924): 'invention of fender'.

tenacity - firmness of hold or attachment; firmness of purpose, persistence, obstinacy.

corroborate - to strengthen (an opinion, statement, argument, etc.) by concurrent or agreeing statements or evidence; to make more sure or certain; to support; to confirm (a law, legal act, etc.).

territorial + tenitore (it) - holder, keeper.

lots - much + loot - money (slang.); goods taken from an enemy.

change - money of a lower denomination given in exchange for a larger coin; hence generally, coins of low denomination; also coins of one currency given in exchange for those of another.

crickle - to make a sharp, thin sound

addle - to muddle, to confuse (the brain)

hap - to have the fortune, luck, happen, chance + Joyce's note: 'hap = if' Caradoc Evan, 53: "[The Way of the Earth] 'Hap Madlen Tybach need coal?'" note: Welsh "hap": luck, chance, fortune. The meaning here is "Go and ask if Madlen Tybach need coal". MS 47472-158, TsOS: happened to have the loose ^+loots+^change of a ten pound note ^+crickler+^ about him at the moment as ^+addling that,+^ if ^+hap+^ so, he would pay the six pounds ^+vics+^ odd back | JJA 46:034 | 1926-7 |

Victoria - a sovereign minted in the reign of Queen Victoria.

odd - a surplus of lower denomination of money; used in numeration to denote a remainder or numerical surplus over and above a 'round number' (as of units over tens, dozens, or scores); and thus becoming virtually an indefinite cardinal number of lower denomination than the round number named.

juni (Dutch) - june + juli (Dutch) - july + FDV: There was severe mauling and then a wooden affair in the shape of a revolver fell from the intruder who thereupon became friendly & wanted to know whether his chance companion who had the fender happened to have the change of a ten pound note because, if so, he would pay the six pounds odd out of that for what was lost last summer.

cap'n (Colloquial) - captain

billy - lad, fellow + Billy in the Bowl - legless beggar and strangler in old Dublin.

boule - bowl + boule (fr) - ball.

mum - to make an inarticulate sound with closed lips, indicating inability to speak

maul - to beat and bruise (a person)

excel - to be superior or preëminent in the possession of some quality, or in the performance of some action, usually in a good sense.

grossly - excessively, flagrantly

loose change (orig. U.S.) - a quantity of coins kept or left in one's pocket, etc., for casual use.

tinpan - noisy, harsh; a pan made of tin; tympan + FDV: The other than said: Would you be surprised to hear that I have not such a thing as the change of a ten pound note but I am able to see my way to give you at for the present four and 7 pence to buy whisky.

crackle - something that makes a crackling noise; to emit a rapid succession of slight cracks.

see one's way - to see how one will be able (to do something esp. to pay money)

yuletide - the season of Yule, Christmas-tide

Judenfest (ger) - Jewish holiday

mad as a hatter = mad as a march hare - very mad or silly

nut - a madman; a crank

hatter - a maker of or dealer in hats + Mad Hatter and March Hare - characters in 'Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland' by Lewis Carroll.

mon - man

advance - to put forth, to bring forward; to offer, propose, present.

bach (Welsh) - little + Johann Sebastian Bach - 18th century composer, had several sons who also became composers (two of which were also called Johann).

John Jameson and Son - the proprietary name of a brand of Irish whiskey. Also, a drink of this whiskey.

rekindle - to kindle again, arouse again


whisk - to brush or sweep lightly and rapidly from a surface

prick up one's ears - to become attentive or alert to listen

gunman - a man armed with a gun, killer esp. one hired to kill another + (following starvation in grave).

strike me pink! - Used to express surprise or disbelief

fortright - strightforward, immediately, directly forth, without hesitation

Lord's + lard - the fat of swine + Lars Porsena - Etruscan king known for his war against the city of Rome (around 500 BC). He was buried in an elaborate tomb in (or under) the city he ruled (Clusium). Porsena's tomb is described as having a 15 m high rectangular base with sides 90 m long. It was adorned by pyramids and massive bells.

porsenal - porcelain + arsenal + John Joyce was quoted in, and on the book jacket of, 'Lars Porsena; or The Future of Swearing and Improper Language', by Robert Graves + Thomas Babington Macaulay: Lays of Ancient Rome: Horatius at the Bridge (poem): 'Lars Porsena of Clusium By the nine gods he swore' + REFERENCE 

thorntree - any of various thorny trees + Zakkum - in Muslim theology, a thorny bitter-fruited tree growing in hell and serving as the only food for the damned.

Sheol - the underworld; the abode of the dead or departed spirits, conceived by the Hebrews as a subterranean region clothed in thick darkness, return from which is impossible.

ramify - to form branches, to branch out, extend in the form of branches.

heofon (Old English) - heaven

lux (l) - light + "Lux upon Lux" (James Joyce, Dubliners: 'Grace') + lex (l) - law..

suntime - time by the sun, a time of brightness or joy + sometime

take my word for it - I can assure you, you may be sure, believe me + mark - to take notice, to keep watch; to fix (one's) attention; to consider + Marx, Karl (1818-83) - German socialist.  

chip of the old block - one that resembles his father + flint - hard stone in general + Flint, Captain - dead pirate in Stevenson's Treasure Island

Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm (1844-1900) - German philosopher + nicht (ger) - not. 

glossary - a collection of glosses; a list with explanations of abstruse, antiquated, dialectal, or technical terms; a partial dictionary.

purvey - to provide, furnish, supply (something)

a priori - phrase used to characterize reasoning from causes to effects, from abstract notions to their conditions or consequences.

a posteriori - a phrase used to characterize reasoning or arguing from effects to causes, from experience and not from axioms; empirical, inductive + Jespersen: An International Language: (quoting Dr. Sweet) 'the ideal way of constructing an a posteriori language would be to make the root words monosyllabic... and to make the grammar a priori in spirit'.

nat = not + nat (Danish) - night (Pronunciation 'not').

sinse (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - sense

kish - a large wicker basket + 'ignorant as a kish of brogues' (Anglo-Irish/Hiberno-English phrase) + kiss.

sprog (Danish) - language + brogue - a type of rough shoe; a strong dialectal accent (especially Irish).

elude - to slip away from, escape adroitly from (a person's grasp or pursuit) + alluded

coctible - that may be cooked

remark - to say, utter, or set down, as an observation or comment

languidly - in a languid (faint, weak) manner + Langue d'oïl - Romance dialect of Northern France.

chance of a lifetime (notebook 1924) Irish Independent 14 Jun 1924, 5/7: (advertisement for the Irish Free State's Savings Certificate) 'The Chance of a lifetime!'

foretaste - a taste beforehand, an anticipation

mother of pearl - the pinna or sea-pen, or other shell-fish yielding mother-of-pearl; mother of pearl oyster + Red Bank oysters.

boy - champagne

wash down - to swallow liquor along with or after (solid food), in order to assist deglutition or digestion.

Red Cow Tallaght (notebook 1924) Irish Independent 10 Jun 1924, 4/6: 'Dublin's Old Inns and Taverns': 'On a night in December 1717, a party of O'Byrnes pitched their quarters in an inn called The Red Cow. The premises nestled where the coach road by the base of Tallaght Hill winds to Blessington. Attacked by the military the besieged fought for twelve hours' + 'At the foot of [Tallaght Hill] on the Blessingtom side, there stood an inn, called the Red Cow, which, in the month of December, 1717, was the scene of a sanguinary encounter between a party of rapparees...and the forces of the Crown' (Ball, History of County Dublin III, 39) + ruadh (rue) (geal) - red + Tamhlacht (toulokht) (geal) - "Plague-grave": village S.W. of Dublin.

GOOD WOMAN, THE - Inn at Ringsend; noted for oysters, shrimps and cockles, as early as beginning of 18th cent [(notebook 1924): 'Good Dame Ringsend' Irish Independent 10 Jun 1924, 4/6: 'Dublin's Old Inns and Taverns': 'cockles, oysters and shrimps that might be tasted "in their purity" at the sign of The Good Woman in Ringsend']

RINGSEND - District, South bank of Liffey, where it enters Dublin Bay. The Dodder River joins the Liffey just above Ringsend. 

Conway's Tavern Blackrock (notebook 1924) Irish Independent 10 Jun 1924, 4/6: 'Dublin's Old Inns and Taverns': 'Vanished also is Conway's Tavern, that rose in the Main street of Blackrock. For long it commanded esteem for its annual melon festival'.

BLACKROCK - Town on Dublin Bay between Dublin and Dun Laoghaire; Since the 18th century a place of resort for Dubliners, reached by the "Rock Road", later by the Dalkey, Kingstown, and Blackrock tram. Conway's Tavern and Vauxhall Gardens were two of its attractions.  

keen - sharp, piercing, penetrating; strong

atte - at, at the (Middle English)

fun fair - fair devoted to amusements and side shows + fe'n riaghail (fen riel) (geal) - under the government; under religious rules.

Adam & Eve (notebook 1924) Irish Independent 10 Jun 1924, 4/6: 'Dublin's Old Inns and Taverns': 'the taverns of Adam and Eve and the Struggler in Cook street'.

gamy - showing spirit, spicy, racy; morally tainted + Grace, Prankquean

Tailte - Firbolg queen whose foster-son, Lug, founded the Tailtean games in her honor. Revived by the Free State, the games are held in Teltown. 

stunning - excellent, first rate, delightful

southdowner - sheep from Southdown (town in England) + South Downs, Sussex, not far from Sidlesham.

Delaney, Patrick - the Phoenix Park assassin who testified against Parnell at the Parnell Commission + Saint Declan - 5th century Irish saint + Delaney/Delacey [043.33] [084.08].

lexicon - the vocabulary proper to some department of knowledge or sphere of activity.

blanche = blanch - white + white patch [093.04] [488.30] + (bald patch).

boney = bony - rel. to bone or bones; having large or prominent bones + Napoleon Bonaparte.

by golly - by God (a mild oath) [Joyce's note: 'by Golly!']

my hat - a trivial exclamation of surprise

bully - worthy, admirable; capital, first-rate

grit - firmness or solidity of character; indomitable spirit or pluck; stamina + FDV: At the mention of whisky the wouldbe burglar became calm and left him the place said he wd go good to him [remarking [gleefully]: You plucky stunning little Southdowner! You have some pluck Southdowner! This is my goalball I've struck this day!]

sundowner - hobo, tramp + sundowner - an alcoholic drink taken at sunset + southdowner.  

spat (Irish practice of spitting in hands before shaking them to conclude a deal) + spud - potato.

fist + Faust or Faustus - 16th-century magician who sold his soul to the devil, subject of works by Marlowe and Goethe + Faust (ger) - fist.

axin (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - asking

tope - to drink; to drink largely or in large draughts + topped

rest + raw beast

picked his pocket + poke - to thrust or push (anything) with one's hand or arm; to put in a poke or bag + pick - transf. that which is selected, the best or choicest portion or example of anything, the choicest product or contents.

take (one's) leave - to depart with some expression of farewell; to bid farewell.

portfolio - a receptacle or case for keeping loose sheets of paper, prints, drawings, maps, music, or the like; usually in the form of a large book-cover, and sometimes having sheets of paper fixed in it, between which specimens are placed.

haste - hurry, precipitancy, want of deliberation, rashness

leisure - the state of having time at one's own disposal; free or unoccupied time + Marry in haste and repent at leisure (proverb) → portfolio of hastes and leisures = marriage.

pax - kiss of peace

pogue (Anglo-Irish) - kiss

pux (gr) - with closed or clenched fist (as in boxing)

(notebook 1924): 'frères du même sein' (French brothers of the same breast) + "I am thy Double Sister," says Isis to Osiris. (P. Pierret, Panthéon Eg., 28.) In this duality Isis is the Blood-Mother and Nephthys the Milch-Mother; hence she is called the Nurse.

alleluia = hallelujah - an exclamation meaning 'Praise the Lord,' which occurs in many psalms and anthems.

HILL OF ALLEN - Hill (676 feet), 8 miles North-East of Kildare, County Kildare; famous in legend as the Otherworld seat of Finn MacCool. Seefin, a mound on its summit, is known as Finn's Chair. Alma on Almhain, Ir. "whitened" + Lillibullero, Bullen a Law (song).

tuargain (turgen) (geal) - battering, bombardment

belittler - one that belittles (to speak slightingly or disrespectfully)

schmal (ger) - little, narrow + SCHMALKALDEN - City, East Germany, where in 1531 Lutheran princes formed the League of Schmalkalden against Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor); it lasted until 1547, when Charles in Schmalkaldic War defeated its leaders and destroyed its power.  

treaty - to make a treaty + to treat (a person, etc.) to - to entertain with (food or drink, or any enjoyment or gratification).

War of the League of Cognac - a war between Charles V (Holy Roman Emperor) and the League of Cognac (formed by France, England, the Pope, and several Italian states via the Treaty of Cognac), 1526-1530.

fez - a skull-cap formerly of wool, now of felt, of a dull crimson colour, in the form of a truncated cone, ornamented with a long black tassel; formerly the national head-dress of the Turks + face

MENAI STRAIT - The channel of the Irish Sea which separates Anglesey from Caernarvonshire (now Gwynedd), the mainland of Wales. It's crossed on every trip between Ireland and Britain via Holyhead, by suspension road bridge ("assbacks,") or "tubular" railway bridge.  

moscas (sp) - flies + Moscow, Russia + Mecca, Saudi Arabia (to which Muslims turn during prayer).

khorosho (Russian) - very well, O.K.

levant - to steal away, 'bolt', to abscond + Levant - the Middle East.

turbulence - stormy or tempestuous action; violence + Jubal and Tubal Cain - Jubal was "father of all such as handle the harp and organ"; Tubal was "instructor of every artificer in brass and iron" (Genesis, 4.) + the railway bridge over Menai Strait was a tubular bridge [083.36] [.03]. 

BULL RUN - Stream in Virginia, US; gave name to 2 Civil War battles (known to the Confederate side as Manassas). In Second Bull Run, Pope (84.06) was a Union general, Jubal Early (84.02) a Confederate.  

assback - the back on an ass + (notebook 1924): 'assback roof' + pons asinorum (l) - the asses' bridge: a challenge that separates the wise from the foolish, a test of ability.

Danegeld - an annual tax imposed at the end of the 10th c. or in the 11th c., originally (as is supposed) to provide funds for the protection of England from the Danes, and continued after the Norman Conquest as a land-tax.

humoral - of or belonging to, consisting of, or containing, any of the humours or fluids of the body. Also in mod. use, contained in or involving the blood or other body fluid.

hurlbat - a short javelin having a thong for recovering after hurling; some form of club, bat.

lignum vitae - a trade wood from trees of the genus Guaiacum. This wood was once very important for applications requiring a material with its extraordinary combination of strength, toughness and density. Due to its weight, cricket bails, particularly 'heavy bails' used in windy conditions, are sometimes made of lignum vitae.

evermore - always, forever, at any future time, certainly, definitely

reminiscent - having reminiscence of something

toboggan - originally, a light sledge consisting of a thin strip of wood turned up in front, used by the Canadian Indians for transport over snow; now, a similar vehicle, sometimes with low runners, used in the sport of coasting.

poop - the aftermost part of a ship, the stern; a short blast in a hollow tube, as a wind instrument; Also, the report of a gun + Pope, John (1822-95) - Union general who lost the 2d battle of Bull Run + tobacco pipe.

have a crow to pluck with someone - to have something disagreeable or awkward to settle with someone, to clear up.

rialto - an exchange or market place + rialto (it) - height, rise.

anywheres = anywhere

PEA RIDGE - The battle of Pea Ridge, in South Illinois, US, 7-8 March 1862, was a Union victory in the West theater of the Civil War. 

Battle of Little Big Horn, 1876 (Custer's defeat and death at the hands of Sitting Bull)

Delaney, Patrick - the Phoenix Park assassin who testified against Parnell at the Parnell Commission. 

confederate - leagued, allied; a supporter of the Confederate States of America

fender - a metal frame placed in front of a fire to keep falling coals from rolling out into the room.

albeit - even though, although, though

bluff - to swell out, become distended + BALL'S BLUFF - Locality near Leesburg, North-East Virginia, US. Site of minor Civil War battle 21 Oct 1861, in which Union forces were defeated by the Confederates. 

bear up - to carry

wunder = wonder

contusion - a bruise

bruised - hurt or damaged by a heavy blow; contused

coccyx - the small triangular bone appended to the point of the sacrum and forming the termination of the spinal column in man.

flabbergast - to put (a person) in such confusion that he does not for the moment know what to do or say; to astonish utterly, to confound.

lab - a laboratory

paddy - policeman; Irishman; the proprietary name of an Irish whiskey + banner - one who bans or curses.

as for - as it regards, so far as it concerns, with respect or reference to.

excellency - a title of honour

daffy - crazy, imbecile + O'Duffy, General - leader of an Irish fascist movement (Blueshirts) in the 1930s.  

justifiable - capable of being legally or morally justified, or shown to be just, righteous, or innocent.

William Shakespeare: Julius Caesar V.5.68: 'This was the noblest Roman of them all'

satisfactory + sitisfactura (l artificial) - a making thirsty.

Macaulay: Lays of Ancient Rome: Horatius at the Bridge (poem): 'Lars Porsena of Clusium'

gentleman's agreement - an agreement which is not enforceable at law, and which is only binding as a matter of honour + Agrippa, Heinrich Cornelius of Nettesheim (1486-1535) - writer on occult sciences. 

dein (ger) - your + deinde (l) - thereafter + derivative - characterized by being derived, drawn, obtained, or deduced from another; coming or emanating from a source.

lotion - a liquid preparation used externally for healing wounds, relieving pain, beautifying the skin, etc.

fomentation - the application to the surface of the body either of flannels, etc. soaked in hot water, whether simple or medicated, or of any other warm, soft, medicinal substance + (notebook 1922-23): 'hot fomantations to ear'.

poppyhead - the capsule of the poppy + (opium)

generously + Jenner invented vaccination

exhibit - (Med.) To administer (a remedy, etc.)

watchhouse - a house in which a guard is placed, police station

vicar - in early use, a person acting as priest in a parish in place of the real parson or rector, or as the representative of a religious community to which the tithes had been appropriated + Vicar Street, Dublin.

ground - the particular space or area under consideration

red cross - to mark with a red cross

mammalian - rel. to mammals

proofpositive - conclusive proof

stanch - to stop the flow of blood from (a wound)

pavilion - the pinna or auricle of the ear

hitter - one who hits or strikes, as in boxing, cricket, etc. Also fig. + hatter's hares + "attractive women are being hit on all the time by men, in one way or another" + By the end of 1923, when it was still possible for someone in Paris not to have heard of Hitler, Joyce had sketched out most of the episode [the encounter with the cad]. Between 1936 and 1938, he made the following changes. In the passage describing how "some of his hairs had been pulled off his knut's head" by the cad, "hairs" became "hitters hairs". Other passages added describe the attacker as a "hikely excellent crude man about road who knew his Bullfoost Mountains like a starling bierd". Joyce also added "jewbigger" to his catalogue of curses. (John Gordon: Joyce's Hitler).

knut - a fashionable or showy young man

Colt - a firearm of a type invented by Samuel Colt (1814-62), esp. a type of repeating pistol.

allround - around all the parts of, including everything in a given circle

muddle along - to 'get along' in a haphazard way + FDV: He then went away with the four & _____ (seven) and his hurlbat while the fenderite who bore up under all of it [with no of bruises on him] reported the occurrence to the [Vicar Street] watch house, his face being all covered with nonfatal blood as a good proof that he was bleeding from the nose, mouth & ears while some of his hair had been pulled off his head though otherwise his allround health was good middling enough.

corso - proud walk, a promenade + torso - the human trunk.

not a whit - not at all + a whit - a very little.

whacking - beating

Herr (ger) - Mr. + her, who?

nowthe - now

ash - the ashen shaft or spear

brawn - the arm, muscle

brass - money in general, cash; Historically: The general name for all alloys of copper with tin or zinc.

oust - Law. To put out of possession, eject; to expel from any place or position + (notebook 1924): 'ousting of metals by metals' Haldane: Daedalus or Science and the Future 31: 'the production of aluminium from clay... I do not think that even when this is accomplished aluminium will oust iron and steel as they ousted bronze and flint'.

earthborn - born on the earth; of earthly or mortal race, as opposed to angelic or divine + (notebook 1923): 'Earthborn (terrigenae)'.

rockcrystal - transparent quartz

wreck - to shatter, ruin, destroy

isinglass - a firm whitish semitransparent substance (being a comparatively pure form of gelatin) obtained from the sounds or airbladders of some fresh-water fishes, esp. the sturgeon.

Wurm (ger) - worm + worm - to move or progress sinuously like a worm; to make one's way insidiously like a worm into (a person's confidence, secret affairs, etc.)

saving - the action of rescuing or protecting + for one's sake - on account of one's interest in, or regard for (a person), out of consideration for.

mother water - the liquid left after crystallization, e.g. of sea-salt + moddervater (Dutch) - muddy water + The Encyclopædia Britannica vol. XVI, 'Lisbon', 771b: (of the Aqueducto das Aguas Livres) 'At the Lisbon end of the aqueduct is the Mae d'Agua (i.e. "Mother of Water"), containing a huge stone hall in the midst of which is the reservoir'.

Olympiad - a period of four years reckoned from one celebration of the Olympic games to the next, by which the ancient Greeks computed time, the year 776 b.c. being taken as the first year of the first Olympiad; a quadrennial celebration of the ancient Olympic Games.

thousand + thirty second + (1132)

Olaf, Danish prince, source of name Hamlet (Humphrey, Olaf, Oliver and Hamlet are all cognates of sorts; Humphrey = Irish, Amhlaoibh = Olaf = Old Norse, Olafr = Oliver = Latin, Amlethus = French Hamlet).

boney = bony - abounding in bones; having large or prominent bones; big-boned + Napoleon Bonaparte.

obtain - to come into the possession or enjoyment of (something) by one's own effort, or by request; to acquire, get.

pierced - punctured, perforated + FDV: As regards the fender pierced fender & fireguard the question of unlawfully obtaining is subsidiary to the far more capital point of the political bias of a person who, when mistakenly molested ambushed, was simply exercising one of the most primary liberties of the subject by walking along a public thoroughfare in broad daylight.

parafuoco (it) - fire-guard + fiamme (it) - flames.

claptrap - language designed to catch applause; cheap showy sentiment. In modern use passing into sense 'nonsense, rubbish'.

fireguard - a protecting wire screen or grating before open fireplace, fender

crop out - to come out, appear, or disclose itself incidentally

salient point - standing out from the rest, prominent or conspicuous (point)

politisch (ger) - political

leaning - inclination, bias; tendency, 'penchant'

pursuit - the action of seeking, or striving to obtain, attain, or accomplish something.

forebear - a person from whom you are descended + (mass of porter)

Dan Donnelly - an Irish champion prizefighter who in 1815 knocked out Cooper, the English champion. His footprints have been preserved somewhere or other in Ireland and his fossilized arm "is one of the major attractions of a Kilcullen hostelry" + el don de dunele (Venetian Italian Dialect) - the gift of women, a Don Juan + O'Donnghaile (o'douneli) (geal) - descendant of Donnghal ("brown-valor").

thick - to become thick, thicken

burral (burel) (geal) - bit, jot + burial + lock, stock and barrel - the whole thing (the 'whole thing' in question when this phrase originated was a musket: the lock, or flintlock, which is the firing mechanism; the stock, which is the wooden butt-end of the gun; the barrel, i.e. a cylindrical object).

Kenneth Grant: "African sorcerer was already controlling unseen forces by means of a peculiar charm or fetish known as the d-mammu or "effigy of blood", which was later [in ancient Egypt] typified by the mummy. In antiquity it often took the form of a "chance" object which has become associated by the sorcerer with the object of his desire, or somehow identified with his magical power. Once it had been charged with his vitality it was no longer an ordinary object, and it was then burnt or concealed. According to whether the magical working involved the element earth, fire, air or water, the object was buried, burnt, hidden in the foliage of a lofty tree or submerged in a lake or river. This act affirmed a forgetting by the conscious mind, a sinking of the talisman in the abyss of subconsciousness. It was in the dark womb of forgetfulness that the hidden desire germinated. Fragments of ritual surviving from the remotest times show that the dead underwent a transformation in the abyss or underworld. The deceased arose as Asar-Un-Nefer [Osiris]. Legend relates that Osiris was dismembered or cut in pieces by Set, who typified Night, Forgetfulness. Isis found all the pieces of the body with the exception of the phallus; it was Horus who supplied the missing member, thus enabling the Osirified to rise to new life. The re-membered form of the god symbolizes spiritual wholeness and perfection. The goddess Isis represents the spontaneous operation of Nature healing the breach of consciousness by revealing the hidden key to the subconscious. In one legend she copulates with the corpse of Osiris in order to bring forth Horus."

Read more about approaching women great technique by pick up artists at

by the black of your nail (Anglo-Irish phrase) - only just

Buddha + Vedas - major scared texts of Hinduism + Vedda - an aboriginal people of Sri Lanka.

mam - mom; madam + man + Maamtrasna - a valley in Joyce country, County Galway, and the scene of the murders of five members of a family named Joyce in 1882, for which ten men (five of whom were also called Joyce) were accused, of whom five were sentenced to life imprisonment and three executed (including the apparently-innocent Myles Joyce) after an unsound trial (including withheld documents, suppressed testimonies, etc.), in which the proceedings were carried out in English, while the accused spoke only Irish and their interpreter spoke a Donegal dialect, that at times was almost unintelligible to the accused (written about at length, with quite a few factual errors, in James Joyce's "Ireland at the Bar").

kayoed - knocked, knocked out + kayoed = knocked out (3.22) = phoenished (130.11-12) = parked (454.34) (John Bishop: Joyce's Book of the Dark).

offhand - at once, strightaway; without previous thought or preparation

heckler - one who severely questions another; somebody who insults, makes fun of, or teases; a person who shouts a disparaging comment at a performance or event, or interrupting set-piece speeches, for example at a political meeting, with intent to disturb its performers or participants.

Peter the Painter - German Mauser automatic pistol named after Russian anarchist involved in the Siege of Sidney Street, 1911 + Joyce's note: 'Peter the Painter' Irish Times 2 Dec 1922, 7/8: 'The attacking party were all armed with Service rifles, and some of them carried "Peter the Painters" and Smith and Wesson revolvers'.

hole - to make a hole in, pierce, to place in a hole; to fire a bullet into; to put in prison

consistently - with consistency, constantly adhering to the same principles of thought or action.

imprescriptable - not subject to prescription; that cannot in any circumstances be legally taken away or abandoned.

bellybone (Joyce's note)

chuck - to throw with the hand with little action of the arm; to throw underhand; to toss; prob. at first said of throwing or tossing money, or anything light; now used somewhat playfully or contemptuously of heavy things, as suggesting that they are thrown with ease or contempt.

chum - a habitual companion, an associate, an intimate friend; In Australia: new chum, a fresh immigrant, a 'greenhorn'; old chum, an old and experienced settler.

chuck and chance it - a derisive phrase used attrib. to describe wet-fly fishing.

alongst = along

semita (l) - path + cemetery.

throughfare - a road, street, lane, or path forming a communication between two other roads or streets, or between two places; a public way unobstructed and open at both ends; esp. a main road or street + Durchfahrt (ger) - thoroughfare, passage.

buggy - a two-wheeled cart

bike - bicycle

to wit

curb - a massive ornamental fireplace fender + curb (Slang) - thief's hook.

nostrum - a quack remedy

oxter - armpit + ULSTER - North province of Ireland. The arms of Ulster are a red right hand (lamh dearg) on a white shield (the arms of the O'Neils). 

alpenstock - a long staff pointed with iron, used in climbing the Alps, whence it has passed into general use in mountain climbing.

red hand - a heraldic hank that is erect, open and couped at the wrist + with red hand - with clear evidence of guilt.

commendable - proper to be commended, praiseworthy, laudable

Acta legitima plebeia (l) - Daily record of the lawful public acts of the common people. Acta at Rome included Acta publica, Acta Senatus, Acta Diurna, Acta Triumphorum but no known Acta L. P. (O Hehir, Brendan; Dillon, John M. / A classical lexicon for Finnegans wake) + legitime (l) - lawful.

on the brink of - on the the very verge of some state, time, event, or action

baulk = balk - to check, hinder, thwart (a person or his action)

to wit

bare (Danish) - just

BUTT BRIDGE - Aka Swivel Bridge. The last (and East-most) bridge as the Liffey flows except for the Loop Line Railway bridge. Erected 1879; named for the 19th-century politician Isaac Butt. 

go west - of the sun; also fig., to die, perish, disappear

the name Dublin derives from Irish dubh linn: black pool

naturligvis (Danish) - naturally + likewise - in the like or same manner, similarly.

thankfully - with thanks, gratefully

bereave - to deprive, rob, strip, dispossess (a person, etc., of a possession; Since 1650 mostly of immaterial possessions, life, hope, etc.) + well-behaved.

ringdove - a common European pigeon (Columba palumbus); also called ring-pigeon, wood-pigeon, cushat, or queest.

fearstruck - struck with or overwhelmed by fear + (notebook 1924): 'snake bites out of fear' Crawford: Thinking Black 252: 'For who does not know that a snake never really attacks a man, only bites out of fear, and only because you have stumbled over him in error' + feasting.

boa constrictor - large Brazilian serpent of the genus Boa; commonly applied to any great crushing snake.

quite pleased at having other people's weather (notebook 1924)

Atlantic Ocean

Phoenicia + Phoenix Park.

headway - advance, progress (in general)

conundrum - any puzzling question or problem; a riddle in the form of a question the answer to which involves a pun or play on words.

Mam (mam) (geal) - Breach, Mountain pass; village, Co. Galway + Joyce's note: 'Interpreter / – Maam'  † 'Ireland at the Bar', 197: Several years ago a sensational trial was held in Ireland. In a lonely place in a western province, called Maamtrasna, a murder was committed. Four of five townsmen, all belonging to the ancient tribe of the Joyces, were arrested. The oldest of them, the seventy year old Myles Joyce, was the prime suspect. Public opinion at the time thought him innocent and today considers him a martyr. Neither the old man nor the others accused knew English. The court had to resort to the services of an interpreter. The questioning, conducted through the interpreter, was at times comic and at times tragic. On one side was the excessively ceremonious interpreter, on the other the patriarch of a miserable tribe unused to civilized customs, who seemed stupefied by all the judicial ceremony.[...] The figure of this dumbfounded old man, a remnant of a civilization not ours, deaf and dumb before his judge, is a symbol of the Irish nation at the bar of public opinion + 'Maamtrasna, is anglicised as 'Maam Cross'.

Festus Joyce, Recess (notebook 1922-23) + 2 Slavies = Festus King (Joyce's list of characters in I.2-3-4)

tar and feather - to smear with tar and then cover with feathers: a punishment sometimes inflicted by a mob (esp. in U.S.) on an unpopular or scandalous character.

Romansch - one of the four national languages of Switzerland, along with German, Italian and French.

MAYO OF THE SAXONS - "Yew-Plain of the Saxons": Monastery, now ruins and site of village of Mayo 3 miles South of Balla, County Mayo; est. 7th century by St Colman for English monks from Inishbofin following disputes between Irish and English monks there [(notebook 1923): 'Mayo of the Saxons' → Fitzpatrick: Ireland and the Making of Britain 60: 'This going to school in Ireland was not a matter of one short generation. It became traditional and continuous. Thus a part of the university city of Armagh became known as "Saxon Armagh," and likewise part of Mayo became known as "Mayo of the Saxons"'].

far famed - that is famed to a great distance, well known

potheen (Anglo-Irish) - illicit whiskey

hale - to draw up, to constrain or draw forcibly to, to bring in violently, drag in.

Old Bailey - the seat of the Central Criminal Court in London

calends - the first day of any month in the Roman calendar

mars = march + calends of March - 1 March, first day of the Roman year.

incompatible - discordant, incongruous

indictment - Law. The legal process in which a formal accusation is preferred to and presented by a Grand Jury.

count - Law. Each particular charge in indictment + FDV: As if that would not do but little headway was made when a countryman Festy King who gave an address in Monaghan Joyce Country in the heart of a wellfamed poteen district was subsequently brought up on an improper improperly framed indictment of both courts.

equinox - the condition of having the days and nights of equal length. Also fig.

fetch - something that looks exactly like another, counterpart; the phantom double of a living person appearing as an omen of the death; a contrivance, dodge, trick + "One man's meat is another man's poison" ('meat' is often to be understood in the slang sense of 'penis') + fish + poisson (fr) - fish.

cushat - the wood-pigeon or ring-dove + to fly pigeons (Slang) - to steal coal.

overalls - an external covering, cloak, waterproof, trousers + ouver = over.

fesses - pl. of fess - a broad bar drawn horizontally across the middle of a heraldic field + fesses (fr) - buttocks + far fesso (it) - to make a fool of someone + faeces, battlefield (Russian General) + faces amidst (immodest).

in mids - amidst, in the middle (of)

field - Heraldry: the whole surface of a shield

Oje! (ger) - oh dear! + oyez! (Archaic) - hear! (a call opening a court session) + O yeah!

soaked - dull, lacking in animation; steeped, macerated; saturated, drenched; intoxicated

methylate - to impregnate with methanol + methylated spirit - form in which alcohol is most commonly employed for industrial purposes.

in dry dock - inactive, unemployed; in quarantine, in hospital + dry dock - a dock that can be kept dry for use during the construction or repairing of ships + dock - the enclosure in a criminal court in which the prisoner is placed at his trial.

ambrosia (gr, l) - food of the goods + aureolus (l) - golden + Ambrosius Aurelianus - semimythical champion who led the Romanised Britons against the invading Saxons in the 5th century.

kersey - a coarse woolen cloth for hose and work clothes, homespun + curse (stop thief!) = Kersse.

corduroy - a kind of coarse, thick-ribbed cotton stuff, worn chiefly by labourers or persons engaged in rough work.

rent - a large tear in garment

nightshirt - a nightgown resembling a shirt

straw - of the color of straw

souwester - a large oilskin or waterproof hat or cap worn by seamen to protect the head and neck during rough or wet weather.

corkscrew - resembling a corkscrew; spirally twisted; an imperfection in silk filaments.


out of the blue - unexpectedly, without warning

tear up - to pull asunder by force (esp. cloth or paper)

WALES - Principality of UK forming the wide peninsula on the West of the island of Britain. Lat, Cambria; Welsh, Cymry.  

bespoke - Of goods: Ordered to be made, tailor-made (as distinguished from ready-made) + bespeak - to be the outward expression of; to indicate, give evidence of.

CARCER - The small prison North-East of the Forum in Rome where criminals were held pending trial. From medieval times called the "Mamertine prison." + Mamer - Oscan name for Mars + meantime + The actual catalyst for Punic Wars was a request by some unscrupulous adventurers called the Mamertines, from Campania on the
western seaboard of the Italian peninsula. The Mamertines had fought in Sicily as mercenaries against the Carthaginians..

depose - to testify, bear witness; esp. to give evidence upon oath in a court of law

exute - to strip (a person) of, to divest of + exutio (l) - an exclusion + [a venia] exutio (eccl. l) - they who are excluded from divine forgivenness, the utterly reprobate (St. Ambrose) + (notebook 1924): 'exutoire' exutoire (fr) - outlet, release.

fluor - a flow or flowing; pl. = flowers + fluor (l) - flow.

sparse - to spread or disseminate (a rumour, doctrine, etc.) + speach

(notebook 1924): 'had the vocabulary royal Irish -' (dash dittoes 'vocabulary')

Peter, Jack, Martin - in Swift's Tale of a Tub, they are the Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran churches. In FW they are also the Three. 

suet - suit + three-piece suit + piezo-electricity - electric polarity in a substance (especially crystals [.04]) resulting from the application of mechanical pressure + "But the dour handworded her grace in dootch nossow: Shut!"

sulfate + soot and sulphur (i.e traces of gunpowder).

copperas - protosulphates of copper, iron and zinc

quite + quartz   

unaccountably - inexplicably

crystallization - the action of forming crystals, or of assuming a crystalline structure + fluorspar (fluorite) [.01], copperas [.03], quartz [.03] and alum [.04] are all crystalline.

alum - a whitish transparent mineral salt, crystallizing in octahedrons + Adam

strike fire - to produce (fire, a spark) by percussion, esp. by the percussion of flint and steel + Joyce's note: 'stick fire' + lit. Feuer anzustecken (ger) - to light a fire.

feacht (fyokht) (geal) - turn, time, occasion + in fact.

drip - Of a person or object: To have moisture or liquid falling off in drops; to be so copiously wet or saturated with as to shed drops; to complain, grumble.

pipkin - a small earthenware pot or pan, used chiefly in cookery

coold = cold

crown lawyer - a lawyer in the service of the Crown; a lawyer who practises in criminal cases.

P.C. - police constable (*S*)

Robert (Slang) - a policeman + rob (Serbian) - slave + Ort (ger) - place.


crowbar - an iron bar with a wedge-shaped end + crowbar brigade (Slang) - Irish constabulary + Cathal Crobhdhearg Ó Conchobhair deposed Roderick O'Connor, last High King of Ireland, in 1189 (Irish Crobh-dhearg: Red-fist).

milk + melecky (Arabic) - king + melekh (Hebrew) - king.

impersonate - to represent in a personal or bodily form; to personify; to play the part of.

pieces + pix (l) - tar.

peat moss - moss from which peat is forming

pluck (Anglo-Irish) = pluc (pluk) (geal) - cheek

puss (Anglo-Irish) = pus (Irish) = pusa (puse) (geal) - lips, mouth

clane = clean + Clane - village, County Kildare + Clontarf.

Middle White - a Yorkshire breed of pig

(notebook 1924): 'Eng. villages / White Ladies Aston / Martyr Worthy / Swine / Foulmire / Mucking / Mudford / Barton in the Beans / Great Snoring / Eggbuckland / Toft Monks / Nether Wallop / Toller Porcorum / Huish Champflower'.

of (Dublin Colloquial) - on (when referring to days of the week)

thoor (Anglo-Irish) - tower + Thursday.

feast + feis (fesh) (geal) - festival, convention + feist (ger) - fat.

peeler (Slang) - policeman + Feast of Saints Peter and Paul, or the Solemnity of Saints Peter and Paul, is a liturgical feast in honour of the martyrdom in Rome of the apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul, which is observed on 29 June. The celebration is of ancient origin, the date selected being the anniversary either of their death or of the translation of their relics + In a dialogue between Jesus and his disciples (Matthew 16:13-20), Jesus asks, “Who do people say that the Son of Man is?” The disciples give various answers. When he asks, "Who do you say that I am?" Simon Peter [Saint Peter] answers, "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God." In turn, Jesus declares Peter to be "blessed" for having recognized Jesus' true identity and attributes this recognition to a divine revelation. Then Jesus addresses Simon by what seems to have been the nickname "Peter" (Cephas in Aramaic, Petros [rock] in Greek) and says, "On this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it." 

rab (rob) (geal) - hog + Festy King and Crowbar.

Anthony - the patron saint of swine heards + Anthony (Slang) - smallest or favourite pig of a litter.

telephone book - a book containing an alphabetical list of the names, addresses, and numbers of telephone subscribers.

allegedly - in an alleged manner (cited, quoted, asserted but not proved)

pedigree - having a pedigree or recorded line of descent

unlicensed - unauthorized by license, lawless

hyacinth - bulbous plant with bell-shaped six-parted flowers, of various colours

cry crack - to give up, to desist

paddle wheel - a wheel used for propelling a boat or ship + Paddy Whack (song): This old man, he played one, / He played knick-knack on my thumb. / With a knick-knack, paddy whack, / Give a dog a bone, / This old man came rolling home + paddywhack - a spank or spanking.

trifling - frivolous, trivial, insignificant

amidst - in or into the middle or centre of

greybeard - an old man

suckling - an infant that is at the breast or is unweaned; a young animal that is suckled; esp. a sucking calf.

pauper - a person destitute of property or means of livelihood, a beggar.

matron - a married woman, usu. with the accessory idea of (moral or social) rank or dignity.

meg - woman, a country girl, boisterous woman

meddle - the action of meddling; a medley + middle

maelstrom - a very powerful whirlpool; a large, swirling body of water

convene - to come together, to assemble + (notebook 1924): 'convened' Irish Rivers, The Tolka 391/1: (of the village of Mullahuddart) 'boasted of an ancient society, established so early as the reign of Henry VI., A.D. 1532, the "Guild or fraternity of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mullahuddart." This guild is stated by Mr. Mason (Hist. St. Patrick's Cathedral) to have been established by Act of Parliament, convened by Richard Talbot, Archbishop of Dublin, and then Lord Justice'

pastoral - of or pertaining to shepherds or their occupation + prepostor - a senior pupil with delegated authority in certain English public schools (elsewhere known as a prefect or monitor) + Irish Agricultural Organisation Society - a union of agricultural co-operatives founded by Sir Horace Plunkett in 1894.

muck - the dung of cattle (usually mixed with decomposing vegetable refuse) used for manure + muc (muk) (geal) - pig.

looked me in face (Joyce's note) + (competition between Danish and Irish bacon industries).

attend - to present oneself, for the purpose of taking some part in the proceedings, at a meeting for business, worship, instruction, entertainment. 

larry - confusion, noise, excitement

pig is a taboo animal of Jews (totem and taboo animals are often connected) + "and attended, thanks to Larry, by large numbers of christies and jew's totems,"

despite - in spite of + to spiti (gr) - the house

distinctly - clearly, plainly, unmistakably

scattery - scattered, marked by scattering

bally - bloody (a vague epithet expressing anger, resentment, detestation) + (notebook 1924): 'Ballybricken pigs (Waterford)' Freeman's Journal 3 May 1924, 10/6: 'By the Way': 'Not far from the picturesque and busy Quay at Waterford is the far-famed Ballybricken, the heart of the bacon industry, and the home of the best-known body of pig-buyers in Ireland'.

cock of the walk - one that dominates a group or situation esp. overbaringly

fancy - executed with skill, complex or intricate; of superior grade, fine + the fancy (Slang) - prizefighting.

main - a principal channel, duct, or conductor for conveying water, sewage, etc. along the street of a town + mains (Slang) - cockfights.

doorway - the opening or passage which a door serves to close or open; the space in a wall occupied by a door and its adjuncts + Weg (ger) = weg (Dutch) - way + doorweg (Dutch) - way through.

pikey - a vagrant, a tramp (i.e. King)

ratepayer - taxpayer + the gentleman that (or who) pays the rent - a pig.

Saint Francis called all animals his brothers and sisters  

sty - an enclosed place where swine are kept, usually a low shed with an uncovered forecourt + {Festy}

stragglestreet (notebook 1924)

TROY - Ancient Troia, Ilion, on Ilium; city in the Troas, North-West Asia Minor, South of Dardanelles, modern Hissarlik; Troia, It "sow," slang "whore" + Hic Stat Troia (l) - Here Stands Troy + qui sta Troia (it) - here is Troy + questa troia! (it) - what a whore! + tròia (it) - sow.

pay off - to give all that is owing to and thus settle accounts with + (selling the pig to pay the rent).

doubloon - a Spanish gold coin (33 to 36 shillings) + six pounds fifteen [082.12-.13].

arrear - moneys due, debts

villain - Originally, a low-born base-minded rustic; a man of ignoble ideas or instincts; in later use, an unprincipled or depraved scoundrel; a man naturally disposed to base or criminal actions, or deeply involved in the commission of disgraceful crimes [(notebook 1924): 'villain'] + villein - serf, partially-free man under the complete control of a feudal lord (also spelled 'villain').

rumbler - one who makes a rumbling noise

rent - a tribute, tax, or similar charge, levied by or paid to a person + FDV: It was attempted to show that having come to rubbed some dirt on his face to disguise himself he was at the door fair of a Monday with a pig this animal ate some of the doorpost, King selling it because it ______ ate the woodwork off her sty.

anon - soon, in a short time, in a little while; at once, instantly

Wesleyan - of or pertaining to Wesley or his (methodist) teaching + W.C. - Wesleyan Chapel; Water Closet [.30] [.34-.35].

plain clothes - unofficial clothes

Wet Pinter [092.07]

situate - situated

null null (ger) - zero zero, sign for toilet

peagreen - (of) a colour like that of fresh green peas, a nearly pure but not deep green


sullenly - in a sullen manner, with gloomy or morose ill-humour

grill - to torment with heat; to subject to severe questioning.

bumper - a cup or glass of wine, etc., filled to the brim, esp. when drunk as a toast + Thomas Moore: Irish Melodies: song: One Bumper at Parting [air: Moll Roe in the Morning].

elicit - to extract, draw out (information) from a person by interrogation

morse - the sea-horse or walrus + walrus moustache - a large moustache which overhangs the lips (thus resembling the whiskers of a walrus) + Norse accents + Morse code.

mustacci (it) - moustache

god bless + gob (gob) (geal) - beak, snout + (onomat. of sneezing) + "for the anonymous "throat witness", sleeping throughout this entire scene, "obliffious" entirely of himself, is much more "pigstickularly" oblivious of the existence of his own shut mouth: he is "(gob-less)", and he just lies there, "stuck like a pig". Evidence given about exact dates and times designates as well the absence of perceived historical time altogether... The misheard echo of a Guy Fawkes Day chant - "Please to remember the fifth of November, gunpowder, treason and plot" - finally suggests that this entire Irish juridical nightmare, bearing obscurely on the annihilation of English reality and legality, actually threatens more the etymologically related properties of English reality and legibility. For ultimately on trial in this starnge legal scene is not simply the taxed evidence of the senses, but all the exacting rules of evidence by which the innately formless senses of sight and hearing have been disciplined over years both of personal and cultural history to bear witness on an "audible-visible-gnosible-world"..." (John Bishop: Joyce's Book of the Dark).

bonafide - (orig. used with agent nouns, or those involving some quality, as in 'bona fide purchaser', 'bona fide poverty', 'bona fide traveller'.) Acting or done in good faith; sincere, genuine.

..."be (sleeping) ^doorbringing^ there that night and how he was pleased to remember"... (The typesetter who reset the lines and produced the actual transition text dropped the doubled "that" and somehow managed to misread the instruction about "doorbringing"--though it is clearly marked with matching indexing symbols and a connecting line to replace "sleeping". But (and here's where the opportunity for new interpretation presents itself) why in the world is "doorbringing" a substitute for "sleeping"? What can he mean when he says he'll be doorbringing there that night?) (Bill Cadbury, 10 Sep. 1996).

fifth + FDV: An eyewitness said he remembered the fifth of November [which was going to go down in the annals of history] & one thing that particularly struck him was he saw or heard unquestionably a man named Pat O'Donnell beat & murder another of the Kings, Simon, but when the ambush was laid there was not as much light as wd light dim a child's altar and to the perplexedly uncondemnatory bench, the first King, Festy, declared through his interperter on his oath & before God & their honours that he did not fire a stone either before or after he was born up to that day & this he supplemented had the neck to supplement in the same language by postasserting that he wd impart he might never ask to see sight or light of this world or the next world [or any other world] if ever he took or threw the sign of a stone either before or after being baptised up to that blessed & holy hour. 

throw one's hat in the ring - to enter a political race, to issue a challenge

rowdy - a rough, disorderly person; one addicted to quarrelling, fighting, or disturbing the peace.

jubilee - the fiftieth anniversary of an event + giboulées d'avril (fr) - April showers.

Juno - Roman godess (daughter of Saturn, wife of Jupiter) + June.

ould = old + Auld Lang Syne (song): 'days of Auld Lang Syne'.


rainmaker - a member of a tribal community believed or claiming to be able to procure rain by the use of magic + Pluvius (l) - epithet of Jupiterr, Roman chief god and Juno's husband.

decem (l) - ten + December (l) - tenth month of the Roman year.

ephemerides - an almanac or calendar of any kind; in early use esp. one containing astrological or meteorological predictions for each day of the period embraced.

profane - not possessing esoteric or expert knowledge

all one - alone

TOURNAY - City, 45 miles South-West of Brussels, Belgium + today 

Teamhair (t'our) (geal) - Prospective Hill, Co. Meath, ancient seat of high king: anglic. Tara; distorted to Temora by Macpherson.

pigstick - to hunt the wild boar on a horseback with a spear stright + particularly

sorely - painfully; severely, violently, extremely

tried - found good or trusworthy through experience or testing; subjected to trials or distress.

Shem (*V*), Ham (*C*) and Japhet (*Y*)

Tennyson, Charge of the Light Brigade: Their's not to make reply, Their's not to reason why, Their's but to do and die.

Hyacinthus (l) - Laconian youth beloved by Apollo who accidentally killed him, the flower sprang from his blood.

O'Domhnaill (o'donel) (geal) - descendant of Domhnall ("world-mighty") + Pat O'Donnell shot James Carey (the informer that gave evidence against the Phoenix Park murderers) dead, when the latter was on his way to settle in South Africa under the assumed name of Power [.16-.21].

BA (notebook 1924) + B.A. - Bachelor of Arts degree [088.16].

calendar - a list or register of any kind

mixer - one that mixes (paint, drug...); a person marked by easy sociability; a trouble maker; a bartender + mixer [088.04].

wordpainter - a writer of vivid or graphic descriptive power + W.P. [086.34].

si vis pacem (l) - if you want peace + si vis pacem, para bellum (l) - 'if you would have peace, prepare for war' (i.e. parabellum pistol) + civis (l) - citizen.

Gaeltacht - a region in Ireland in which Irish is the vernacular; also, these regions collectively.

dungfork - a three- or four-pronged fork used to lift or spread dung

Fair Green - area southwest of the wall of medieval Dublin

24 o'clock (Joyce's note) → Gallois: La Poste et les Moyens de Communication 142: 'counting the hours of the day uninterruptedly from midnight to midnight, without differentiating between morning hours and evening hours, something that greatly complicates current schedules'.

BALLYCASSIDY - Town, County Fermanagh + BULLY ACRE - Ancient cemetery of Kilmainham, corner of SCR and Royal Hospital Road. Closed 1832 after thousands of burials in cholera epidemic + Baile Ui Chaiside (bolyi khoshidi) (geal) - Town of the Descendants of Caiside ("curled"); anglic. Ballycassidy.

Friedhof (ger) - cemetery + Friede (ger) - peace + hoffen (ger) - to hope.

sack - to put (a person) in a sack to be drowned

sock - to beat, strike hard, hit

stab - to wound (often to kill) with a thrust of a pointed weapon (chiefly, with a short weapon, as a dagger).

'ghus Mac Cathail (gus mok kohil) (geal) - "-choice, son of Battle-mighty".


changeling - a child secretly substituted for another in infancy; a half-witted person (arch.)

unlocalized - not fixed in, attached or restricted to, a certain locality

noncommunicable - not capable of being communicated

eversince - throughout all the time before or after a specified date

wallop - a heavy resounding blow; a whack

LEWES - The county town of Sussex, England. After Simon de Montfort defeated Henry III on 14 May 1264, he extracted from Henry the document called the "Mise of Lewes," in which Henry promised to abide by the Magma Carta and other documents and customs limiting royal prerogative.  

bad blood - resentment, ill feeling

on the ground of - by reason of

boer (Dutch) - farmer + Boer - South African of Dutch extraction + John Bull - a personification of England + bears and bulls - speculators for falls and rises, respectively, on the Stock Exchange.

twoway - extending in two directions or dimensions

fox and grapes

ant and grasshopper  

nippy - Formerly, a waitress in one of the restaurants of J. Lyons & Co. Ltd., London; hence, any waitress; sharp, quick, active, nimble + "After an unpleasant visit with Gogarty (Buck Mulligan in Ulyssess; Oliver St. John Gogarty was an ear, eye, nose and throat specialist), Joyce’s paranoid desire for betrayal came true in another old friend, Vincent Cosgrave (grimly renamed Lynch in Portrait). Cosgrave now claimed he and Nora had had an affair during the beginning of her relationship with Joyce."

novelette - a story of moderate length having the characteristics of a novel + novelletta (it) - short story.

butt and taff = shut! and thief = mute and deaf

meathe - a maggot, worm + Midhe (mi) (geal) - "Middle," former fifth (royal) province, now Co. Meath, N.W. of Dublin.

litigant - a person engaged in a lawsuit or dispute

Conga (kunge) (geal) - "Strait," religious settlement, Co. Mayo; anglic. Cong, where Roderick O'Connor, last high king, retired in old age + kingsman - a partisan of the king; a royalist; the King's men: a name for the dramatic company otherwise known as 'the King's Majesty's Servants' under James I.

Domhnall (donel) (geal) - "World-mighty"

king of arms - an officer of arms (herald) of the highest rank + ARAN ISLANDS - Islands off Galway Bay.

Dalkey, King of - "His facetious Majesty, King of Dalkey, King of Mugleins Sovereign of the Illustrious Order of the Periwinkle and the Lobster." He was a figure in an 18th-century burlesque ceremony, which the English suppressed and the Free State revived.  

Mud Island, King of - hereditary robber chieftain who ruled a gang of smugglers and highwaymen. 

TORY ISLAND - Island, 7 miles off North coast of County Donegal; The island was noted for its various clays, used for heat-resistant pottery. The islanders traditionally elected a "king."

god king - a human ruler believed to be a god

Killorglin, Goat King of - Killorglin, Co. Kerry, holds a Puck Fair at Lammas. A male goat, called Puck, is paraded as king of the fair. 

egg - to provoke to action, incite, encourage

bowstring - to strangle with a bowstirng (the string of a bow) + Strongbow - leader of the Anglo-Normans who invaded Ireland.

CARTHAGE - Ancient Phoenician city, North Africa, on coast North-East of modern Tunis, noted for sea power and the Punic Wars with Rome. Cato the Elder proclaimed that Rome must destroy Carthage: "Delenda est Carthago." An 18th-century theory held that the Irish people was of Carthaginian origin. The women of Carthage, at the final siege by the Romans, 146 B.C., cut off their hair to make bowstrings. 

ruddiness - the quality or state of being ruddy (red or reddish) + carrotty ruddiness (i.e. orange-red).

crimson - deep red somewhat inclining towards purple

petty - petticoat

Isod's Tower, Essex Street, Dublin, demolished 1675

thickset - set or placed close together; closely arranged

bohereen - a narrow country road esp. in hilly country + BOHERNABREENA - Bóthar-na-Bruighne, "Road of the mansion." Townland, road, and reservoir, 2 miles South of Tallaght in Glenasmole; named for the famous "Hostel of Da Derga," destroyed by pirates ca 1st century AD. It was the site of a famous murder and execution in 1816: one Kearney and his 2 sons were hanged for the hatchet slaying of a gamekeeper.  

bang banagher - to surpass everything + BANAGHER - Village, County Offaly, on Shannon River. To anything unusual, people say, "Well, that bangs Banagher" (P W Joyce).  

mick - Irishman + Mic (mik) (geal) - Son; Mr. in Mac names + mixer.

O'Donnabhair (o'donawir) (geal) - descendant of Donnabhar ("brown eyebrow") + song: O'Donnell abú (O'Donnell to victory!) + Hyacinth O'Donnell.

ay - Ah! O! (now the common northern exclamation of surprise, invocation, earnestness).

relics - the remains of a person; the body, or part of the body, of one deceased + relics (Slang) - male sex organs.

bu = boo - a sound imitating the lowing of oxen; also used to express contempt, disapprobation, aversion.

give tongue - properly of a hound: to give forth its voice when on the scent or in sight of the quarry. Also transf. of persons.

mor = more + tungc mór (Irish) - big push

ooze - to pass as through pores or minute interstices, and so slowly or gradually

deadman - corpse + Joyce's note: 'deadmen's dark scenery court' Douglas: London Street Games 5: 'Dead Man's Rise (also called Dead Man's Dark Scenery or Coat) is one of these jacket-games, where one party has to hide, covered up in their coats'.

crossexamination - a careful examination + exanimatio (l) - terror.

case hardened - insensible, callous; hardened on the surface (as the male testis is) + (notebook 1924): 'casehardened' Irish Times 9 Aug 1924, 7/3: 'Irish Plays at the Abbey. Tailteann Literary Awards': 'Mr. Compton Mackenzie... said that one book... had stood. Although he was a hardened reader and writer - case-hardened and shameless perhaps - he had read it at a sitting'.

testis (l) - a witness; a testicle

night of nights

threeparted - having three parts, tripartite (*VYC*)

spout - to discharge a liquid or other substance in a copious jet or stream; fig. To engage in declamation or recitation; to make a speech or speeches, esp. at great length or without much matter + speaking.

twixt - between

WATERHOUSE AND CO - Silversmiths, jewellers, and watchmakers, South side of Dame Street. Projecting at right angles over the sidewalk, Waterhouse's clock spelled out its name (clockwise, naturally) from "W" at "3."

Central European Time 

Stop & think! (Joyce's note)

environs - the outskirts, surrounding districts, of a town + sempervirens (l) - evergreen.

Apfel (ger) - apple + Abfall (ger) - garbage, rubbish, litter; apostasy, rebellion + appletree (Garden of Eden).

auld = old + all

widowed - deprived of a partner; deserted, solitary [(notebook 1924): '(the widowed moon)'].

dim - to make dim, obscure, or dull; to render less clear, or distinct

bluntly - rudely, without ceremony or delicacy; abruptly, curtly

broach - to begin conversation or discussion about, introduce, moot; to pierce, stab

in the best - in the best possible way, manner or condition

basel - the alleged name according to Holinshed (and copyists down to the present day) of certain pieces of money abrogated by Henry II., of which numismatists have no knowledge + [best] manner.

to boot - in addition, over and above, besides + Baselbut (ger) - region around Basel.

Travers Smith: Psychic Messages from Oscar Wilde 6: 'I was always one of those for whom the visible world existed'.

gnosa (gr) - knowledge

edible - eatable, fit to be eaten

cognitively - in a cognitive (rel. to process of knowing) manner

conatively - in a conative manner; with volition, with exertion + conatum (l) - undertaking, attempt, venture, hazard.

cogitabund - musing, meditating, deep in thought

morphomelosophopankreas (gr) - flesh-all-shaped-skillfully-by-music + morpho (gr) - to shape, form + melos (gr) - music + sophos (gr) - skilled + pan (gr) - all, everything + kreas (gr) - flesh, meat + pankreas (gr) - "all meat": pancreas + pan krates (gr) - all-powerful.

significantly - so as to convey some meaning; expressively, meaningly

"The clitoris in the vagina and the tongue in the mouth are simbolized by the clapper in the bell or the hammer striking the gong... (Kenneth Grant: Outside the Circles of Time).

lug - ear

truie (fr) - sow + true + three.


This King Business (notebook 1923)

pediculous - infested with lice, lousy + pedantically + perfectly.


certified - made certain; assured; certainly informed

morbus - disease + Morbus (l) - "Disease": a deity (personification) + morbus pediculosus (l) - "lousy disease": ancient disease, in which the body swarmed with lice + corpus.

William Shakespeare: Othello + telo (Serbian) - body.

quite - completely, wholly, altogether, entirely

szerda (Hungarian) - Wednesday + sreda (Serbian) - Wednesday + (Was it a Thursday?).

satyr - one of a class of woodland gods or demons, in form partly human and partly bestial, supposed to be the companions of Bacchus.

William Shakespeare: Othello III.3.165-166: 'O, beware, my lord, of jealousy! It is the green-eyed monster'.

it's like his poll (notebook 1924)

Irish Independent 5 Jun 1924, 5/4: 'West Cork Horror': (a police sergeant testifying in a trial of murder and dismemberment of a farmer by most of his family members) 'Witness took the head out of a sack and turned an electric torch on it, and asked Leary could he identify it... "I am not sure, but it is like his poll".'

crossgrained - given to opposition, contrarious, perverse, queer tempered + (notebook 1924): 'a coarsegrained person with odd hips & twitching mouth' Freeman's Journal 6 Jun 1924, 7/1: '"Wicked Fast Woman"': (in a libel trial) 'Mrs Copeman... said Miss Thurburn signed a letter sent to her in which there was a reference to "a coarse-grained person with two left feet, odd hips, and twitching eyes"'.

trapper - one who sets traps; spec. one engaged in trapping wild animals for their furs.

murteus (l) - dark, brown + (notebook 1924): 'Murty'.

oog (Dutch) - eye

inquiline - an animal which lives in the nest or abode of another + aquiline - eaglelike (esp. of the nose) + inquilino (it) - tenant + naso inquilino (it) - tenant nose (a not uncommon blunder for Italian naso aquilino: aquiline nose, among people who speak with affectation).

nase = nose

twitch - to move (the skin, etc.) spasmodically or convulsively + treacherous

beat you out

tanyer (Hungarian) - plate

asztal (Hungarian) - table

balra (Hungarian) - to the left

jobbra (Hungarian) - to the right

major + majar (sp) - to be tiresome.

bore - a tiresome or uncongenial person; one who wearies or worries + magyar bor (Hungarian) - Hungarian wine.

igenis (Hungarian) - yes indeed + I guess + a Guinness.

..."And with / a stopper head, bottle shoulders, a barrel (belly) ^bauck^ and / tumblerous legs"... (The words preceding "tumblerous" are carried on with only one change ("belly" --> "bauck"); by level 9 they make up exactly one line of the marked pages of transition 4 prepared for the typesetter of Finnegans Wake, namely 46.209.35. The line is skipped in the typesetting of the first galley proofs (49.117.31), and should surely be thought of as part of Joyce's intention; I propose it as an emendation. One notices how much better the rhythm and clearer the meaning with it restored) (Bill Cadbury, 14 Oct. 1992) + (The FW galley printer omits an entire line, line 35 from the transition overlay (JJA 46:209), and one in which Joyce even changes a word (bauck for belly), not destroying the question-answer series (as in the next omission) but leaving out essential information pointing to publican HCE as the litigating party turned prosecuted (as in the Oscar Wilde case). (At least I have the impression that such turnabouts happen here.) (Robbert-Jan Henkes, 18 May 2002).

tumble - to stumble by tripping over an object

redip - to rebaptize + was he renamed H.E.R.E. C.O.M.E.S. E.V.E.R.Y.O.N.E.?

erchwyn (Welsh) - side, bedside + Burke's Peerage lists 'Lyulph Ydwallo Odin Nestor Egbert Lyonel Toedmag Hugh Erchenwyne Saxon Esa Cromwell Orma Nevill Dysart Plantagenet Bentley', born 1876, under 'Tollemache-Tollemache' (acronym: LYONEL THE SECOND).

Egbert - 9th century king of Wessex and father of Ethelwulf

Vercingetorix (d. 46) - Gallic chieftain who revolted against Julius Caesar  

Ethelwulf - king of the West Saxons

Rupert, Prince (1619-82) - nephew of Charles I, for whom he fought bravely in the Great Rebellion. 

YGGDRASIL - The "world-tree" of Norse myth, an evergreen ash tree whose roots, trunk, and branches bind together hell, earth, and heaven. Its three roots go down into the realm of death, giants and gods (Asgard). Beneath it the 3 Normans live by the Spring of Fate. "Ygg" is one of the names of Odin + REFERENCE

Eiffel Tower, Paris


daffodil - a common English name for narcissus + (*IJ*) + between the devil and the deep sea (phrase).

address - to speak or write to (someone) as (the title or name specified)

de bholóig (Irish) - of an ox + vo [pl. volovi] (Serbian) - ox [pl. oxen] + eau de Cologne.

Matthew 27:51: 'and the rocks rent' + Ragnarøkr (Old Norse) - destruction of the Norse gods.

Vancouver, George (1738-78) - English explorer for whom a Canadian city is named + (*VYC*) + The Three Wicked Uncoverings - a triad of taboos in Welsh myth (In the days after the Romans pulled out of Britain and told the inhabitants to fend for themselves. The Island was ruled by many petty kings and self-styled Emperors, fashioned after the Empire of the Roman invaders. Many of these people were Celts, full-blooded Romans, or a Romano-Celtic mix. Many of these inhabitants wanted to rule over the entire island, but only one man would come out victorious. This is the story of three of these men who were too proud and sacrificed the independence of Britain and allowed the Outlanders - Saxons, Jutes, Danes, and Angles - to slowly enter the Island and finally conquer. Legend states that the reason these Outlanders came was because of the uncovering of three sacred things. The first were the two dragons, the red and the white, which were buried under a mound in North Wales. These dragons were uncovered by the tyrant Vortigern in an attempt to quell the Welsh. The second was the bones of Vortimer, the son of Vortigern. These were uncovered also by Vortigern at the request of his Saxon Bride Rowena. The third of these to be uncovered was the head of Bran, which was said to watch over the enemies across the channel. The Uther Ben or "beautiful head" was uncovered by Arthur because he felt he didn't need the help of Bran and believed he could defend Britain on his own accord).

awhit - to a very small extent, a very little + Thomas Moore: song: Fairest! Put on Awhile [air: Cummilum].

you bet it + yube (Japanese) - nigh.

kingdom come - (from the clause thy kingdom come in the Lord's Prayer) heaven or paradise; the next world + cumbalum (l) - cymbal.

oxman - a man who tends or drives oxen + Ostman - Viking.

thingumbob - Used (in undignified speech) to indicate vaguely a thing (or person) of which the speaker cannot at the moment recall the name, or which he is at a loss or does not care to specify precisely; a 'what-you-may-call-it' + Thing - Viking council.

hvad (Danish) - eh? what?

refreshed + fresque (fr) - fresco.

fount - a spring, source, fountain

gurgling - that gurgles; emitting a sound as of bubbling liquid or purling water + There is a green island In lone Gougane Barra (song) + Gougane Barra (Irish: Guagán Barra, meaning "Barra's retreat enclosed by mountains") is a settlement, west of Macroom in County Cork, Ireland. The name Gougane Barra comes from Saint Finbarr, who is said to have built a monastery on an island in the lake nearby during the 6th century.

Fitzgerald, Lord Edward (1763-98) - conspirator of ' 98, betrayed by Francis Higgins, captured by Major Sirr, married to Pamela.

Sidney, Sir Philip (1554-86) - English poet, soldier whose father was lord deputy of Ireland. 500.21 refers to his alleged incest with his sister Mary, Countess of Pembroke + Sir Philip Crampton - 19th century Dublin surgeon (his monument had drinking fountains attached). 

Sheridan, Philip Henry (1831-88) - American Union general

gargle - to make a gurgling sound

The Five Lamps - a five-way junction in Dublin, adjoining Portland Row

Virgin Mary + P. Vergilius Maro - Roman epic poet + virkelig (Danish) - real.

lave - to wash, bathe + living + laving (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - leaving.

the name Dublin derives from Irish dubh linn: black pool

Tem - creator god in The Book of the Dead

butt - to strike with head or horns + bet


win - racing term used to describe a 1st place finish

place - racing term for finish in the top two, top three, top four and sometimes also top five in a competition or event. A Place bet will win if the selection you bet on is among those placed. Usually, a horse runs a place if it finishes in the first three in fields of eight or more horses. If there are only six or seven runners the horse must finish first or second to place.

stoker - one who feeds and tends a furnace

eavesdrop - to stand within the 'eavesdrop' of a house in order to listen to secrets; hence, to listen secretly to private conversation, to listen to the secrets of (a person).

avatar - the descent of a deity to the earth in an incarnate form; manifestation; display.

dreamers + Dromios - twins in William Shakespeare's 'The Comedy of Errors' + dromios (gr) - twins [McHugh has dromios meaning "twins" in Greek, which is inaccurate: is a rare form of name of the Greek god of the racecourse (David Hyman, Sam Slote: Genetic studies in Joyce)].

Dromios (gr) - god of the racecourse + dromos (gr) - racecourse + drøm (Norwegian) - dream.

as like as two peas - having the same or closely resembling characteristics

lentil - the seed of a leguminous plant (Ervum lens, Lens esculenta) + Esau sold his birthright for pottage of lentils (Genesis 25) + as alike as two peas in a pod - two identical items or people (this simile, of course, derives from the fact that two peas from the same pod are virtually indistinguishable).


pelt - to thrust away or out

coram populo - before the people, in public

by the powers! - Exclamation originating in its application to the pagan divinities

in principal - principally, chiefly + Niccolo Machiavelli: Il Principe (The Prince).

Machiavelli's principles - methods preferring expediency to morality + ma che vuole! (it) - what does he want!

Roosky - Russian + Rooskay - village, County Roscommon.

kamerad - comrade, companion

Norwegian + Galwegian - inhabitant of Galloway, Scotland.

bishop + drunk as a fish (phrase).

whither - whether

smuke - to smoke

burst into flames - to go on fire; to inflame with anger, passion or zeal

phlegm - the thick viscid fluid or semifluid substance secreted by the mucous membranes, esp. of the respiratory passages; mucus.

ejaculation - the hasty utterance of words expressing emotion; the discharging of the male sperm + Ajacis (l) - Ajax + Ajaccio - capital of Corsica.

crosscut (intersect) lane + 'Cruiskeen Lawn' (little full jug) - Irish air + Corsican + Joyce's uncle supposedly resembled the Marquess of Lorne. 

cosa (kuse) (geal) - legs, feet + cossa (Italian Dialect) - what?

corso - a pompous step or walk + corso (it) - course.

cursus - curse + in cursu (l) - in progress, underway + ricorso (Italian) - recurring (Vico).

coarse - rough, rude, uncivil, vulgar + curse + Father O'Flynn (song): 'sláinte and sláinte and sláinte again'.

"Yellow Wat and the Fox" is the air of T Moore's "Oh Doubt Me Not" + {Was the gracious miss aware of how the song was altered?}

alter (geld) [notebook 1924] Jespersen: The Growth and Structure of the English Language 248 (sec. 247): 'to alter is said in the Southern States instead of to geld'.

easily + usually + Esau (and Jacob two lines below)

O'Dubhda (o'dude) (geal) - descendant of Dubhda ("black") + {She usually was, oh doubt me not!}

see you Sunday (Joyce's note) → Key: John McCormack, His Own Life Story 424: '"So-long," he replied, "see you Thursday"'.

pederast - lower of boys, one that practices pederasty, a sodomite + pedigree

prig - a thief; a spruce fellow, a dandy + pig

bejabers - by Jesus (exclamation)

gentleman who pays the rent - a pig + lent - loan.

middle class - the class of society between the 'upper' and the 'lower' class.

portavorax (l) - gate-devouring (O Hehir, Brendan; Dillon, John M. / A classical lexicon for Finnegans wake).

bynight - a letter dispatched by the night post

god tempers the wind to the shorn lamb - god is merciful to those who had suffered misfortune + (notebook 1924): 'a vomit to a poor man 3d' + useful as damn it! (phrase).

Ragnar Lodbrok ("shaggy breeches") - Viking, saga hero who, tradition says, died in Ireland + recognized 

court martial - a judicial court, consisting of military or naval officers, for the trial of military or naval offences, or the administration of martial law.

Corcaigh (kurki) (geal) - Swamp; anglic. Cork

skilly - an insipid beverage, tea or coffee, watery porridge or soup + sceillig (shkelig) (geal) - Reef; rocky islands off Co. Kerry; anglic. Skelligs; also, the Scillies.

gart (gort) (geal) - planted field; letter G; hospitality + Londonderry (Ulster), Cork (Munster), Skerries (Leinster), Gort (Connacht).

gate - method, way, technique, style + Irish riddle: 'Londonderry, Cork and Kerry, Spell me that without an R'; answer: 'THAT'.

heliotrope (Clytie pined for Apollo and turned into a heliotrope)

grazing rights - the rights of using grazing ground or pasture land

magistra (l) - mistress 

expiry - expiration

goodsire - grandfather

worshipful - honorific title for persons or bodies of distinguished rank or importance.

waders - waterproof boots reaching above the knee

recipis (l) - you get back, retain, receive + recipe

velocipede - wheel; an early form of the bicycle or tricycle

kitcat - a portrait of less than half length but including the hands + that

maunder - to talk in the dreamy and foolish manner characteristic of dotage or imbecility; to ramble or wander in one's talk + 'A Tuscan tongue in a Roman mouth', i.e., Roman pronunciation and Tuscan syntax, is a definition of good Italian + maundering (Archaic) - begging + mandarin (T.S. Eliot's style has been described as 'mandarin').

pondering + Ezra Pound translated Chinese poetry.

further orders + Our Father + ourdir (French) - to hatch (a plot).

pronunciation + pre- (i.e. pronunciation of initial letters [.17]).

distributary - distributive; something whose function is to distribute; applied to branch canals distributing water from a main one.

ending - termination, conclusion, completion

Quare hircum (l) - Why the goat?

Unde gentium fe[stines] (l) - Whence on earth are you hurrying? Where are you hurrying from? + unde (l) - from where.

ah - O! Oh! + no answer + Noah + Albert and Victoria Nyanza - the two western reservoirs of the Nile.

siar (shir) (geal) - westward, backward + sir, indeed.

intendant - one who has the charge, direction, or superintendence of a department of public business, the affairs of a town or province, the household of a prince or nobleman, etc.; a superintendent, a manager + attendant

Ogma Sun-face - Irish god, inventor of ogam (on ogham) letters + Macalister: The Secret Languages of Ireland 47-48 lists types of Ogham ciphers: Shirt-of-two-strokes Ogham, Mac (or Son) Ogham, Finn's-ladder Ogham (has three forms).

threeheaded - having three heads + Macalister: The Secret Languages of Ireland 47-48 lists types of Ogham ciphers: Finn's-three-shanked Ogham, Head-in-a-bush Ogham, Head-uder-a-bush Ogham.

Ogma Sun-face invented Ogham

bait - to tease, rouse, to entice by bait + bate (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - beat.

millrace - the current of water that drives a mill wheel + Macalister: The Secret Languages of Ireland 47-48 lists types of Ogham ciphers: Serpent-through-the-heather Ogham, Millrace Ogham.

a, b, c, d, e, f + Macalister: The Secret Languages of Ireland 47-48 lists types of Ogham ciphers: Arm Ogham, Bird Ogham, Colour Ogham + deaf and dumb (Ogham is a sign and gesture language, thus similar to deaf and dumb sign language).

g, h, j + glonsk (Shelta) - man.

(Ogham is spoken with the hands)  

Jotalpheson - Jason In The Secret Languages of Ireland (90-91), MacAlister says that in Bog Latin certain letters in Irish words are replaced by the name of the Irish letter-of-the-alphabet, "as if a Greek meaning Jason called him 'Jotalphason'."

hokey - a mild oath; hokey pokey, something worthless or untrue + Holy

Jesus + Jason - leader of the Argonauts in the quest for the golden fleece. Legend says he came to Ireland. 

epexegesis (gr) - detailed explanation, addition of words to clarify the meaning intended in a preceding sentence + Pegasos (gr) - winged horse of the Muses + Macalister: The Secret Languages of Ireland 47-48 lists types of Ogham ciphers: Pig (Muc) Ogham.

pontiff - a chief or high priest (of any religion); a bishop (of the mediæval Western church); spec. and usually, the bishop of Rome, the pope + (Laudabiliter) [090.03].

true + Ture (ger) - door + sure as there's a tail on a cat (phrase) + italic.

athach (Irish) - peasant; churl; stammerer; giant


joss - a Chinese figure of a deity, an idol + joss (Pidgin) - God + Jesus.

leally - loyally, truly, free from error + realy


handkerchief + Hankou - city in China (a revolutionary centre in 1911; also spelled Hankow).

whence - from what place?

(tones play a significant role in Chinese)

Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925) - father of a Chinese revolution, the first provisional president of the Republic of China (in 1912).

kowtow - Chinese custom of touching the ground with one's forehead as a mark of respect

bukser (Danish) - trousers

sola (l) - alone + sol (l) - sun solaris (l) - pertaining to the sun + sistra (l) - metallic rattles used in worship of Isis.

make odds even - to equalize or level inequalities, to adjust or do away with differences; to do away with, atone for, remit, or forgive shortcomings and transgressions.

at defiance - at enemity or hostility + Defiance - a black colt raced in the 1920s.


The Liberator (of Ireland) - designation applied by his followers to Daniel O'Connell + laus laboris (l) - praise of the work + Pope Adrian IV's Bull Laudabiliter granted Ireland to Henry II.

displace - to remove or shift from its place; to put out of the proper or usual place + unplaced - (of horses in a race) not among the three first finishers.

Tom, Dick, and Harry - any men taken at random from the common run + tobh (Hebrew) - good.

Dilke, Sir Charles (1848-1910) - Gladstonian M.P. who got into a sexual scandal (?three abed) but came back to politics, as Parnell did not. Mr Senn found a political song: "Master Dilke / Upset the Milk / When Taking it Home to Chelsea". It goes on: "He let the cat-the naughty cat-/Slip out of the Gladstone bag ... Won't it be a dainty dish! To set before the Queen?"   

change the venue - Law. to change the place where a jury is summoned to come for the trial of a case + vender - one who sells; a seller; sometimes in restricted sense, a street-seller.

King's Head - name of several old Dublin pubs


as to - as it regards, so far as it concerns, with respect or reference to

pugnacity - tendency or inclination to fight; quarrelsomeness + pugnax (l) - fond of fighting.

evince - to prove by argument or evidence, to make evident or manifest + evinxi (l) - I wound round.

flagfall - the falling or dropping of a flag to indicate the start of a race

antepost -  bet placed before the day of the race (horse racing)

effray - an attack; a disturbance esp. one caused by fighting, a fray

father time - time personified esp. as an old man who is bald, bearded and holding a scythe and water jar.

backside - the back, the rear; the back premises, back yard

regent - a variety of potato + het regent (Dutch) - it's raining + regens (Dutch) - rains.

plantsoen (Dutch) - park, public gardens

skiddy - likely to skid, treacherously slippery

morken (Norwegian) - rotten, decayed + Morgen (ger) - morning.

wind up - a state of nervous anxiety or fear; a trick or particular joke

wildfire - a furious or destructive fire; lightning esp. sheet lightning without audible thunder + Walpurgis Night - a pre-Christian May Day celebration.

KATTY GOLLOGHER - Popular name for the hill over the Ballycorus lead mines, near Enniskerry, County Wicklow + Gallaghers, Betty - two moons, for gealach is Irish "moon, moonlight." 


Schreck (ger) - terror, horror, fright

welkin - the apparent arch or vault of heaven overhead; the sky, the firmament. Also, in phrases descriptive of loud sounds, as to make the welkin ring, to rend the welkin, etc. + Wilkinson Sword - an English brand of razors, scissors, gardening tools (and originally swords).

toasting fork - a long handled fork used to toast bread or other food over an open fire; a sword, rapier (Colloquial).

prick - to pierce, or indent with a sharp point

prong - each pointed tine or division of a fork

tunny - a scombroid fish of the genus Orcynus

Genesis 1:3: 'Let there be light'

Focht (ger) - (fechten) fencing, swordsmanship, fight

on the side of the angels - in favour of a spiritual interpretation (of human nature); more loosely, on the side of right despite the risk of unpopularity.

Guinness - brand of stout + gynê (gr) - woman + stop gap - an utterance intended to fill up a gap or an awkward pause in conversation or discourse + in Norse Eddas, the Ginnunga-gap is the interval between aeons.

garth - a small yard or enclosure; a small piece of enclosed ground usu. beside house, used as a yard or garden + Genesis 3:3: 'But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die' + Midgaard - the Earth in Old Norse literature.

solicitress - a female solicitor; a female who entices to immorality [Joyce's note: 'Solicitress'] + *IJ*.

fort - a fortified place, stronghold + Slattery's Mounted Foot - Percy French's song about comic Irish peasant warriors, extravagant in heroic wish, cowardly in act. 

Jah - Jehovah + ja (ger) = ja (Danish) - yes.

Gemellus (l) - "twin" + Gamal and Camel - legendary doorkeepers at Tara during the reign of King Nuad.

parfait (fr) - perfect [(notebook 1923): 'Parfait!']

obsolute = absolute

egregious - conspicuously and outrageously bad or reprehensible

allude - to have an oblique, covert, or indirect reference, to point as it were in passing.

hole in the wall - any small, obscure place; spec. in the U.S., a place where alcoholic drinks are sold illegally; business that is very small, mean, dingy, or the like, or a person running such a business + 'The Hole in the Wall' - pub at the Cabra Gate of Phoenix Park, also called 'Nancy Hand's' + Chart: The Story of Dublin 319: (of Northern suburbs of Dublin, near Phoenix Park) 'The district is connected also with the old times of bribery at elections. There is still a place known as "The Hole in the Wall," where the virtuous elector used to pass his empty hand through an aperture and withdraw it again filled with guineas by some unseen benefactor beyond'.

elude - to slip away from, escape adroitly from (a person's grasp or pursuit, lit. and fig.); to evade (curiosity, vigilance, etc.)

crack - a sudden sharp and loud noise as of something breaking or bursting; a burglar.

break the bank - to ruin financially, make bankrupt (a person or bank) + Brucke (ger) - bridge.

MULTYFARNHAM (Gael. Muilte Farannain) - 'Farannan's mills': Village and Franciscan abbey, County Westmeath, North of Mullingar, bteween Lough Owel and Lough Derravaragh + The Man That Broke the Bank at Monte Carlo (song).

fall in with - to drop into the views of

supposed + pox (Slang) - venereal disease.

Nom., Gen., Dat., Acc., Abl. cases (Thos, Thoris, Thori, Thorem, Thore)

TOMAR'S WOOD - At the Battle of Clontarf, the aged Brian Bonu followed the battle from Tomar's Wood, somewhere to the West of Clontarf, and there was slain +     Tomhar (tor) (geal) - Thor + Thomar - Danish invader of Ireland (defeated by Malachy).

Thom's Dublin Directory - for which Bloom once canvassed. It is to Ulysses and FW as the Domesday Book is to Norman England. Sometimes "Thom" is Thomas (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake).

rhotacism - the process by which in oblique cases of nouns, the -s of the stem passes over, between vowels, into -r- (e.g. flos, floris; Thos, Thoris) + ruddiest (Slang) - bloodiest, most damned.

rotter - one who is objectionable on moral or other grounds + (George Joyce [516.18] escaped to Rotterdam).

roebuck - the male roe deer + ROEBUCK - District and road between Milltown and Mt Merrion, South-East Dublin. Roebuck Lodge, was the home of Maud Gonne MacBride. 

sur- - super + topical - of or pertaining to a place or locality; local; of or pertaining to a general heading, a topic or subject of discourse, composition, etc.

subhuman - less than human

ach (ger) - oh

clap (Slang) - venereal disease + A B C + {was it a bad clap of thunder?}.

Auge (ger) - eye

Ohr (ger) - ear

Rioghan (geal) - "queen"; anglic. Ryan + rhino (Greek) - nose.

O'Ceallaigh (o'kyali) (geal) - descendant of Ceallach ("contention"); anglic. O' Kelly + Kehle (ger) - throat + 5 senses (touch missing) [086.32].

tertian - recurring at 48 hours intervals; third in order

Persse O'Reilly + oreilles (French) - ears.

really and truly 

bloody awful + blyad' (Russian) - whore.

Mecklenburg Street, Dublin (Nighttown)

Hure (ger) - whore

hora (Swedish) - whore

scrota (l) - pl. of scrotum (harlot, strumpet)

porne (gr) - prostitute

nanny (Slang) - whore + mennykocsapas (Hungarian) - lightning-stroke.

kekse (Lithuanian) - whore

stipata (l) - surrounded, pressed together

stripu (Shelta) - whore + striopach (Irish) - whore

puttana (it) - whore + {(thunder clap) It was the whores, eh?}

meirdreach (merdrokh) (geal) - whore + merde! (French) - shit!

an (un) (geal) - the

Oinciu (Bog Latin - secret language of Ireland) - "Ireland" + oinseach (onshukh) (geal) - harlot, giddy woman + 'Shite and onions!' (expression of Joyce's father, cited in Joyce's 'Gas from a Burner' 55).

complexion - appearance, aspect

perplexedly - in a perplexed manner (involved in doubt or anxiety on account of the intricate character of the matter under consideration; bewildered, puzzled).

condemnatory - imposing condemnation, condemning

whereon - on what, on which

punic - faithless, trecherous, tending to betray; especially having a treacherous character as attributed to the Carthaginians by the Romans.

judgeship - the jurisdiction or office of a judge; title for a judge (humorously)

penal law - a law imposing a penalty, criminal law

pegger (Slang) - a hard drinker + pegger (Hebrew) - corpse, carcass + pig + Festy King + "pegged a few glatt stones" → Pegger = Shaun, Wet Pinter (wordpainter) = Shem.

remove outer layer of dirt (notebook 1923) + stomach + muc (Irish) - pig

juror - a member of a jury

outburst - a violent issue; an outbreak, explosion (of feeling, fervour, indignation, etc.) + loud outburst + cloudburst.

poesy - poetry

Brythonic - of or pertaining to the Brythons, or Britons of Wales, Cornwall, and Cumbria, and their kin.

interpreter - one who interprets or explains, one who translates languages

on oath - under the obligation of an oath

Wit pesht wishi as fare vere mwiri hrismos (English spelled as Irish) - with best wishes for a very merry Christmas + peist (pesht) - beast, serpent + mhuise (wishi) - indeed, well (interj.) + as fearra (as fare) - best.

story book - a book of stories + bouchal - young man, boy + (notebook 1924): 'the bones of the boy that was ate by the pig' Kinane: St. Patrick 197n: (quoting the Tripartite Life about chieftain Ailill and his wife's conversion) 'His wife... said the pigs have eaten our son... Patrick commanded the boy's bones to be collected... The boy was afterwards resuscitated through Patrick's prayers'.

be = by

Cleopatra - a famous queen of Egypt, lover of Antony [.13] [086.13] + clith (kli) - sexual heat in swine (St. Patrick was a swineheard as a boy slave in Ireland.)

park - to enclose in, as in, or as, a park

porker - a young hog fattened for pork; also, any swine or pig raised for food + James Joyce: A Portrait V: 'Ireland is the old sow that eats her farrow'.

'Timothy' stems from Greek time: honour and theos: god

FOUR COURTS - On King's Inns Quay; the modern Supreme Court has been added to the 4 existing courts: King's (or Queen's) Bench, Chancery, Exchequer, and Common Pleas + commons - people lacking noble rank; the burghers of a town.

O'Tighearnaigh (o'tierni) (gael) - descendant of Tighearnach ("lordly") + tighearna (Irish) - lord.

Dun Dealgan (dundalgen) (gael) - Dealga's (name of Firbolg chief) Fort; Co. Louth, N. of Dublin; anglic. Dundalk.

yif = if

Turgesius on Thorgil - viking who invaded Ireland in 832. He and his death were likewise violent + turkeys 

faolog (fwelog) (gael) - seagull + followed (vaudeville story of a negro, accused of stealing chickens, defending himself by saying that they followed him).

gut - to cram the guts; to eat greedily, to gormandize + cutthroat - a ruffian who murders or does deeds of violence + (i.e. evidence giver: plain clothes priest W.P., situate at Nullnull, Medical Square).

fire - to shoot, to propel or discharge (a missile) as from a gun

Marcus Antonius (l) - lover of Cleopatra, with whom he was defeated by Augustus Octavian + Robert Martin: Enniscorthy (song): 'Dimetrius O'Flanigan McCarthy' + King Mark + King Arthur + Melkarth - the Phoenician god of Tyre, also known as Baal Sur (Lord of Tyre) [.14] [.25]. It was Phoenician settlers from Tyre, just north of today's border between Israel and Lebanon, who founded Carthage not far north of modern Tunis, in about 814 BC. Hannibal was a faithful worshiper of Melqart: the Roman historian Livy records the legend that just before setting off on his march to Italy he made a pilgrimage to Gades, the most ancient seat of Phoenician worship in the west. Hannibal strengthened himself spiritually by prayer and sacrifice at the Altar of Melqart. He returned to New Carthage with his mind focused on the god and on the eve of departure to Italy he saw a strange vision which he believed was sent by Melqart. A youth of divine beauty appeared to Hannibal in the night. The youth told Hannibal he had been sent by supreme deity, Melqart, to guide the son of Hamilcar to Italy. “Follow me,” said the ghostly visitor, “and see that that thou look not behind thee.” Hannibal followed the instructions of the visitor. His curiosity, however, overcame him, and as he turned his head, Hannibal saw a serpent crashing through forest and thicket causing destruction everywhere. It moved as a black tempest with claps of thunder and flashes of lightning gathered behind the serpent. When Hannibal asked the meaning of the vision Melqart replied, “What thou beholdest is the desolation of Italy. Follow thy star and inquire no farther into the dark counsels of heaven.”

Astarte - Semitic goddess, Ashtoreth of the Bible. Baal was her male counterpart + Robert Martin: Killaloe (song): 'You may talk of Boneyparty / You may talk about Ecarté / Or any other party and "Commong de portey voo" / We learnt to sing it aisey / That song the Marshalaysy / Boo Long too long the continong / We larnt at killaloe'

Labour Party - a political party specially supporting the interests of labour

sockdologer - someone outstanding or exeptional; a heavy or knock-down blow, a finisher. Also fig.

have a neck - to speak insolently or behave presumptuously

endorse - to support, to back, to give one's approval to, especially officially or by signature + (notebook 1924): 'endorse *V*'.

outturned - turned out or outwards

nor'easter - northeaster (a wind blowing from the north-east, common to the east coast of the United States); a waterproof coat.

barefacedness - shamelessness

Sunlight soap - a brand of household soap originally produced by the British company Lever Brothers in 1884.

in the same tale - in the same statement or category + in the train of - as a sequel to + Trelawny, Sir Jonathan (1650-1721) - Cornish bishop famous and popular for opposing King James II's tolerance of Catholicism. 

impart - to make known, tell, relate

Court of Common Pleas, or Common Bench, was a common law court of the English (and Irish) legal system.

Lord Jesus + llwydd (Welsh) - president + (notebook 1924): 'Jesus & gentleman of jury'.

Jurys Inn - a chain of hotels in Ireland and the United Kingdom

masterer - one who masters or overcomes + Annals of the Four Masters (Annala na gCeithre Mháistrí) are a chronicle of medieval Irish history. The entries span from the deluge, dated as 2242 years after creation to AD 1616, although the earliest entries are believed to date from around AD 550. The annals are mainly a compilation of earlier annals, although there is some original work. They were compiled between 1632 and 1636 in the Franciscan monastery in County Donegal. The entries for the 12th century and before are sourced from medieval monastic annals. The chief author of the annals was Mícheál Ó Cléirigh, and he was assisted by, among others, Peregrine O'Clery, Fergus O'Mulconry and Peregrine O'Duignan + REFERENCE

yarn - fibre spun and prepared for use in weaving, knitting, the manufacture of sewing-thread, etc; a chat, a talk + years

that's a good one - Iron. of statement that is absurdly exaggerated

a b c d + amrita - immortal, ambrosial (also spelled 'amreeta'; from Sanskrit amrita: immortal).

inis (Irish) - island (Pronunciation 'inish') + Irishman + Inishmaan - the middle island of the Aran islands (where Synge collected much folklore).

continental - an inhabitant of a continent; spec. of the continent of Europe + canton natal (fr) - native canton, district.

parish - to do parish work (of a clergyman) + perish

Giordano Bruno was burned at the stake (in the Campo dei Fiori, Rome, on 17 February 1600).

dorm - to sleep, doze + Thomas Moore: Thee, Thee, Only Thee (song): 'The dawning of morn' [air: The Market-Stake].

mawn - a hand basket, beg + The Rising of the Moon (song).

skulde (Danish) - should

Tír na nÓg - timeless Land of Youth, where Oisín (Ossian) was lured away by a fairy princess, having survived the destruction of his comrades (Fenians) at the Battle of Gabhra. Ossian spent 300 years there, returned to Ireland on his white horse, and aged as soon as his feet touched the ground + It was Phoenician settlers from Tyre, just
north of today's border between Israel and Lebanon, who founded Carthage in about 814 BC.

jack in a box - a toy consisting of a box from which a figure springs

wield - to use or handle with skill and effect; to manage, actuate, ply (a weapon, tool, or instrument, now always one held or carried in the hand).

wind - to wield (a weapon, an implement), to haul, hoist, lift (obs.)

wassail - the liquor in which healths were drunk; a salutation used when presenting a cup of wine to a guest, or drinking the health of a person, the reply being drink-hail.

horn - a vessel formed from the horn of a cow or other beast, or in later times shaped after this, for holding liquid (as drink, oil, or ink), powder, etc.; a drinking-horn.

tot - a small glass or mug, a small quantity of alcohol



Abgott (ger) - idol

Walhalla = Valhalla - in Old Northern mythology, the hall assigned to those who have died in battle, in which they feast with Odin.

exchequer - to place in an exchequer, to treasure up; to proceed against (a person) in the court of exchequer + Exchequer - one of the original four courts, or benches, of the Four Courts, Dublin (Ireland's main courts building).

lave a (= with) - to be bathed in or covered with (blood, sweat) (obs.) + lave (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - leave.

chancery hand - a particular style of engrossing (to write in large letters, to write out or express in legal form) + Chancery - one of the original four courts, or benches, of the Four Courts, Dublin (Ireland's main courts building).

Salvation Army - an organization, on a quasi-military model, founded by the Rev. William Booth for the revival of religion among the masses in Great Britain and other countries.


Castleknock Hill, Phoenix Park

roguishly - in a roguish manner, knavishly + ciotogach (kitogokh) (gael) - left-handedly, awkwardly kithogue (Anglo-Irish) - left-hand, left-handed; awkward.

lilt - to sing cheerfully or merrily + lift (his hand).


Q Celts Godel (Joyce's note) → Goidelic: (of Celtic languages) employing initial C/K/Q (Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx) [.03].

faix = fegs - an exclamation expressing asseveration or astonishment + faix (Archaic) - faith.

khoroshie (Russian) - 'good' (nom. pl. form). The letter X at the start is the Cyrillic letter transliterated at kh Hargrave: Origins and Meanings of Popular Phrases & Names 376: 'XAROSHIE. (Pronounce "x" as Scottish "ch.") An expression of satisfaction. Equivalent to Très bien and as much mutilated in pronunciation'.

zdrast (World War I Slang, from Russian) - be healthy Hargrave: Origins and Meanings of Popular Phrases & Names 376: 'ZDRÁSTVITYE! Contracted very often into "Zdrást!" The Russian form of greeting meaning "Be Healthy!" Adopted by the troops it became the general form of greeting among themselves' + Jesus Christ!

laddo - lad, boy

ecsthra (gr) - hatred + echthros (gr) - enemy

Castilian - the dialect of Castile + extra Christian - outside the range of Christian thought.

seguire (it) - to follow

pursuit - the most demanding (and often most neglected) phase of war. Most casualties occur not in the initial clash of arms but when one side breaks and runs. However, once the initial fury of the assault is spent, the incentive to expend more effort pursuing a fleeing enemy rapidly evaporates. Pursuit is going that extra mile (or hundreds of miles) to ensure the enemy is either trapped or utterly destroyed and cannot reassemble to be a threat again.

olla podrida (Spanish: rotten pot) - soup made of one or more meats and several vegetables (Spanish equivalent of Irish stew); a miscallaneous mixture, hodgepodge; a mixture of languages + D.H. Lawrence: (referring to Work in Progress) 'My God, what a clumsy olla putrida James Joyce is!'

outbreak - to break out

Gelachter (ger) - laughter + geallach (Irish) - light, brightness, the moon + Joyce's note: 'laughter (witness joined)'

mollification - an appeasing, appeasement, pacification

metheglin (Dialect) - a Welsh spiced mead

testifier - witness + (notebook 1924): 'laughter in which the witness joined' Connacht Tribune 24 May 1924, 5/2: 'Outrageous Act. Stationmaster's House Fired Into. Youth of 16 and His Oath': '"Do you remember the statement you made and that you were on your oath?" asked the justice, and the witness replied "It was all lies," at which there was some laughter in which the witness joined'.

indecorum - a violation of the rules of behaviour proper to the sex, age, or character of the actor; impropriety, now esp. of behaviour.

hilarious - boisterously joyous or merry; rollicking + Giordano Bruno's motto: 'In tristitia hilaris hilaritate tristis' (Latin 'In Sadness Cheerful, in Gaiety Sad'; appears on the title page of his play 'Il Candelajo') + hoot - a laugh; a shout, outcry .

wind up - closing, concluding

cum - come + cum (l) - with + justle - to knock or push against, to come into collision with + combust - to burn up, consume with fire.

neatly - so as to present a neat appearance; in a nicely finished way

triste - sad + Tristan + {Earwicker's fragile identity splits apart under the strain of his examination and his consciousness is amalgamated with those of his two sons. Although what remains of Earwicker is ultimately acquitted - for this courtroom permits no proper adjudication - the judges conclude by expressing their contempt for him. (Lee Spinks: James Joyce, a critical guide)}.

isce et ille (l) - this (emphatic) and that

evolve - to bring out (what exists implicitly or potentially); to develop by natural processes from a more rudimentary to a more highly organized condition.

einsam (ger) - lonely, single

iste (l) - that of yours

sole - singular, unique + Samuel Taylor Coleridge: The Friend: 'Every power in nature and in spirit must evolve an opposite as the sole means and condition of its manifestation, and all opposition is a tendency to reunion. This is the universal law of polarity or essential dualism, first promulgated... by Giordano Bruno'.

hin und her (ger) - hither and thither

polarized - characterized by division into opposing groups or principles

symphysis - union or fusion of parts originally or normally separate + synthesis/antithesis.

FDV: Though The hilarious hilariohoot of Pegger's Windup contrasted so neatly with the tristitone of the wet pinter's as were they opposites, evolved by the a power powers of nature & spirit as the sole means & condition of its manifestation, polarised for reunion by the symphysis of their antipathies.

distinctly - clearly, plainly, in a way clear to mind or perception

duas (gr) - two + FDV: Distinctly different were their destinies.

FDV: Whereas While the maidies of the bar clustered fluttered & flattered around the willingly pressed, complimenting him on having all his senses about him, sticking hyacinths in his hair curls, & bringing busses to his cheeks, legando round his nice new neck for him & pizzicando at his willywags woolywags it was not unobserved by the court their worships that for by one among all wild gentian of the hills [Makegiddculling] reeks, with in unmixed admiration he seemed blindly, mutely, hands over ears speechlessly fascinated anamourate when while with she herupor heruponhim shining aminglement, the shay of his shifting into the shimmering of hers till the wild wishwish of her shashay melted moist musically mid the dark deepdeep of his shayshaun. 

maidy - a little maid + barmaids.

bar - a (particular) court of law; the whole body of barristers, or spec. the barristers practising in a particular court, circuit, or country.

peerless + 30 - 2 = 28 (*Q*) + twenty-eight-day lunar month.

13 + trente (fr) - thirty.

score - 12

eranthos (gr) - spring flower, love-flower

murmurred + myrris (gr) - sweet cicely; myrtle.

Shaun the Post + show 'em.

willingly - with a ready will, without reluctance: with various shades of meaning from 'with acquiescence, submissively' to 'with pleasure, cheerfully, gladly' or 'wishfully, eagerly'.

pressed - subjected to pressure, well dressed + W.P. (Wet Pinter).

nominate - to appoint (a person) by name to hold some office or discharge some duty.

Sweeney - I cannot distinguish T. S. Eliot's Sweeney among the Nightingales from the Irish king, Sweeney, who went mad and lived in trees with wild birds (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake) + swine.

captivating - that captivates or enthralls + captivate - to overpower with excellence, to enthrall with charm or attractiveness + Thomas Moore: Irish Melodies, song: Sweet Innisfallen [air: The Captivating Youth].


fíon (Irish) - wine

deur (Irish) - tear

buss - a kiss

masculine - belonging to the male sex, male

My Wild Irish Rose (song) + oiris (Irish) - knowledge, science + (notebook 1924): 'masculine Irish rose' Key: John McCormack, His Own Life Story 74: (of Lily Foley, a soprano and later McCormack's wife) 'She just stood there, like a feminine Irish rose, and brought everyone to her feet'.

kleur (Dutch) - colour

legando (it) - tying + legato - In music: smooth and connected (opposite of 'staccato'; from Italian legare: to bind).

pizzicagnolo (it) - porkbutcher, delicatessen dealer, cheesemonger + pizzicato - In music: plucked with the finger (instead of using a bow; from Italian pizzicare: to pinch, to itch).

golliwog - a name invented for a black-faced grotesquely dressed (male) doll with a shock of fuzzy hair + FDV: legando round his nice new neck for him & pizzicando at his willywags woolywags.

dandy - very good, first rate, fine + Handy Spandy (song).

sugar candy - sugar clarified and crystallized by slow evaporation; fig. Something sweet, pleasant, or delicious + Joyce's note: 'sugar de candy' Douglas: London Street Games 40: (a chant) 'Charlie likes whisky, Charlie likes brandy, Charlie likes kissing girls -- O sugar-de-candy'.

machree - my dear, my heart (from Irish: mo chroidhe) + Mother Machree (song).

Fion, Paustheen - an Irish air + pastheen fionn (Irish) - fair-haired child + mo phaistin (mufashtin) (gael) - my little child + mo phuistin (mufushtin) (gael) - my little post.

(notebook 1923): 'courier (facteur)' (i.e. postman) → O. Henry: The Four Million 44: 'Between Rounds': 'People surged along the sidewalk... Couriers came and went'.

Thomas Moore: Irish Melodies, song: Believe Me, If All Those Endearing Young Charms.

treat - a great pleasure + Anglican morning prayer: 'Give peace in our time, O Lord'.

amen + hymen

present - a person that is present

worship - a person of importance

deputize - to appoint as a deputy (a person delegated or sent, alone or as a member of a deputation, to act in the place of those who send him).

defame - to attack the good fame or reputation of (a person); to dishonour by rumour or report.

lunar - of or belonging to the moon

celibacy - abstaining from sexual relations (as because of religious vows)

alonely - solitary, lonely + Joyce's note: 'all all alonely' Douglas: London Street Games 47: (a chant) 'Three little children sitting on the sand, All, all a-lonely'.

gentian - any plant belonging to the genus Gentiana, with trumpet-shaped flowers that are usually deep blue or azure, but may vary from white, creamy and yellow to red + FDV: wild gentian of the hills [Makegiddculling] reeks

gemma - bud + Gentica Gemma (l) - national gem + gemma (it) - gem (also feminine proper name).

McGILLYCUDDY'S REEKS - Mountain ("reek") range West of Killarney, County Kerry. Boucicault's Coleen Bawn had her cottage there. The hereditary title of the chief is "The M'Gillycuddy of the Reeks."  

wan - pale

unmixed - pure + "[W.P.] was patrified to see, hear, taste and smell, as his time of night, how Hyacinth O'Donnell, B.A., described in the calendar as a mixer and wordpainter, with part of a sivispacem..." 

tactless - destitute of tact; awkward + tactile + (smell missing; i.e. has only smell (or stink) [.16] [093.05-.21] [095.02-.26]).

inamorate - to inspire with love, to enamour + FDV: with in unmixed admiration he seemed blindly, mutely, hands over ears speechlessly fascinated anamourate when while with she herupor heruponhim shining aminglement

minglement - the action of mingling; a mixture

shame + shine + FDV: the shay of his shifting into the shimmering of hers till the wild wishwish of her shashay melted moist musically mid the dark deepdeep of his shayshaun. 

shimmer - to shine with a tremulous or flickering light; to gleam faintly

youth, sir, tey (Joyce's note)

Hee middles (Joyce's note) Douglas: London Street Games 3: 'Catch... Two boys stand at each side of the road and one in the middle, that's Hee. One of them tries to get the ball over middles head for the other to get it but if middle gets it the thrower goes Hee'.

her chap (Joyce's note) → Douglas: London Street Games 54: (a skipping chant) 'Little Mary Anne who lives up stairs, With high legged boots and a feather in her hat -- That's the way she meets her chap --'.

home + Joyce's note: 'I'll tell ma when I get home' Douglas: London Street Games 29: (a chant) 'I'll tell Ma when I get home That the boys won't leave me alone. They pull my hair and break my comb, I'll tell Ma when I get home'.

mishe/tauf motif (tauf: deepdeep)

si (Irish) - she + se (Irish) - him

mid - amid

FDV: [And whereas] Distracted by [(for was not just this, [in effect,] which had just caused that the effect of that which it had caused to occur)] The four judges Unchus Uncius Munchus Muntius, Punchus and Pylax put their wigs together but could do no more than pass the usual sentence of Nolans Brumans & King having murdered all the English he knew left his court tribunal scotfree trailing his tunic in his hurry [& [thereinunder] proudly showing off the [blank] patch on to his britgits]. On To the Swiss bobbyguard's curial but courtly courtlike: Commodore valley O hairy Arthery Arthre jennyrosy?: the firewaterloover replied returted with such a vinesmelling fortytudor ages rowdawnham rawdownhams tanyouhide that all the twofromthirty advocatesses within echo pulling up their briefs soc- pa- jus simply & safely & soundly soccered him imprumptu umprumptu rightaway like hames to Drinkbottle Dingy Dwellings like the muddy goalbird who he was, conclaiming: Hon! Verg! Putor! Nan! Putor! Sham! Shams! Shames!

distracted - mentally drawn to different objects; perplexed or confused by conflicting interests; torn or disordered by dissension or the like; much confused or troubled in mind.

justicer - judge

put their heads together - to have discussions together

unctus (l) - anointed, oiled

munitus (l) - fortified, safe + mun (mun) (gael) - urine.

Pontius Pilatus (l) - governor of Judaea in time of Christ + phylax (gr) - a guard.

promulgate - to proclaim

standing - that continues in existence or operation, that continues to be (what the noun specifies); that does not pass away.

verdict - the decision of a jury in a civil or criminal cause upon an issue which has been submitted to their judgement.

nolens (l) - being unwilling + nolens volens (l) - willing or unwilling.

bruma (l) - winter, midwinter + Browne/Nolan motif.

whereon - following which

pick out - to take out by picking

tribunal - a court of justice; a judicial assembly

scotfree - exempt from injury, punishment, etc.

tomme lommer (Danish) - empty pockets

tunic - a garment resembling a shirt or gown, worn by both sexes among the Greeks and Romans; In modern costume. A close, usually plain body-coat.

therein under - after, before, below in that document, statute, etc.

show off - to display with ostentation or pride

patch + black patch (Joyce wore one over his eye) + FDV: trailing his tunic in his hurry [& [thereinunder] proudly showing off the [blank] patch on to his britgits].

Brigid [Brigit or Brighid] ("exalted one") - in Irish mythology daughter of the Dagda and one of the Tuatha Dé Danann. She was the wife of Bres of the Fomorians, with whom she had a son, Ruadán. She had two sisters, also named Brighid, and is considered a classic Celtic Triple Goddess.

an't - ain't

plase (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - please

rael (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - real

genteel - a genteel person; a gentleman (obs.)

Swiss - native to, or coming from, Switzerland + The Swiss Guard are the Pope's own troops. 

bobby - policeman + bodyguard - a guard for the person (esp. of a sovereign or dignitary); a retinue or escort.

curial - of or pertaining to a royal court, courtly + The Curia (Lat, "court") Romana comprises the administrative and judicial institutions of the Roman Catholic Church. 

courtlike - elegant, courtly

quomodo valeo (l) - how I am well, how am I well + commodo (l) - seasonably, in time + quomodo (l) - how? + vale (l) - be well + valeo (l) - I am strong, I am well + Quomodo vales hodie, Arator generose? (l) - How fares your health today, noble gentleman? (How are you today, my dark/fair sir?).

heri (l) - yesterday + O'Hara

firewater - strong alcoholic beverage + Waterloo + FDV: the firewaterloover replied returted with such a vinesmelling fortytudor ages rowdawnham rawdownhams tanyouhide.

raudonas (Lithuanian) - red + Rhodanum (l) - the Rhône river + Fortitudo eius Rhodum tenuit (Motto of House of Savoy) - His Strength Has Held Rhodes + acronym: FART + (stench of alcohol).

latten - brass (or a yellow alloy resembling brass) that was hammered into thin sheets (formerly used for church utensils and crosses) + Latin.

Thomas Aquinas

clap clap - the sharp sound, applause + cap - head.

gush (Slang) - smell

Gas from a burner. [Trieste]: s.n., 1912. Joyce had this broadside printed in Trieste, where he was living at the time, and sent it to his brother Charles to distribute in Dublin. It is a highly personal attack on the publisher who refused to print Dubliners + REFERENCE 

burner - the part of lamp or other fluid burning device where the flame is produced

30 - 2 = 28 (*Q*)

advocatess - a female advocate

brief - a formal or official letter; concise statement of a client's case made for instruction of counsel in a trial at law.

Krieg (ger) - war

shun - to shove, push + Shem the Penman.

soccer - the game of football as played under Association rules

feminine Irish rose + fen - marsh, bog.

poser - one who poses (to assume a certain attitude) + parish priest + poser (Czech) - shit it.

impromptu - without preparation or premeditation; off-hand, on the spur of the moment.

rightaway - at once, immediately, strightaway

hame = home + make a hames of (Anglo-Irish) - make a mess of + FDV: all the twofromthirty advocatesses within echo pulling up their briefs soc- pa- jus simply & safely & soundly soccered him imprumptu umprumptu rightaway like hames to Drinkbottle Dingy Dwellings like the muddy goalbird who he was, conclaiming:

gratias agamus (l) - let us give thanks + (notebook 1924): 'Gratzagam' gratiasagam (grot'esogum) (gael) - nickname for St. Patrick, from his reiteration of Latin gratias agamus (when King Daire presented Saint Patrick with the gift of a cauldron, the latter is said, according to the former's retelling, to have answered 'Gratzacham').

donatrices (l) - pl. of donatrix (a female donor or donator)

viz - videlicet + bis (ger) - right to, all the way.

inkbottle + Dear Dirty Dublin   

dingy - dirty, shabby

venuson... dovetimid - [allusion to Aeneas] son of Venus (and Anchises). Doves are associated with Venus (O Hehir, Brendan; Dillon, John M. / A classical lexicon for Finnegans wake).

Esau - brother of Jacob, who sold his birthright (for a 'mess of pottage'). When Isaac was old and blind, he sent Esau to hunt and bring him venison. On Rebecca's advice, Jacob (a smooth man) put on a goatskin and carried venison to his father, who said, "The voice is the voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esau."

dear - dear one, darling + timid as a deer (phrase).

at bottom - in reality + bottom - the sitting part of a man, the posteriors + William Shakespeare: A Midsummer Night's Dream I.2.75: 'BOTTOM:... I will roar you as gently as any sucking dove'.

shat - p. of shit (to defecate) + shut.

gaolbird - a criminal who has been jailed repeatedly, jail bird

dún (Irish) - shut

chasser (French Slang) - to flirt + chastity belt.

conclamo (l) - to cry together; to call to arms

gift of the gab - a talent for speaking, fluency of speech


farver (Danish) - colours + father.

gridando (it) - shouting

hon - sweetheart, dear; honourable + honte (fr) - shame.

verge (fr. slang) - penis + vergogna! (it) - shame!

naire (nare) (gael) - shame

putor - foul smell, stench + pudor (l) - shame.

skam (Danish) - shame

Scham (ger) - shame; genitals


artha (hind.) - wealth or property; the pursuit of wealth (one of four traditional aims in life).

kama (hind.) - pleasure, sensual gratification, sexual fulfillment, pleasure of the senses, desire, eros, or the aesthetic enjoyment of life.

dharma (hind.) - acting in accordance with one's duty without consideration of personal self-centered desires, likes or dislikes. Acting without being attached to the fruits of one's deeds.

moksa (hind.) - salvation of finite existence + the four aims of life according to karma-yoga: artha (success), kama (pleasure), dharma (duty), moksa (enlightenment).

kavya - poetic composition in Sanskrit + Katya

kay = key

plaint - audible expression of sorrow, lamentation

plause - applause + plausy (Anglo-Irish) - flattery (from Anglo-Irish plás).

litter - odds and ends + litir (lit'ir) (gael) - letter + Xenophon: Anabasis IV.VII.24: 'Thalatta! Thalatta!' (the cry 'Sea! Sea!' of the ten thousand men led by Xenophon out of Persia upon sighting the sea; also in Joyce's Ulysses.1.80).

sooner the better + 'Deliver the letter, The sooner the better' (written on letters by Irish children) + sweet, bitter.

eyebrow pencil - a kind of crayon or pencil-like stick of colouring matter, for tinting the eye-brows, eyelashes, or lips, for theatrical or cosmetic purposes.

lipstick + stipple - the method of painting, engraving, etc. by means of dots or small spots, so as to produce gradations of tone.

penned - written (with a pen)

borrow - to make temporary use of (words, idioms, etc.) from a foreign language or people.

beg the question - to fail to deal with or answer effectively the point that is being discussed.

steal one's thunder - to adapt for one's own ends something effective + tinder - fire; a spark.

Rosaleen, Dark - personification of Ireland, like Poor Old Woman, Cathleen Ni Houlihan, etc. Mangan's poem begins, "My dark Rosaleen, do not sigh, do not weep..." 

louche (fr) - squint

beam in one's eye - a blemish as palpable as a house beam + Thomas Moore: Lesbia Hath a Beaming Eye (song).

lone - solitary, lonesome

Gougane Barra - poem by J. J. Callanan: "There is a green island in lone Gougane Barra / Where Allua of songs rushes forth like an arrow" + Barry, Kevin (1902-20) - the first Republican to be executed by the British since the leaders of the Easter Rising. Barry was sentenced to death for his part in an IRA operation which resulted in the deaths of three British soldiers. A ballad bearing his name, relating the story of his execution, is popular to this day + The Arrow and the Song (song).

Sean (Irish) - John

anagram - a transposition of the letters of a word, name, or phrase, whereby a new word or phrase is formed + Ingram, John Kells (1823-1907) - Irish poet, author of The Memory of the Dead, which begins: "Who fears to speak of ' 98? / Who blushes at the name?"

Sullivan, T. D. - wrote God Save Ireland, sung to the tune of "Tramp, Tramp, Tramp". Joyce may confuse him with his brother, A. M. Sullivan, also a versifier. 

trumpet - to announce or publish as by sound of trumpet; to proclaim, celebrate, or extol loudly.

Dufferin, Lady (1807-67) - R. B. Sheridan's granddaughter, author of Lament of the Irish Emigrant, which begins: "I am sitting on the stile, Mary". 

Kathleen Mavourneen - in the song Kathleen Mavourneen: "It may be for years and it may be forever..." + mavourneen (Anglo-Irish) - my darling.

mebbe - maybe

Curran, John Philpot (1750-1817) - Irish lawyer, defended several United Irishmen, father of Sarah Curran, author of Mother Machree

mo chreatuir (mukhretur) (gael) - my [poor] creature (literally 'my creature') + machree (Anglo-Irish) - my heart.

Philadelphia ('brotherly love') - an ancient city of Asia Minor; the capital of Pennsylvania to which Irish emigrants like Paddy Leary, in Off to Philadelphia, used to go + Ptolemy II Philadelphus (308-264 B.C.) - second Macedonian king of Egypt, founded Library at Alexandria.  

leery - alert, knowing, wide awake; empty, hungry + Paddy Leary - subject of song Off to Philadelphia in the Morning

Samuel Lover (1797-1868) - Irish songwriter and novelist; wrote song Molly Bawn.

molly - a pampered darling

saunter - a leisurely, careless, loitering walk or ramble; a stroll + The Bowld Sojer Boy (song).

O'Fionnagain (o'finegan) (gael) - descendant of Fionnagan (dim. of Fionn, 'fair'); anglic. Finnegan + Finnegan's Wake (song): originally 'Tim Finigan's Wake', written in the early 1860's in New York City by John F. Poole, American-Irish playwright, songwriter and theatre manager.

soul + samhail (souwil) (gael) - ghost, apparition + More power to your elbow! (phrase)

on the green - on the stage + The Wearing of the Green (song).

girlie - girl

Gretna Green, Scotland is famous for being the place to which English youths, too young to marry according to English law, eloped in order to get married according to the more lenient Scottish law.

joyboy (Slang) - homosexual

Tom Malone - Thomas Malone Chandler is the protagonist of A Little Cloud. In one recension of Finnegan's Wake, Tim Malone is the mourner at whose head the bucket of whisky is thrown.

slapstick - knockabout comedy or humour, farce, horseplay

MOATE - Village, County Westmeath. Its name derives from the nearby Mote of Grania.

Muldoon, William (1852-1933) - Irish-American wrestler. His biography (1929) is Muldoon, the Solid Man of Sport. Mr Sultan (JJQ, 5,4) holds Pat Mullen, Tom Mallon, Dan Meldon, Don Maldon to be identical with Muldoon, and all identical with the ancient Irish hero Maelduin. A Muldoon's Picnic is a chaotic mess.  

solid - of sound mind, sane, sober minded + W.J. Ashcroft, Dublin music hall performer, 'The Solid Man' (because of his famous rendering of song Muldoon the Solid Man), appeared in Dan Lowrey's Music Hall.

silly - to make silly, to be silly

crackajack - a thing of highest exellence + cracking jokes.

go like house on fire - (of an event, meeting etc.) to go very well + get along like a house on fire - (of two or more people) to enjoy each other's companionship very much, often just after meeting.

whimper - to utter a feeble, whining, broken cry, as a child about to burst into tears.

moan - to make a low mournful sound indicative of physical or mental suffering + Lia Fail - a stone at Tara that supposedly shrieked at coronations of rightful high king.

syce - a groom or attendant esp. in India + (postman) + children's song: "A was an apple pie; B bought it; C caught it;... What was it?"

trouver (French) - to find + retrieved.

plight - sin, offence; guilt, blame (obs.); peril, danger, risk (obs.)

pledge - to promise solemnly and formally; to give as a guarantee

cunning - skilful deceit, craft, artifice

uptie - to enclose or confine, to tie up

hunks - a term of obloquy for a surly, crusty, cross-grained old person, a miser + Old Hunks - baited, blind bear, contemporary of Shakespeare's.

perlection - the action of reading through + perfection.

ma - mother

sissy - sister

rub off - to remove by rubbing

Una - according to Mr O Hehir, Irish una = "famine," personified by a woman, typical mother of a family + Una (l) - one + *I*. 

íde - Irish "thirst" + ita (l) - thus, so, in this way + *J*

spill - to let out; to perish + still

famine - to suffer or die of hunger, to starve

drought - thirst

Agrippa, Heinrich Cornelius (1486-1535) - German magician, occult writer, theologian, astrologer, and alchemist + *E*.

pro- - earlier than, prior to + pastor - to serve as pastor + propastor (l) - substitute shepherd.

tribulation - a condition of great affliction, oppression, or misery + tripudiary - Roman divination by behaviour of sacred chickens when fed.

threne - a song of lamentation

furcht (ger) - fear + Frucht (ger) - fruit + furchte Fruchte (ger) - fear fruits.

Danaids - 50 daughters of Danaus. Danaus commanded each daughter to slay her husband on the marriage night. They all obeyed except Hypermestra, who spared Lynceus. They were punished with thirst in Hades, i.e. with endless task of filling with water a vessel that had no bottom + Vergil, Aeneid II. 49.: timeo Danaos [et dona ferentes] (l) - "I fear the Greeks [when they bear gifts]".

'ena mêlo, mêlo mou' (Greek nursery rhyme) - 'one apple, my apple'

frei (ger) - free

Frau (ger) - woman + William Shakespeare: Macbeth I.1.11: 'Fair is foul, and foul is fair / Hover through the fog and filthy air.'


three + Tea for Two (song): "Just tea for two / And two for tea / Just me for you".

Ana, Anu - earth goddess of the Tuatha Dé Danaan, identical, Standish O'Grady says, with Dana, called in Cormack's glossary mater deorum hibernensium. In Gaelic ana means "riches," in Greek ana means, among other things, "back again, anew" + ana (one) (gael) - plenty, prosperity.

mala (male) (gael) - bag, sack + mala (Serbian) - little; missy + malum (l) - bad; apple.

sycophant - informer + sykophantes (gr) - "fig-informer", [from Greek syko: fig (also means vulva)], one who informed against illegal exporters of figs from Attica + fig-leaf panties + *IJ*.

amygdaline - resembling an almond


lucky + lumpy + Humpty Dumpty.

pumpkin - a stupid self important person + *E*

meddler - an officious annoying person who interferes with others + *VYC*

on the sly - secretly

Sin - Babylonian moon-god

fromm (ger) - pious + fra sin fromme søn (Danish) - from his pious son.

-acity + a city.

A/O motif (alpha/omega)

FDV: So there you are now they were, the four of them, sitting in their judge's chambers around their old traditional tables of the law under the auspices of Lolly to talk it all over & over again. Festy and hyacinth and gentian and & not to forget a'duna o'darnel. That was four of them and thank Court now there were no more of them. So pass the push for port sake. Be it now soon. Ah ho! And I knew do you remember his father the same [in his monapoleums] behind the war of the two roses, old Minster York before he got his [paper] dispensation from the poke. I mind the smell of him like the vitriol vetriol works of a windy day & The O'Brine O'Briny rossies, the O'Moyly gracies chaffing his him redface bluchface & playing him pranks. How do you do, North Mister? Get into my way! till they had him the mon timed to the hifork pitch of fit to be tried. Ah, dearo me forsale forsailorshe! Yerra, why'd she heed that old gasometer & his hooping coffin [& his dying boosy cough] & all the boys birds of the south side after her, [[Minxy Cunningham,] jimmies & johnnies to be her jo]? Sure, I well remember him H2CE3, that'd take your breath away. Gob, I knew him well as meself too. Coming heaving up the east-end Kay Wall by the 32 to 11 with his limelooking horses bags, Old Whitehorse the Whiteside Kaffir with his painted voice puffing [out] brown cabbage. [Thaw him a gull, me pawsdeen fiunn!] Gomorro, says ses he, Lankyshy Lankyshies! Bugger ye! ses I, O breezes west! When I had her first when I was in my grandfather & that was up Sycomore Lane. Arrah Nick, ses she, you have the nock, ses she, with your poyhn, ses she, yerynn & I'd sooner sip to yr. mountain dew to kiss me than that old brewer's belch.

upon - in

chamber - a room to which a judge retires for consultation

muniment room - a storage room for preservation of family or sometimes official or parochial records, papers, notebooks + The Muniment Room of City Hall, Dublin contains municipal archives going back to the 12th century.

marshalsea - name of 2 Dublin jails, the City Marshalsea (dating from 1704) and the Four Courts Marshalsea (dating from 1580), both for petty debtors.

auspices - patronage and kindly guidance, protection + suspicio (l) - to mistrust.

lalia (gr) - talk, speech, voice + *S* [067.11] → "Lily, the caretaker's daughter, was literally run off her feet. Hardly had she brought one gentleman into the little pantry behind the office on the ground floor and helped him off with his overcoat, than the wheezy hall-door bell clanged again and she had to scamper along the bare hallway to let in another guest. It was well for her she had not to attend to the ladies also. But Miss Kate and Miss Julia had thought of that and had converted the bathroom upstairs into a ladies' dressing-room. Miss Kate and Miss Julia were there, gossiping and laughing and fussing, walking after each other to the head of the stairs, peering down over the banisters and calling down to Lily to ask her who had come." (James Joyce: 'The Dead').

Solon (638-558 B.C) - wise Athenian who replaced the severe Draconian laws + Solanus (l) - the east wind + Solomon.

the same again - another drink of the same kind as the last


dry - impassive, unemotional, having clear impartial judgement; (of liquor) having a low residual sugar content because of decomposition of sugar during fermentation.

on the drink - a time or occasion of drinking + dring- (ger) - press, penetrate + sovereign lord, the king.

accourt - to court + according

king's evidence - one who gives evidence for the crown in british criminal proceedings [(notebook 1924): 'King's evidence'] + king's evil - scrofula, tuberculosis of the lymph glands (formerly believed to be curable by royal touch).

kiss the book - i.e. the Bible, New Testament, or Gospels, in taking an oath + bouc (fr) - goat.

festive - rel. to feast, joyous, merry

highjinks - boisterous sport, horseplay

Gentia + Typically, blue-flowered species of Gentiana predominate in the Northern Hemisphere, with red-flowered species dominant in the Andes + Jaunty Jaun.

beetroot or garden beet - red or purple root vegetable (widely grown for human consumption) + rosy - rose-colored + rossy (Anglo-Irish) - brazen woman.


darnel - a deleterious grass usually growing among corn + Dan O'Connel + FDV: Festy and hyacinth and gentian and & not to forget a'duna o'darnel.

One More Drink for the Four of Us (song): 'Glory be to God that there are no more of us / For one of us could drink it all alone'.


Sinbad the Sailor + FDV: And I knew do you remember his father the same [in his monapoleums] behind the war of the two roses, old Minster York before he got his [paper] dispensation from the poke.

Methusalem - the oldest person whose age is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, given as 969 years. Extra-biblical tradition records that he died on the 11th of Cheshvan of the year 1656 (Anno Mundi, after Creation), 7 days before the beginning of the Great Flood.[1] According to Rashi on Gen. 7:4, The Holy One delayed the Flood specially because of the 7 days of mourning for the righteous Methuselah in his honour.

pantaloons - trousers + pantaloon - the Venetian character in Italian comedy, represented as a lean and foolish old man, wearing spectacles, pantaloons, and slippers.

mono- (gr) - one-, single- + polemos (gr) - war + monopoly + "half of the hat of lipoleums".

poor Father Michael (The Letter)

shaman - a priest or priest-doctor among various northern peoples of Asia.

Priester (German) = priester (Dutch) - priest

Papal dispensation - a reserved right of the Pope that allows for individuals to be exempted from a specific Canon Law. Dispensations are divided into two categories: general, and matrimonial. Matrimonial dispensations can specifically be used to dissolve a marriage, as in the case of Henry VIII when he wished to divorce his wife. The authority for the Pope to exempt an individual or situation from a law stems from his position as the Vicar of Christ, which implies divine authority and knowledge as well as jurisdiction.

poke - an annoyingly stupid individual + pope

Minos - Cretan king, son of Zeus, husband of Pasiphaë, father of Ariadne and Phaedra, patron of Daedalus, who built the labyrinth for him, in which was housed the Minotaur. After death, Minos became a judge in the underworld with Aeacus and Rhadamanthus + menace. 

YORK - City, Yorkshire, North England. The archdiocese of York is 2nd only to Canterbury in the hierarchy of the Church of England. St Peter's Cathedral is usually called the Minster, or York Minster. In the Wars of the Roses, the Anglo-Irish replicated the controversy, with the Butlers (Ormond) supporting York, and the rest of Ireland, led by the Geraldines, supporting Lancaster. 

gush - a whiff, smell + FDV: I mind the smell of him like the vitriol vetriol works of a windy day

mon - man

BALLYBOUGH - Road, bridge over Tolka River, North-East Dublin, and name of surrounding area between Summerhill and Fairview. Vitriol works at Ballybough Bridge were operated by the Dublin and Wicklow Manure Co, Ltd. Baile bocht, Ir. "poortown." 

manure - dung or compost spread over or mixed with soil to fertilize it.

tradewind - any wind that 'blows trade', i.e. in a constant course or way; a wind that blows steadily in the same direction (obs.)

moyly - gently, demurely + Thomas Moore: Irish Melodies: The Song of Fionnuala: 'Silent, oh Moyle' + Grace O'Malley (following her death, her bones were supposedly ground to make Scottish manure).

briny - salty; sea

rossie - Used as a disparaging term for a woman; a wandering woman + rossy (Anglo-Irish) - impudent girl, brazen woman (from Irish rásach: rambling woman, gipsy, jilt) + Sweet Rosie O'Grady (song).

chaff - to banter, rail at, or rally, in a light and non-serious manner, or without anger, but so as to try the good nature or temper of the person 'chaffed'.

blush + FDV: The O'Brine O'Briny rossies, the O'Moyly gracies chaffing his him redface bluchface & playing him pranks.

to do - excited and usu. exaggerated stir, bustle + todo (sp) - everyone + 'How are you today, my dark/fair sir?' (motif) + 'How do you do, Master North?' (one of the Four Masters). 

ber om forladelse! (Danish) - beg your pardon! + {Ah, the fearsome Prankquean – she’s gone over the sea} + FDV: How do you do, North Mister? Get into my way! till they had him the mon timed to the hifork pitch of fit to be tried. Ah, dearo me forsale forsailorshe!

Comin' through the Rye - song by Robert Burns: 'Gin a body meet a body / Comin thro' the rye, / Gin a body kiss a body, / Need a body cry?' = (English Translation): 'Should a body meet a body / Coming through the rye, / Should a body kiss a body, / Need a body cry?'

yerra - a mild oath (O God but, O God now from Irish dheara, contracted form of Irish a Dhia ara).


heed - to care for, concern oneself about; to take notice of, give attention to.

gasometer - apparatus for holding and measuring gases; In James Joyce's day, the cylindrical gasometer on Sir John Rogerson's Quay (South bank of Liffey) was the most noticeable feature of the Dub skyline.

hoop - to clasp, enclose, surround + hooping cough - a contagious disease chiefly affecting children, and characterized by short, violent, and convulsive coughs, followed by a long sonorous inspiration called the hoop (whoop) + Dublin superstition that gasworks' air cures whooping cough (Ulysses.6.121: 'Gasworks. Whooping cough they say it cures').

FDV: Yerra, why'd she heed that old gasometer & his hooping coffin [& his dying boosy cough]

bird - a young man, child; a maiden, a girl; a man + Cock Robin (nursery rhyme): 'All the birds of the air' + FDV: & all the boys birds of the south side after her, [[Minxy Cunningham,] jimmies & johnnies to be her jo]?

minxi (l) - I have urinated + Minnie Cunningham - male impersonator in Dan Lowrey's Music Hall [095.21].

divorcee - a divorced woman

jo - sweetheart, dear

hold hard - (orig. a sporting phrase): To pull hard at the reins in order to stop the horse; hence gen. to 'pull up', halt, stop. Usually in imper. (colloq.)

cork - a piece of cork, cut into a cylindrical or tapering form, used as a stopper for a bottle, cask, etc; a piece of cork used as a float for a fishing net or line.

float - a floating appliance for supporting something in the water, a cork or other light substance used to support a fishing-net, etc. in the water + {there’s three other masters with a view on that}.

tele- - at distance, distant + FDV: Sure, I well remember him H2CE3, that'd take your breath away.

township - the inhabitants of a town

heave - to lift, raise + FDV: Gob, I knew him well as meself too. Coming heaving up the east-end Kay Wall by the 32 to 11 with his limelooking horses bags,

kay (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - quay

sesame seed - the small flattish seeds of sesame that yield an oil used as a flavouring agent + Open Sesame!

kaffir - one who is not a muslim, infidel + Whiteeyed Kaffir - G.H. Chirgwin, 19th century music hall entertainer, appeared in Dan Lowrey's Music Hall (Ulysses.12.1552: 'that whiteeyed kaffir') + Whiteside, James (1804-76) - Dublin lawyer, defended O'Connell and William Smith O'Brien.

sayman - a maker or seller of say (a cloth of fine texture resembling serge) + semen (l) - seed + say (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - sea.

effluvium - emanation

puff out - to issue, arise in puffs

thundering - awesome in virtue of impresive greatness or magnitude

cabbage (Slang) - cheap cigar + FDV: Old Whitehorse the Whiteside Kaffir with his painted voice puffing [out] brown cabbage.

pa - father + (onomat.)

thawt = thought - rower's bench + that

gull - a credulous person, one easily imposed upon, a dupe, simpleton, fool

paistin fionn (pashtin fin) (gael) - fair-haired child + An Paistin Fionn ('The Fair-haired Girl') - a song + FDV: [Thaw him a gull, me pawsdeen fiunn!]

Goodmorrow + go barradh (gubore) (gael) - excellently

Lancashire [.02] + FDV: Gomorro, says ses he, Lankyshy Lankyshies!

good bye + go bog (gubug) (gael) - easily, softly + FDV: Bugger ye! ses I, O breezes west!

- says you ((Joyce's note) Leader 16 Dec 1922, 452/1: 'Our Ladies' Letter': 'If everyone was like me, says you!'

sniff - to perceive as if by smell, to smell out, to suspect, to sneer at

when I was in my (Anglo-Irish) - when I was a

far out - remote, distant + farfar (Danish) - grandfather.

first night - the night on which a play, or a particular representation of a play, is first produced on the stage + (droit de seigneur [017.21]) + FDV: When I had her first when I was in my grandfather & that was up Sycomore Lane.

SYCAMORE STREET - Originally Sycamore Alley, since 1869 Sycamore Street; runs North from Dame Street to Essex Street, West of Eustace Street. Site of Dan Lowrey's 'Star of Erin' Music Hall, 1 Sycamore Street, Dublin (back entrance, main one being from Crampton Court, off Dame Street; end of 19th century) [093.34]. 

frisk - to move briskly and sportively; to dance, frolic, gambol, jig.


lustiness - lustfulness; carnal nature or character; pleasantness, pleasure, delight (obs.)

pampa - the name given to the vast treeless plains of South America south of the Amazon, esp. of the Argentina and the adjacent countries.

put out - to extinguish, put an end to; (of a woman) to offer oneself for sexual intercourse.

mountain dew - a fanciful term for whisky illicitly distilled on the mountains.

enrich - to make rich, endow, with mental or spiritual wealth

brewer - someone who brews beer or ale from malt and hops and water; the owner or manager of a brewery.

belch - a slang name for poor beer + FDV: Arrah Nick, ses she, you have the nock, ses she, with your poyhn, ses she, yerynn & I'd sooner sip to yr. mountain dew to kiss me than that old brewer's belch.  

FDV: And so they went on, unquam & nunquam & linseed & colic, about the whosebefore and the wheresafter & all the scandalmonkers & the poor craigs that used to be at that time living & lying & rating & riding round Nunsbelly Square. And contradrinking themselves. I differ with ye! Are you sure of that now? You're a liar, excuse me! I will not & you're another! And Lully holding the breach of the peace for them. To give & to take. And to forgo the past. Ah, now, it was too bad to be falling out over the the shape of the ourang's time! Well, all right Lully! And shakeahand. And schenk us more. For Craig sake. Ah, well! Be it soak!  

This "experience sexual orgasm" slang meaning of come (perhaps originally 'come off') is attested from 1650, in 'Walking In A Meadowe Greene,' in a folio of "loose songs" collected by Bishop Percy: "They lay soe close together, they made me much to wonder; / I knew not which was wether, until I saw her under. / Then off he came, and blusht for shame soe soon that he had endit; / Yet still she lies, and to him cryes, "one more and none can mend it."

fourbottle man - one who can drink four bottles of wine or port at a sitting + '4 bottle men' (Joyce's note) + bottle (Slang) - to bugger (a woman), to engage in sodomy.

unguentum (l) - ointment, perfume + unquam (l) - at any time, ever + ungaim (Irish) - I anoint

nunquam (l) - at no time, never

linguam (l) - tongue + longaim (Irish) - I lap up + Father O'Flynn (song): 'Sláinte and sláinte and sláinte again'.

Anschluss - annexation or union, spec. of Austria to Germany

whereafter - after which

anear - close, near + an ear

rustling - a rustling sound; bustling activity + (notebook 1924): 'night noises rustlings twittering raspin tingling scuttling The dense African forest by night was full of sounds, all intimately known to the native. Crawford: “For the hundreds of night-sounds — rustlings, twitterings, raspings, tinglings, and roarings — are all known to even Africa’s tot, the ears being called his ‘eyes of darkness.’” These two poetical observations both made it into the Wake. The night sounds appear in I.4 on FW 095.31, when the ‘fourbottle men’ are discussing how Anna Livia got lost in he woods (Robbert-Jan Henkes)

twittering - light tremulous chirping of a bird or birds; a sound resembling or likened to this.

rasping - a grating sound

painting - colouring, pictorial decoration, a picture + panting

cuckoo - to utter the call of the cuckoo (uniformly repeated call), or an imitation of it.

hist - a sibilant exclamation used to enjoin silence

spring apart - to burst asunder

by by - bye bye + scuttle - to run with quick, hurried steps.

scandalmonger - one who makes injurious report concerning another which may be the foundation of legal action.

craig = crag + crag - a steep or precipitous rugged rock; the throat, the neck.


rate - to estimate the (nature) worth or value of, to appraise, value + writing.

reading + FDV: And so they went on, unquam & nunquam & linseed & colic, about the whosebefore and the wheresafter & all the scandalmonkers & the poor craigs that used to be at that time living & lying & rating & riding round Nunsbelly Square.

bod (bud) (gael) - penis (Pronunciation 'bud') + proverb A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

laughing jackass (also in mod. use simply jackass) - the Giant Kingfisher of Australia (Dacelo gigas), so called from its loud discordant cry.

jackass - a male ass, a he-ass + (notebook 1924): 'jackass (Austr. bird)' Jespersen: The Growth and Structure of the English Language 159n (sec. 157): 'The settler heard a bird laugh in what he thought an extremely ridiculous manner, its opening notes suggesting a donkey's bray - he called it the 'laughing jackass.' His descendants have dropped the adjective, and it has come to pass that the word 'jackass' denotes to an Australian something quite different from its meaning to other speakers of our English tongue'.

sunflower - the heliotrope; preson of resplendent beauty

rhinoceritis (l) - inflammation of a nose-horn + rhinitis - inflammation of the nose.

roe - a small species of deer

rogue - a rascal + roads

lean - to incline or tend in thought, affection, or conduct + lead

rhyme - verse marked by consonance of the terminal sounds + Rome + all the rogues learnt the rhyme.

pon - upon

hilly - characterized by hills; abounding in hills + 'Lille Trille laa paa en hylle' - Norwegian nursery rhyme similar to 'Humpty Dumpty'.

Nial (or Niall) of the Nine Hostages - father of Leary, ruled Ireland in the 4th century, raided Britain, was deserted by his own men and conquered by the Romans. A later Nial was perhaps slain by Hamlet.

corsage - a bodice

marquis + King Mark

bestefar (Norwegian) - grandfather

arrah - exp. of surprise or excitement

Marcus Manlius - a heroic defender of Rome in the 4th century B.C., was later convicted of treason, leading the Manlian family to resolve than no Manlius will ever bear the name Marcus again + markiss. 

Reduplication is an alleged trait of Hiberno-English strongly associated with stage-Irish and Hollywood films (to be sure, to be sure). It is virtually never used in reality.
ar bith corresponds to English at all, so the stronger ar chor ar bith gives rise to the form at all at all ('I've no money at all at all').

armoury = armour collectively; an armed force; the workshop of an armourer + Sir Amory Tristram - first Earl of Howth.

house by the churchyard - Church House, Chapelizod [Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu: The House by the Churchyard] + churpe - chirp.

retreat - Eccl. A period of complete seclusion devoted to religious exercises.

gammeldags (Danish) - old-fashioned + gammel (Danish) - old, ancient.

MILLTOWN - Former village, now residential district, South Dublin, in the Clonskeagh area. Milltown Park is not a recreation ground but a Jesuit house of studies in Sandford Road + Milton, John (1608-74) - English poet, author of Paradise Lost, Paradise Regained → Milton's park = paradise.  

languish - the action or state of languishing (to grow weak, faint, or feeble; to droop in spirits;  to pine with love, grief, or the like) + Ulysses.5.261: "Language of flowers".

mushy - soft, spongy, excessively tender + mishe/tauf (motif) + mushi-mushi (Japanese) - hello (on telephone only) + musha (Anglo-Irish) - well, indeed.

bold + bad

saucisse (French, Slang) - whore + saucy sisters.

a dearbhrathairin og mo chroidhe (a drahirin og mukhri) (gael) - O young little brother of my heart! + Draherin O Machree (Anglo-Irish) - Dear Little Brother of My Heart + machree - my dear.

make water - to urinate + Thomas Moore: Irish Melodies, song: The Meeting of the Waters.

pee - to urinate; an act of urination

trickle - to emit or give forth in successive drops or a thin fitful stream

maman (fr) - mummy

flirt - to play at courtship, to practise coquetry, to make love without serious intentions.

farmer - one who cultivates a farm, whether as tenant or owner; the eldest son of the occupier of a farm (dial.); an ignorant rustic, a stupid or gauche person.

groom - a servant who attends to horses; a bridegroom

muse - to gaze meditatively + amused

cuddle - to hug or embrace affectionately, to fondle + Ulster, Munster, Leinster, and Connacht.

differ - to be at variance, to hold different opinions concerning any matter, to disagree + FDV: I differ with ye! Are you sure of that now?

lully - the kidney (of a cow) + Lally (*S*) → "Lily, the caretaker's daughter, was literally run off her feet." ... "Julia, though she was quite grey, was still the leading soprano in Adam and Eve's, and Kate, being too feeble to go about much, gave music lessons to beginners on the old square piano in the back room. Lily, the caretaker's daughter, did housemaid's work for them." (Four Old Men, *X*, based on Joyce's aunts, of which two appear in 'The Dead' as Miss Kate and Miss Julia).

breach of promise - the breaking of engagement



lolly - hard candy

give and take - to yield partialy to demands of others (and obtain satisfactory agreement); to exchange repartee, blows, etc.

forego - to let go

paist (pasht) (gael) - spirit + FDV: To give & to take. And to forgo the past.

fall out - to make a quarrel, disagree

kindness - affection, love + Auld Lang Syne (song): 'We'll tak a cup of kindness yet for the sake of Auld Lang Syne'.

pet - any person who is fondled, or treated with special kindness or favour; a darling, favourite.

orang (Malay) - man + FDV: Ah, now, it was too bad to be falling out over the the shape of the ourang's time!

lelly = leally (loyally, truly) + FDV: Well, all right Lully! And shakeahand. And schenk us more. For Craig sake. Ah, well! Be it soak!  

An Seanchas Mor (un shanekus mor) (gael) - The Great Register, corpus of early Irish law + schenk uns mehr (ger) - pour us more, give us more.

craig = crag + Christ

be it that - to be the case or the fact + be it so.

FDV: Even should not the framing [up] of such fictions [in the evidential order] bring any truth to light [in good time] as fortuitously as some false setting of a starchart might [(heaven aiding)] reveal the presence of an unknown being in space chaos of space The best soundest opinion now holds that by so playing possum our highest common ancestor most effectually saved his brush. Dogs of all breeds were speaking with various marked provincial accents, hot to run him on a scent breasthigh, but from the good day he last was viewed pointing for home in his 7mile [rolltop] boots a deaf fox's wisdom kept him safe in covert miraculously ravenfed & sustained by the clotted creamclotted sherriness of cinnamon syllabub. Preserving perseverance in the reeducation of his intestines was the his the best rebuttal whereby he got the big bulge on all the crowd of spasoakers in that one street town. Vainly virulence, violence, & vituperation sought wellnigh utterly to end the reign of the great shipping mogul and linen lord; it was one more dearer than all who was to make him a the nine days' jeer for the lounge lizards of the pumproom.     

frame up - to devise falsely (as a criminal charge against an inocent man) [(notebook 1922-23): 'frame up'].

figment - an invented statement, story, doctrine, etc. + FDV: of such fictions [in the evidential order]

evidential - of or pertaining to evidence

fortuitous - that happens or is produced by fortune or chance; accidental, casual.

dim - obscure, not clear to the mind or understanding + FDV: as fortuitously as some false setting of a starchart might [(heaven aiding)] reveal the presence of an unknown being in space chaos of space

star chart - a chart showing the positions of the stars + (notebook 1922-23): 'false setting of starmap discover new star' Overseas Daily Mail 16 Dec 1922, 13/1: 'No New Star': 'new star... reported to have been discovered by M. Zwierel... "Zwierel must apparently have made his mistake in setting his star-map, and in his confusion re-discovered some well-known star"'.

forehear - to hear beforehand + forhøre (Danish) - examine.

sib - related by blood or descent, akin, closely related

foliate - to put forth leaves

stotter - error, slip, blunder; to stumble, stagger + Henrik Ibsen: Samfundets Støtter (Pillars of Society) + The first men, Vico tells us, were mute; their only language was gesture. But they attempted (blasphemously perhaps) to imitate the voice of the thunder. Their first words were stutterning, as was to be expected since the thunder itself stutters... And it must be remembered that stuttering, according to the modern psychologists, is a neurotic symptom caused by a consciousness of guilt. (James S. Atherton: The Books of Wake).

sound - founded on true or well-established grounds; free from error, fallacy, or logical defect.

mentalist - an advocate of mentalism (doctrine that mind is the fundamental reality); a mind reader or fortune teller + mental specialists.

securus iudicat orbis terrarum (l) - free from care, the circle of the lands judges; i.e. untroubled, the world judges (St. Augustine) + securus (l) - peaceful + iudico (l) - judge + orbis (l) - circle + terra (l) - earth.

play possum - to feign ignorance, to pretend to be asleep or dead, to feign or pretend illness + (notebook 1922-23): 'saves his brush play 'possum'' Quarterly Review Oct 1922, 268: 'Reynard the Fox': 'saves his brush, but it is not likely that... he acts with deliberate intent... the promptings of instinct, of which the most notable example is the trick of 'playing possum''.

hagios (gr) - saintly, holy + FDV: The best soundest opinion now holds that by so playing possum our highest common ancestor most effectually saved his brush.

curious - exciting curiosity, somewhat surprising, strange, singular, odd; queer + kurios (gr) - lord.


brush - a quick light touch or momentary contact, a brief encounter; a girl, a young woman; a bushy tail (the brush of a fox).

posterity - the descendants collectively of any person, all who have proceeded from a common ancestor.

coparcener - a joint heir

heir in tail (Sc. of entail, of tailsie) - the person who succeeds or is entitled to succeed to an entailed estate by virtue of the deed of entail (the settlement of the succession of a landed estate, so that it cannot be bequeathed at pleasure by any one possessor; a predetermined order of succession).

gundog - a dog trained to accompany the 'guns' (hunters) + FDV: Dogs of all breeds were speaking with various marked provincial accents,

beagle - to hunt game with a beagle + (notebook 1922-23): 'dog was speaking' Quarterly Review Oct 1922, 274: 'Reynard the Fox': 'his spaniel was speaking freely'.

renounce - announce, declare, proclaim

urbi et orbi - to the city (of Rome) and to the world. Also transf., for general information or acceptance; to everyone.

bugle - a hunting-horn, originally made of the horn of a 'bugle' or wild ox; to sound a bugle.

run - to pursue, to follow up (a scent) + (notebook 1922-23): 'ran him' Quarterly Review Oct 1922, 271: 'Reynard the Fox': 'in the early summer greyhounds can seldom be induced to attack a she-wolf. They will run her readily, but never hurt her when overtaken'.

A fox is said to be given law when it is allowed a 'fair chance' to run after being bolted, before hounds are laid on.

breast high scent - a scent so strong that dogs course heads up + (notebook 1922-23): 'hounds find scent is breasthigh' Daily Mail 21 Nov 1922, 8/4: 'Missing the Hunt by "Silver Button"': 'hounds find, scent (that most curious and incomprehensible phenomenon) improves, is, in fact, breast-high'.

keen - eager, ardent, full of intense desire

worry - the act of biting and shaking an animal so as to injure or kill it (properly of hounds when they seize their quarry, i.e. fox) + (notebook 1922-23): 'the worry' Quarterly Review Oct 1922, 268: 'Reynard the Fox': 'A comparatively fresh fox had been headed into the very mouths of the pack, and rolled over. Somehow during the worry he got dragged into a deep runnel'.

holt - a place of refuge or abode, an animal's lair or den esp. that of an otter.

rat - to desert one's party, side, or cause, esp. in politics; to go over as a deserter + lit. ausrotten (ger) - exterminate + {from his wood he ran like a rat across Humfries’ Chase}.

yuletide - the season of Yule, Christmas-tide

genial - diffusing warmth and friendliness

crossland - land belonging to the church (Irish)

MULLINAHOB - House, 2 miles South-East of Ratoath, County Meath

PEACOCKSTOWN - Townland, parish and barony of Ratoath, County Meath

bear - to move with effort, with persistence, or with a distinct bias in some direction

TANKARDSTOWN - Townland, parish and barony of Ratoath, County Meath

outlier - one that sleeps outdoors; animal outside enclosure

Noel (fr) - Christmas + Nolan.

Lowenanteil (ger) - lion's share

fitz - one whose surname begins with fitz i.e. an Irishman of Anglo Norman extraction

urse - a bear + Mr Loewensteil Fitz Urse - according to Mrs Christiani, a scramble of German, Norman French, Latin, meaning "Mr Lion's-share Bear-son." 

basset - a short-legged dog used in unearthing foxes and badgers

beater - a man employed in rousing wild game from under cover for a hunter + basset hounds.

misbrand - to brand falsely + badger - sturdy carnivorous burrowing mammal with strong claws, intermediate between the weasels and the bears, found in Europe and Middle Asia.

bruin - brown bear; the name of the bear in Reynard the Fox + bruin (Dutch) - brown + Browne/Nolan (motif).

swart - a dark color, black + sort

bay - to bark; to pursue with barking like a pack of hounds

run - the act of running

RAYSTOWN - townland in barony of Ratoath, County Meath

Harlockstown - townland in vicinity of Ratoath, County Meath

loop the loop - to perform the feat of circling in a vertical loop, orig. on a specially prepared track, later in an aeroplane + loup - leap, flee + loup (fr) - wolf.

ear - the organ of hearing in men and animals

canny - skilful, clever, 'cunning'

hare - to run or move with great speed; a rodent quadruped of the genus Lepus, having long ears and hind legs, a short tail, and a divided upper lip.


Cheeverstown - townland in vicinity of Ratoath, County Meath

race - to run a race (with)

Loughlinstown - townland, county Meath 

Nuttstown - townland, county Meath + area hunted by Ward Union Staghounds [622.25] are townlands in vicinity of Ratoath, County Meath: Loughlinstown, Nuttstown, Boolies.

wind - to move so as to encircle; to perceive (an animal) by the scent conveyed by the wind.

booly - a temporary enclosure for the shelter of cattle or their keepers + BOOLIES - Townland, parish of Kilbride, barony of Ratoath, County Meath. (Other townlands of this common name, which means "milking places," are excluded by the context.) 

good turn - an act of good will, an act of service to someone else without expecting a reward or praise + FDV: but from the good day he last was viewed

check - a stop in the progress of the hounds through the failure of the scent

ye - the

Rath Hill - townland in vicinity of Ratoath, County Meath + Rutland Square, Dublin (sloping).

ticker - something that ticks; heart, guts + thicker.

rooming house - lodging house + (notebook 1922-23): 'pointing for his kennel' + Quarterly Review Oct 1922, 274: 'Reynard the Fox': 'a beautiful dog-fox... Full fed, and therefore at peace with all things, he was pointing for his own kennel, somewhere in one of the breaks'.

(tombstones of Northeast family at Sidlesham [.20])

top royal - lofty, grand, fine + FDV: pointing for home in his 7mile [rolltop] boots

hessian - a man's high tasseled boot (19th century)

Fuchs Reinhard - German poem (Reynard the Fox) + fuchs (ger) - fox + (notebook 1922-23): 'old deaf fox' + Quarterly Review Oct 1922, 275: 'Reynard the Fox': ''He was deaf,' said my friend laconically. 'Old foxes often lose their hearings as old dogs do''.

volpone - a cunning schemer or miser + volpone (it) - fox + Volpone or The Fox - play by Ben Jonson, 1606, in which Volpone (the fox) takes to bed and pretends to be dying + FDV: a deaf fox's wisdom kept him safe in covert 

in covert - in concealment; in hiding, or disguise; rarely, in safety + covert - woods and undergrowth that shelter game.

Elijah was fed by ravens + {miraculously raven-fed [his daughter] on clotted-cream cinnamon syllabub}.

buoy up - to keep afloat on a liquid, support

rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum - four stomachs of a ruminant animal


mead - meed

clot - Of fluids, as blood, cream, gravy: To coagulate, curdle, run into clots + FDV: miraculously ravenfed & sustained by the clotted creamclotted sherriness of cinnamon syllabub.

sherry - Originally, the still white wine made near Xeres (now Jerez de la Frontera, a town in Andalusia, near Cadiz); in modern use, extended to a class of Spanish fortified white wines of similar character.

cinnamon - a culinary spice

syllabub - a drink or dish made of milk (freq. as drawn from the cow) or cream, curdled by the admixture of wine, cider, or other acid, and often sweetened and flavoured + (notebook 1922-23): 'Syllabub: warm milk milked into 2 pints of Port & sherry, clotted cream, cinnamon comfits' Daily Mail 29 Nov 1922, 8/5: 'Grandfather's Syllabub': '"When I was a girl... we would have no... thought of omitting syllabub for the Christmas festivities... a pint from the sherry... fetch up a bottle of port and pour out a pint of that also. Both lots of wine went into a big old china bowl and were sweetened with sugar... Father would pet one of the quietest of the cows and feed it with apples while I milked her into the bowl... After waiting about 20 minutes... pile up the bowl with clotted cream... put in a little powdered cinnamon. On the top we grated nutmeg and stuck in some sweetmeats... nonpareil comfits"'.

Mikkelraev - according to Mrs Christiani, Danish 'Reynard the Fox' + Mick/Nick (motif). 

hie - to hasten, speed, go quickly

preservative - tending to preserve, protective + FDV: Preserving perseverance in the reeducation of his intestines

perservance - persistance, steadfastness + (notebook 1922-23): 'preserving perseveres'.

reeducate - to train the physically disabled in the use of muscules in new functions or of prosthetic appliances in old functions.

rebuttal - refutation, contradiction; rebuttal testimony is when a witness is called to testify for the sole purpose of contradicting what another has testified to + Joyce's note: 'rebuttal'.

whilk - which

git = get + {His perseverance in eating alternative foods was the way in which he got the better of all the hunters, dieting on Glues and Gravies [the dead in Sidlesham] in those early times}.

bulge - a hump + to have the bulge on - to have the adventage over + get the bulge on - have the advantage of.

spa - a medicinal or mineral spring or well + soaker - one who soaks (to drink, imbibe, esp. to excess) something + FDV: was the his the best rebuttal whereby he got the big bulge on all the crowd of spasoakers in that one street town.

glue - a hard, brittle, brownish gelatin, obtained by boiling the hides and hoofs of animals to a jelly.

gravy - the fat and juices which exude from flesh during and after the process of cooking + tombstones of Glue and Gravy families at Sidlesham.

lit. Vorort (ger) - suburb + (notebook 1922-23): '1 street town' + Leader 11 Nov 1922, 320/1: 'Current Topics': 'We would not insult the thriving and historic town of Ardee by referring to it as a village, but of all the towns we ever saw in Ireland, it is a one-street town'.

virulence - extreme acrimony or bitterness of temper or speech; violent malignity or rancour

vituperation - abusive or venomous language used to express blame or censure or bitter deep-seated ill will

wellnigh - very nearly, almost wholly or entirely


abridge - to curtail, to lessen, to diminish (rights, privileges, advantages, or authority).

derail - to cause (a train, etc.) to leave the rails; to throw off the rails.

pontify - to play the pontiff; to speak or behave 'pontifically', or with assumption of authority or infallibility + pons (l) - bridge depontifacio (l) - to unbuild the bridge.

inroad - to invade

goad - to irritate; to instigate or impel by some form of mental pain or annoyance

humus (l) - the earth

ship - to go by ship to, into, or from a place + Joyce's note: 'shipping mogul'

the Great Mogul - the common designation among Europeans of the emperor of Delhi, whose empire at one time included most of Hindustan; the last nominal emperor was dethroned in 1857.

uderlinen - underwear usu. of lightweight material

overlord - one who is the lord of other lords or rulers; a lord paramount, supreme lord + FDV: Vainly virulence, violence, & vituperation sought wellnigh utterly to end the reign of the great shipping mogul and linen lord; it was one more dearer than all who was to make him a the nine days' jeer for the lounge lizards of the pumproom. 

spoil - damage, harm, impairment, or injury, esp. of a serious or complete kind; the action or practice of pillaging or plundering, the carrying off or taking away of goods as plunder.

hesitant - hesitating; irresolute, undecided; stammering + (one who hesitates)

spell - orally recite the letters of or give the spelling of; a psychological state induced by (or as if induced by) a magical incantation.  

hesitancy - Richard Pigott's misspelling of that word before an investigating commission revealed him as a forger of letters supposedly written by Parnel (in those letters Parnel condones the Phoenix Park murders of May 1882.) + Pigott was born in Ratoath [.02-.11]

atake - to overtake, catch + atake ... ashe = anagrams of Kate, Shea 

ashe = ash

tittery - Of laughter, remarks, etc.: having a nervous, tittering quality + hesitency (motif).

taw - a large marble used for shooting in the game of marbles

tattery - ragged, tattered + {His only attacker was a 'she' – a tittery tattery telltale}.

Humpty Dumpty

wincey - fabric used for warm shirts, skirts and pyjamas

assembly man - a member of an assembly

reynard - a quasi-proper name given to the fox

eruct - to belch

deliver + the letter + lieber (ger) - dear + libber - feminist; one who supports liberation for some group + Vico believed that the fear of divinity arises in all nations from Jove's discipline of Prometheus, who, chained to Mount Caucasus, is visited daily by a vulture who devours his liver, only for it to grow back the next day, continuing the cycle until the day Hercules unbinds him. 

gush (Slang) - smell

visuals - a picture images of a motion picture film; Of organs: Endowed with the power of sight + victuals - articles of food.

pung (Danish Slang) - cod + pong.

orelode - a vein of metal ore + øre (Danish) - ear.

FDV: He had laid violent hands on himself, lain down, fagged out, with equally melancholy death. He had left the country by via subterranean tunnel lined shored with bedboards. [An infamous private ailment (variovenereal) (variolovenereal) had claimed him.] [He had walked into a pond while intoxicated up to that point where braces meet buttons braced shirts meet knickerbockers.] Ten The helping hands of five had rescued him from seven feet of semifresh water. Aerials reported buzzed of a finding of a bloody [antichill cloak] with a tailor's tab reading V. P. H. & all shivered to think what beast had devoured him The black hand had done him in On his postern had been nailed the title: Move up, Dumpty. Make room for Humpty! and this time no mistake the boys had done him in. Indeed several wellwishers bought went so far as to buy copies of the evening editions just to make sure whether he was genuinely quite dead. But on the morrow morn of the suicide suicidal murder [unrescued] & expatriated half past eight ¼ to 9 o'clock saw the unfailing spike of smoke plume punctual from his chimneypipe 7th gable and ten thirsty p.m., the lamps of maintenance lighted for the long night a suffusion of the leadlight panes. Therefore let it be neither said nor thought that the inhabitant of that sacred edifice was a parable merely nor [more strictly] H.C.E. a nonens. Not one of his many contemporaries seriously doubted or for long of his real legitimate existence.

lay violent hands on oneself - to commit suicide + (Van Hoother)

Fugger's News Letter - 36,000 pages of manuscript (the first known examples of newsletters) sent by agents to Count Edward Fugger from 1568 to 1605, written in Italian, German, Latin, dog-Latin.  

newsletter - pamphlet or small newspaper containing news

lain - p. of lie

all in - completely tired, exhausted

fag out - to exhaust by toil or heavy activity

triduum - a period of three days

Saturnalia - Roman Antiq. The festival of Saturn, held in the middle of December, observed as a time of general unrestrained merrymaking, extending even to the slaves; a period of unrestrained licence and revelry.

parade - to make a parade of, to display or hold out to view ostentatiously, to 'show off'

wellington - a high boot + Zwilling (ger) - twin + (twin sons) + Willingdone, Jinnies.

forum - Rom. Ant. The public place or market-place of a city. In ancient Rome the place of assembly for judicial and other public business; The Forum Romanum (in Rome), with its wealth of temples and arches occupied low ground between the Capitoline and Palatine Hills. It contained a temple of Saturn, built against the Capitoline Hill. 

jenny - the female name

infant - to give birth to, to bring forth (a child)

lass - a girl

raucously - in a raucous (hoarse, rough, harsh-sounding) manner, loudly

the Yard - short for 'Scotland Yard', the chief London police office

houx (fr) - holly 

Efeu (ger) - ivy + {For the celebration of Saturnalia, his servant had paraded wellingtons in the Forum while his wife gave birth to a girl who was greeted with holly, ivy and mistletoes all the way from the Hundred of Manhood [Sidlesham] and with the murmuring of women}.

measure - to judge or estimate the greatness or value of (a person, a quality, etc.) by a certain standard or rule.

missile - missilia, res missiles, largesse (consisting of sweets, perfumes, etc.) thrown by the Roman emperors to the people + mistletoes.

wimmern (ger) - to lament, moan

Weib (ger) - woman, wife

bang - a sudden, violent or explosive noise + term 'Big Bang' is coined in 1949 + {"the" at the end of the letter (and fw) is explosion of his fall}

worldwide - 'as wide as the world'; extending over or covering the whole world + Oscar Wilde.

a Letter: then silence

fama (l) - tale; news; rumor, gossip + In Greek mythology, Pheme was the personification of fame and renown, her favour being notability, her wrath being scandalous rumors. She was a daughter either of Gaia or of Hope, was described as "she who initiates and furthers communication" and had an altar at Athens. A tremendous gossip, Pheme was said to have pried into the affairs of mortals and gods, then repeated what she learned, starting off at first with just a dull whisper, but repeating it louder each time, until everyone knew. In art, she was usually depicted with wings and a trumpet. In Roman mythology, Fama ("rumor") was described as having multiple tongues, eyes, ears and feathers by Virgil (in Aeneid IV line 180 and following) and other authors. She is also described as living in a home with 1000 windows so she could hear all being said in the world. Virgil wrote that she "had her feet on the ground, and her head in the clouds, making the small seem great and the great seem greater."

ether - the fifth and highest element after air and earth and fire and water; according to ancient and medieval science, aether (also spelled ether) is the material that fills the region of the Universe above the terrestrial sphere + {and the last rumour was laid to rest}.

noise + Nose (ger) - nose + (notebook 1924): 'noise or silence drove *E* mad'.

roar + lull.

dreven (Danish) - driven

blem (ger) - crazy + blem-blem (Slang) - crazy + blind.

stone blind + "His name is Azathoth, the blind god that explodes without end, and from his death the manifested worlds are born; and planets, stars, suns, and their inhabitants." (Frank G Ripel: The Magick of Atlantis: Sauthenerom, the Source of the Necronomicon.)

Schema (ger) - scheme + Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves: 'Open Sesame!'

slough off - to cast off, throw off, to get rid of; of diseased skin, tissue, etc.: to come off.

sidle - to move sideways + Earwickers of Sidlesham in the Hundred of Manhood - this is a real-life family that has lived in Sidlesham since the 18th century. "Manhood" is the name of the extreme southwest Hundred (county division) of Sussex.  

via - by way of, by route which passes through or over (a specified place); by means of.

subteranean - an underground cave or room, cavern

shore - to serve as a shore to, to border + FDV: He had left the country by via subterranean tunnel lined shored with bedboards.

bedboard - a stiff thin wide board inserted between bedspring and mattress + (notebook 1922-23): 'tunnel shored with bedboards' Daily Mail 13 Jan 1923, 7/5: 'Prison Tunnel': 'A bold attempt by Republican prisoners to escape from Galway Gaol... The tunnel has been constructed with considerable skill and it had been shored with bed boards and other materials from the cells'.

stowaway - a person who hides in a ship in order to escape payment of passage-money, to get  to sea unobserved, or to escape by stealth from a country.

anker = anchor - to take up a position; to cast anchor, to come to anchor + Anker - name in Sidlesham cemetery.

bottom - the hull of a ship + bottom, arse.

tank - a compartment in a ship for holding water, oil or liquids

Arsa - at Palmyra she is the goddess of Venus as the evening star, and a goddess of fate + Osiris (in Ancient Greek; also Usiris); the Egyptian language name is variously transliterated Asar, Asari, Aser, Ausar, Ausir, Wesir, Usir, Usire or Ausare.

hodie (l) - today

islamitic - rel. to islamism, muslim + (converts to Islam take a new forename).


Magrath, Cornelius (1736-60) - Irish giant, befriended by Berkeley who claimed he owed his stature to tar water, exhibited on Dublin's College Green + (notebook 1924): '*C* lived 7 generation & was then killed'  Lamy: Commentarium in Librum Geneseos I.255:  'From which follows the opinion of the ancient interpreters, handed down by Saint Ephraem, that Cain had carried the stain of his crime till the seventh generation and was then killed' (Genesis 4:15).

karakter (Danish) = karakter (Turkish) - character

common erring

Asia Minor - Turkey

theater = theatre + Turko the Terrible - first Christmas pantomime at Gaiety Theatre, Dublin (Ulysses.1.258).

key - a scheme of notes related to each other

flat - music. rel. low in pitch

sharp - a musical note one half step higher than named note + B sharp - Mus. sign used to counteract a flat.

piaster - The English (French, German, etc.) name (It., Sp. piastra) of a small Turkish coin.

buik - the belly, abdomen + danseuse - a female dancer + buikdanseuse (Dutch) - belly dancer.

omnibus box = omnibus - a large box in a theather adapted to contain many persons + omni- - all, universally.

arab - a homeless little wanderer, a child of the street; one of the Semitic race inhabiting Saudi Arabia and neighbouring countries.

street door - the chief external door of a house, giving immediate access to the street.

bepester - to pester (annoy, trouble persistently) greatly, harass

bashaw - The earlier form of the Turkish title pasha (a title formerly borne in Turkey by officers of high rank, as military commanders, and governors of provinces).

alms - charitable relief of the poor, charity

para - a small Turkish coin, the fortieth part of a piastre

term - a limit, boundary; the end of gestation or point at which birth is imminent.

till - to

soggarth - a priest + saggarth (Anglo-Irish) = sagart (Irish) - priest (from Latin sacerdos) [Joyce's note: 'saggarth'] + (notebook 1924): 'family priest' Jespersen: The Growth and Structure of the English Language 45 (sec. 44): 'For 'chaplain' we have handpreost or hiredpreost ('family-priest')' (Old English).

resign - to relinquish, surrender, give up, or hand over (one's life, being, soul, etc.)

put off - to take off, rid oneself of

remainders - remains, esp. of ancient buildings. (Common in 17th c.)

scrap heap - discard, oblivion, the place to which useless things are relegated; to consign to the scrap heap.

chirping - the action of the verb chirp (lit. Of birds and certain insects)

cross - to intersect, contradict, meet

infamous - of shameful badness, vileness, or abominableness; of a character or quality deserving utter reprobation.

vulgo (l) - publicly, universally, everywhere + varius (l) - diverse, varying + venereus (l) - of or belonging to sexual love + FDV: [An infamous private ailment (variovenereal) (variolovenereal) had claimed him.]

vicious circle - a situation in which action and reaction intensify each other; a self-perpetuating process of aggravation.

snap - a quick, sharp sound or report + Sir Oliver Lodge: The Survival of Man (a book about spiritualism), 279: (of a medium) 'a sensation which she calls a snap in the head, which nearly always precedes a return to consciousness'.

jam - a jar designed for holding jam + jars jammed.

jar - to produce a harsh or grating sound; to vribrate or shake; to quarrel + James Joyce.

ornamental - serving as an ornament or decoration

lily pond - a pond in which water lilies are grown + (notebook 1923): 'drowned in a pond while intoxicated'.

inebriated - intoxicated, drunken

knickerbockers - loose fitting breeches, gathered in at the knee + FDV: [He had walked into a pond while intoxicated up to that point where braces meet buttons braced shirts meet knickerbockers.]  

wang (Chinese) - king

buoyant - lightly elastic; Of liquid, having the power of keeping bodies aloft on its surface + Thomas Moore: song: As Vanquish'd Erin [air: The Boyne Waters].

rodman - an angler, fisherman

Ulysses.9.878: 'birthaiding hands'

several - private property or possession; separate, particular + several fishery - a right to fish derived through or on account of ownership of the soil + (notebook 1922-23): 'rescued from 7 ft of water'.

frisch (ger) - fresh + FDV: Ten The helping hands of five had rescued him from seven feet of semifresh water.

mush - a formless mass, anything soft and pulpy. Also, anything reduced to or resembling a mass of powder; a kind of porridge + mush (Slang) - umbrella.

pump - a mechanical device that moves fluid or gas by pressure or suction; a low-cut shoe without fastenings + (public water pump).

white lock [031.15] [596.26] + (Finn)

a piece of wood - a contemptuous appellation for a stupid person, a blockhead

fas (l) - divine law or command; fate, destiny; lawful, allowed + fast.

ekename - additional name, nickname + Budge: The Book of the Dead civ: 'to provide the deceased with hekau, "words of power"... magical formulae, the recital of which will enable him to carry out all his wishes and supply all his needs'.

auch - eke, also

acnomina (l) - pl. of acnomen = surname, name acquired by a person to signalize some accomplishment, e.g. Scipio Africanus, Fabius Cunctator.

ecnumina (l) - outside of the divine will, outside the power of the gods + Robert Masters: "As mentioned, there are Words of Power (HEKAU)... They were, in fact, not "words" at all in the conventional sense but sacred sounds accompanied in each case by an image, a posture, gestures, rhythms and vibrations and still other accompaniments, having only a single significance and giving rise to no associations which might dilute the "Word's" power... In addition to this, each individual has Name given to that person by his/her Teacher which refers to the totality of that person's Being. This is the essential "magical" and "secret" Name of that person and it must be guarded with extreme care. Anyone who knows that assigned Name of the person has great power over him/her - power which can be used either constructively or destructively".

Hansard - a merchant of one of the hansa towns; the official report of the proceedings and debates of the Houses of Parliament; colloq. so called as having been compiled for a long period by Messrs. Hansard.

gar - to compel, make + to gar do, make, etc. - to cause to be done, make, etc. + gar (ger) - even; cooked.

ganz (ger) - whole, entire, all + gar Gans (ger) - cooked goose.

dub - a clumsy or stupid person

citta (it) - city

batty - crazy, insane

baton - a staff or stick used as a weapon, sometimes also of iron or iron-tipped; a club, cudgel, or truncheon.

hod - an open receptacle for carrying mortar, and sometimes bricks or stones, to supply builders at work.

Heer (ger) - army + Herr (ger) - gentleman, Mr. + Heer (Dutch) - master, lord.

pencil-sharpener - an instrument for sharpening a black-lead or slate pencil by pushing or rotating it against a cutting edge.

cup and ball - a toy consisting of a cup at the end of a stem to which a ball is attached by a string, the object being to toss the ball and catch it in the cup or on the spike end of the stem. Also the game played with this.

Reme - potential city that might have been founded by and named after Remus had he killed his brother Romulus.

wiege (ger) - cradle + earwig.

waage (ger) - weighing machine, balance + Reference to a joke that man says to young lady, "Wenn ich eine Weige hatte, wurde ich etwas wagen" (If I had a cradle I'd dare something) instead of "Wenn ich eine Waage hatte, wurde ich etwas wiegen" (If I had a scale I'd weigh something).

immer (ger) - always

immoror (l) - to tarry in, to stay at, to linger near + immor (imor) (gael) - very big.

wager - to contend for a prize

casket - money-box or 'chest'; a small box or chest for jewels, letters, or other things of value, itself often of valuable material and richly ornamented + {cradle with a child in it, or a casket with a dead}.

toties testes quoties questus (l) - how often complaints, so often witnesses (a witness will appear each time a complaint is made).

maple - any of the trees or shrubs of the genus Acer, flourishing in northern temperate regions, many of which are grown for shade or ornament, some valued for their wood, and some for a sugar product (letters of Irish alphabet are names of trees).

willow - any plant of the genus Salix, which consists of trees and shrubs of various sizes, widely distributed in temperate and cold regions, growing for the most part by the side of watercourses, characterized by very pliant branches and long narrow drooping leaves.

hickory - a North American tree of the genus Carya, closely allied to the walnut, with tough heavy wood.

yew - a tree of the genus Taxus (N.O. Coniferæ) widely distributed in the North Temperate Zone, esp. T. baccata, the common yew of Europe and Asia, having heavy elastic wood and dense dark-green foliage; often planted in churchyards, and regarded as symbolic of sadness.

chirrup - Of birds, etc.: To chirp, esp. with a more sustained and lively effect, approaching to twittering or warbling.

Golden Dawn - a magical order active in Great Britain during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The three founders, William Robert Woodman, William Wynn Westcott, and Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers were Freemasons. Members were (among others) Aleister Crowley, William Butler Yeats, Maud Gonne and Arthur Machen.

glowworm - a coleopterous insect, the female of which emits a shining green light from the extremity of the abdomen + Thomas Moore: The Young May Moon (song): 'The glow-worm's lamp is gleaming, love'.

gleam - a subdued or transient appearence of light

loquax (l) - talkative, wordy

tacit - saying nothing; still, silent + taciturn - characterized by silence or disinclination to conversation; reserved in speech; saying little.

elsewhere - at some other point, in some other place

Guinness - a popular Irish dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness (1725–1803) at St. James's Gate, Dublin. Guinness is based on the porter style that originated in London in the early 18th century.

ruina (l) - a falling down

esto perpetua (l) - it is to be permanent! let it be permanent (said of Venice and also by Grattan at establishment of Irish parliament, 1782) + est tout pour (fr) - is all for + Stout and porter are dark beers made using roasted malt or barley, hops, water, and yeast. Stouts were traditionally the generic term for the strongest or stoutest beers, typically 7% or 8%, produced by a brewery. The name porter was first used in 1721 to describe a dark beer popular with street and river porters of London that had been made with roasted malts. This same beer later also became known as stout, though the word stout had been used as early as 1677. The history and development of stout and porter are intertwined..

crackling - the production of a rapid succession of slight cracking sounds

crick - to make a slight abrupt sound

pest - any deadly epidemic disease; pestilence; spec. the bubonic plague; any thing or person that is noxious, destructive, or troublesome; a bane, 'curse', 'plague' + {Then he was sighted cycling while drunk}.

pist - a sibilant sound to attract attention + piste cyclable (French) - bicycle track.

sledgy - sledge like + sledge - a carriage mounted upon runners instead of wheels, and generally used for travelling over snow or ice.

pust- (ger) - blow + puste (Danish) - to be out of breath.

Morse = 'Morse telegraph'

nuisance - anything obnoxious or annoying to the community or individual by offensiveness of smell or appearance, by causing obstruction or damage, etc.

noise - to make noise

loose - unbound, at liberty

at large - without restraint or confinement, without plan or aim

Standbild (ger) - statue (here presumably a pun on 'stature')

corpulenta (l) - corpulent

gigas (gr) - giant + Jocasta - mother and wife of Oedipus.

attracted + Herbert Asbury: Hatrack (a story of a small-town prostitute; appeared in 1925 in American Mercury, barred in Boston, and the editor Mencken (also printed two stories from Joyce's Dubliners, 'A Little Cloud' and 'The Boarding House') arrested and tried) + hat trick - three successes (e.g. goals) in a sports game.

arbitrary - derived from mere opinion or preference, capricious; despotic, tyrannical.

conduct - behaviour (usually with more or less reference to its moral quality); to act as a conductor in a bus.

omnibus - a man or boy who assists a waiter at an hotel, restaurant, etc.; horse-drawn bus designed to carry 12-15 passengers, a vehicle set up to carry many people (now usually called a bus) + omnibus (l) - for everyone, for all.

aerial - an antenna

buzz - to make the humming sibilant sound characteristic of bees and other insects.

coastal - located on a coast

overtax - to tax too greatly or heavily, to exact or demand too much of; esp. to overburden or oppress with taxes + ortyx (gr) - the quail + øre (Danish) - ear + wax.

brer - brother + bror (Danish) - brother.

budget - pouch, bag, wallet, usually of leather (obs. exc. dial.); the contents of a bag or wallet.

filibeg - a kilt

sporran - a pouch or large purse made of skin, usually with the hair left on and with ornamental tassels, etc., worn in front of the kilt by Scottish Highlanders.

tuft - an ornamental tassel on a cap

tabard - a coat or jerkin having short sleeves, or none, and emblazoned with the arms of the sovereign (the official dress of a herald or pursuivant).

tab - a small, usually decorative flap or tongue on a garment + (notebook 1922-23): 'tailor's tab'.

Victoria Palace Hotel, Paris, where Joyce lived in 1923-4 [284.F06]

SCALDBROTHER'S HOLE - subterranean cavern in Arbour Hill, Dublin, where Scaldbrother, robber, lived and kept his plunder until he was caught and hanged. 

divers - several, more than one, some number of + FDV: Aerials reported buzzed of a finding of a bloody [antichill cloak] with a tailor's tab reading V. P. H. & all shivered to think what beast had devoured him The black hand had done him in.  

croppy - one who has his hair cropped short; applied esp. to the Irish rebels of 1798, who wore their hair cut very short as a sign of sympathy with the French Revolution.

four penny - that costs or is valued at four pence + (notebook 1924): 'wolf or friar 4d each' Kinane: St. Patrick 184: (of attempts to crush Irish Catholicism) 'The same price was laid upon the head of a wolf or friar'.

hvid (Danish) - white + fionn (Irish) - fair

lyk = like + lykke (Danish) - joy, luck, fortune.

drohnen (ger) - to drone, to roar

sverte (Norwegian) - black


lockt (ger) - (he/she/it) allures, beckons

pinkster - a spring festival, taking place in late May or early June. The name is a variation of the Dutch word Pinksteren, meaning "Pentecost". Pinkster in English almost always refers to the festivals held by African Americans (both free and slave) in the Northeastern United States, particularly in the early 19th centur + Pentecost  is one of the prominent feasts in the Christian liturgical year commemorating the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the disciples of Christ. The feast is also called Whitsun, Whitsunday, Whit Sunday, or Whitsuntide, especially in the United Kingdom. Pentecost is celebrated seven weeks (50 days) after Easter Sunday, hence its name.

postern - back door, private way

Whit-week - the week beginning with Whit Sunday

nail - to fix or fasten with nails

ink up - to cover completely with ink + FDV: On his postern had been nailed the title: Move up, Dumpty. Make room for Humpty! and this time no mistake the boys had done him in.  

inscribed - marked with writing or other characters

cursive - a cursive character; written with a running hand, so that the characters are rapidly formed without raising the pen, and in consequence have their angles rounded, and separate strokes joined, and at length become slanted + (notebook 1924): ''national' hand' + 'cursive hand'.

accelerated - hastened, quickened

regressive - acting in a backward direction, moving or directed backwards; decadent.

filiform - having the form of a thread

turreted - furnished with a turret or turrets (a small tower on the top of another).

enveloped + envenom - to infuse venom or bitterness into (actions, relations, etc.)

bigotry - obstinate and unenlightened attachment to a particular creed, opinion, or system + Pigott, Richard - obscure Irish journalist who forged the letters which the Times published in "Parnellism and Crime." The forged letters linked Parnell to the assassinating-dynamiting faction of the Irish nationalists, indicated his approval of the Phoenix Park murders. Pigott's forgery was exposed when, before a government tribunal, he misspelt "hesitancy" as "hesitency." Pigott fled across Europe, pursued by Scotland Yard, and, in Madrid, he shot himself. In FW, the pursuit is mixed with the pursuit of Parnell. Who sent Pigott a-forging has not been surely established. FW seems to think it was Gladstone or the O'Sheas. (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake)  

rumpty - (something) excellent + Humpty Dumpty + (notebook 1922-23): 'Move up, Mick, Make room for Dick' → 'Move up, Mick, make room for Dick' (Dublin graffito after Collins' death, 1922, referring to Michael Collins and to Richard Mulcahy, his succesor; mentioned in Illustrated Sunday Herald 26 Nov 1922, 11/2.

by order - by authoritative direction or command, in obedience to constituted authority or usage.

Nicholas Proud - secretary of Dublin Port and Docks Board in Joyce's time

pentecostal - of or pertaining to Pentecost (Whit-Sunday)

jest - an idle tale, a story, tale, joke

gregarious - of or pertaining to a flock or community; characteristic of or affecting persons gathered together in crowds + Weekly Irish Times 21 Jan 1933: article on the name O'Reilly: 'Count Alexander O'Reilly, who was a Spanish general; Count Andrew O'Reilly who was an Austrian Field-Marshal, who thereby exemplified the name "gregarious"'.

soever - in any conceivable manner

skilful - having practical ability, possessing skill, expert, dexterous, clever + Weekly Irish Times 21 Jan 1933: article on the name O'Reilly: 'The most usually accepted is that the name comes from the Irish words for RAGHEALLACH - ragh, "a race", and eallach, "learned or skillful"'.

fortitudo (l) - strength, power

fraught - supplied, furnished, filled, attended with

prudentia (l) - foresight, providence, sagacity + O'Reilly motto: Fortitudine et prudentia ('By Fortitude and Prudence').

Weekly Irish Times 21 Jan 1933: article on the name O'Reilly: 'The family derives its descent from the O'Rourke's kingly line'

slasher - one who slashes; a fighter + On August 3rd 1913 an imposing memorial to the memory of Myles O'Reilly (The Slasher) was unveiled in the Co Westmeath section of the village of Finea. Inscription reads "In memory of Myles O’Reilly, (The Slasher) who fell on the Bridge of Finea while defending against the English and Scottish forces under General Monroe on the 5th August 1646."

milemarbhadh (milyemoru) (gael) = meila murder (Anglo-Irish) - great commotion and destruction, lamentation (from Irish míle: thousand and English 'murder') + O'Reilly sept traced to Milesius (Maolmordha) O'Reilly.

mansion - a structure or edifice serving as a dwelling or lodging place

BREFFNY - Name of ancient tribe, which survived as name of districts in Counties Cavan and Leitrim. East Breffny is associated with the O'Reilly's, while West Breffny is associated with the O'Rourkes. Tullymongan is in East Breffny. Tiernan O'Rourke's wife's adultery with Diarmaid MacMurrough led to the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland. "Come back Paddy Reilly to Ballyjamesduff - come home Paddy Reilly to me", lines from the song by Percy French, pinpoint the original territory of the great sept of O Raghailligh in County Cavan or the ancient area known as Breffny.

inauguration - formal or ceremonial induction to an office or dignity

TULLYMONGAN - Name of 2 townlands near Cavan, County Cavan, in ancient territory of Breffny; originally the name of a hill above Cavan Town. Called Tulach Mongain, "Hill of Mongan," by the Four Masters, it was a place of inauguration of O'Reilly chiefs. Mongan was the 7th-century reincarnation of Finn MacCool.  

REILIG NA RIOGH - Ancient "Cemetery of the Kings," near Rathcroghan, County Roscommon, one of the 3 royal burial places of ancient Ireland (with Tailteann and Brugh) + O Ragheallaigh (Irish) - O'Reilly (from RAGHEALLACH: ragh, "a race", and eallach, "learned or skillful") + royal.


variety - diversity of nature or character; absence of monotony, sameness, or uniformity.

MacMahon, Marie Edme Patrice Maurice de, duke of Magenta (1808-93) - French marshal, president. Descendant of a wild goose, he commanded a division whose assault led to the fall of Sebastopol. Maurice Mahan (Behan) is a name of the Man Servant + Reginald Fitz Urse, Becket's principal murderer, is said subsequently to have come to Ireland and founded MacMahon family (*S*).

do in - to kill

field of honour - the ground on which a battle is fought, a battle-field + In heraldry, the field is the whole surface of an escutcheon or shield. 

verdor (sp) - greenness, verdure + Verdun + In heraldry, vert is the colour green, represented in a drawing or engraving by parallel lines sloping downward toward the right.

rampart - a mound of earth raised for the defence of a place + rampant (Heraldry) - rearing up + Shield of East Breffni O'Reillys: Arms: quarterly, one and four, vert two lions rampant combatant or supporting a dexter hand couped at the wrist erect and apaumee bloody proper. [100.11]; Crest: Out of a ducal coronet an oak tree entwined with a serpent descendant all proper; Motto: fortitudine et prudential [with fortitude and prudence]. PICTURE

combatant - one who combats, a fighter, warrior + In heraldry combatant describes two bearings in the position of fighting, set face to face, each rampant. 

dexter - right (in Heraldry); skilful in the use of the limbs and in bodily movements generally (obs.) + dexter (l) - the right hand.

wrest - to pull, pluck, drag away, or detach (a person or thing) with a wrench or twist + resurrected.

puredee - thoroughgoing, 'regular' + purée de pommes (fr) - applesauce.

appaume - In heraldry, appaume describes a hand open, erect and extended so as to show the palm to the spectator.

proper - In heraldry, the term proper describes a charge represented in its natural colour. 

thick and thin - blindly loyal or devoted, ready to go through every difficulty and obstacle.

wellwisher - one who wishes well to another

ferox (l) - wild, warlike + amplus (l) - large, glorious + for example.

venture - to dare, presume, go so far as, be so bold as (to do something).

beg - to ask as a favour or act of grace; hence to ask humbly, earnestly, supplicatingly + (notebook 1922-23): 'bought a paper to see had he really committed suicide (W)' (last word not crayoned) Daily Mail 25 Nov 1922, 12/3-4: 'Wife's Story in Nullity Suit': 'She persisted in her refusal to marry him... Did you think he was going to commit suicide when he left you at Windermere. Yes I really did... I bought a paper to see if he had'.

a triweekly of pertinent interest (Joyce's note)

scatter brain - one who is incapable of serious connected thought + the Saturday Evening Post published in the 1930s stories by Clarence Buddington Kelland about 'Scattergood Baines'.

evening + aften (Danish) - evening + FDV: Indeed several wellwishers bought went so far as to buy copies of the evening editions just to make sure whether he was genuinely quite dead.        

one time - at once, immediately

quasi cum tribus sodaliciarius (l) - as it were comrade with three (O Hehir, Brendan; Dillon, John M. / A classical lexicon for Finnegans wake).

genuinely - in a genuine (real, true) manner + (notebook 1923): 'Yes, genuinely (T)'. 

badly - unfortunately, unluckily + Ulysses.1.198: 'beastly dead'.

whither - whether

transocean - passing or extending across the ocean + TRANSITION - Literary journal founded in Paris by Eugene and Maria Jolas in 1927. As "Work in Progress," Finnegans Wake was published serially from the first issue, and continued sporadically through 1938. 

alarm - to arouse to a sense of danger, to excite the attention or suspicion of, to put on the alert + atalos (gr) - shaky, quavering + clamour - to utter loud and continued cries or calls + The Transatlantic Review - the first magazine to publish a portion of Finnegans Wake during its composition.

latter = laughter + letter + Thalatta! Thalatta! (gr) - Sea! Sea! (shout of Xenophon's men when they at last sighted the Black Sea on the retreat from Persia).

macfarlane - a heavy caped overcoat + MacFarlane's Lament - air to T. Moore's 'Shall the Harp Then Be Silent' + Macfarlane = Mac Pharthalain (mok faralan) (gael) - son of Bartholomew.

lack - Of a quantity in measurement: Short, wanting

league - an itinerary measure of distance (about 3 miles)

BARTHOLOMEW DEEP - One of 5 deeps in Pacific Ocean close to coast of South America + (notebook 1922-23): 'Bartholomew' Daily Mail 21 Nov 1922, 8/4: 'Where Earthquakes Come From': 'Pacific Ocean... possessing narrow troughs of immense depth... Bartholomew Deep (4 miles)... along the sloping sides of these troughs... Peruvian and Chilean earthquakes originate' + Pharthalan (paralan) (gael) - 2nd colonizer; buried at Tallaght, Co. Dublin.

Achtung! (ger) - attention! + (newsboys' cries).

pozor (Russian) - attention!


besight - consideration, determination + besee - fig. To look to, give heed to, attend to; trans. To look at, look to, behold; to see + vicekonge besøger smukke unge skolepiger (Danish) - Viceroy visits beautiful young schoolgirls.

smoky - fig. Having the obscuring, objectionable, or unsubstantial qualities of smoke (obs.) + smuk (Danish) - beautiful + Schmuck (ger) - jewelry, decoration.

pige (Danish) - 'girl', hence Pigeschoolies = schoolgirls

Tri Paistini Eireannaigh (tri pashtini ereni) (gael) - Three little Irish Children.

Eventyr med (Danish) - adventure with

LOCHLANN (LOUGHLINN) - The ancient Irish name ("country of lakes") for the Country of the Ostmen, i.e., Norway, and for the Scands themselves + Lochlann (Anglo-Irish) = Lochlannach (lokhlenokh) (gael) - Scandinavian, Norwegian.

Fathach I Fiounn-isgehaven (Fathach i [bPairc an] Fionn-uisce) (gael) - Giant in Clear-Water [Field] (anglic. Phoenix [Park]) + Eachtra Tri Paistini Eireannaigh le Fathach Lochlannach i bPairc an Fionn-uisce (gael) - Adventures of Three little Irish Children with a Norwegian Giant in Phoenix Park + i finnske haven (Danish) - in Finnish park.

bannalanna (Anglo-Irish) = bean na leanna (ban ne lane) (gael) - ale-woman

BALLYHOOLY - Town, County Cork, on Blackwater River. Robert Martin of Ross, nicknamed "Ballyhooly," wrote the song "The Ballyhooly Blue Ribbon Amy," about a temperance movement in a notoriously intemperate town. The town was known for its faction fights. "Balhyhooly" is proverbial for "a tonguelashing".

buddaree (Anglo-Irish) - a rich vulgar farmer (from Irish bodaire: churl).

BOLEYVOGUE (BOOLAVOGUE) - Town, 8 miles North-East of Enniscorthy, County Wexford. English troops burned RC chapel and other buildings, 26 May 1798, setting off the Wexford insurrection. "Boulavogue" is a song about the rising and Father Murphy, Irish rebel and parish priest of Boulavogue; "Bullavogue" in Ir-Eng means a rough bully of a fellow.

contemporary - a newspaper contemporary with another

notwithstanding - without prevention or obstruction from or by

morrowing - morning, dawning + following.

unrescued - unsaved; undelivered; unliberated

expatriate - an expatriated person, a person who lives in another country

oaktree - oak + Crest (of O'Reillys's Shield): Out of a ducal coronet an oak tree entwined with a serpent descendant all proper.

onto - to a position or point on or upon

duke - cheaf, leader + dyke = dike.

beaver - an amphibious rodent; the female genitals or the pubic area in general

liquidambar - sweet gum tree; a resinous gum which exudes from the bark of the tree Liquidambar styraciflua (called also copalm balsam) + Fitzpatrick: The Trees of Ireland 598: 'Templeton introduced... Canadian Maple, and Liquidamber'.

exude - to discharge through the pores

Fitzpatrick: The Trees of Ireland 597: 'At Moira, County Down, a number of exotics were planted'.

balsam poplar - a North American poplar with buds coated with an aromatic resin + Fitzpatrick: The Trees of Ireland 599: 'Balsam Poplars at Ballyweg, County Kildare'.

PARTEEN - Townland and village, County Clare, 2½ miles North of Limerick on Shannon River; pairtin, Ir. "little port." This stretch of the Shannon between Limerick and Killaloe was known for the best salmon fishing in Ireland before the Ardnacrusha dam was built + Fitzpatrick: The Trees of Ireland 604: 'Parteen-a-lax, County Clare. Miss Gwynn. Deep limestone soil'.  

limestone - a rock which consists chiefly of carbonate of lime, and yields lime when burnt + Limestone Road.

road (obs.) - to traverse (a way) 

abies magnifica - noble fir + Fitzpatrick: The Trees of Ireland 608: 'Abies magnifica... Red Fir'.

Fitzpatrick: The Trees of Ireland 608: 'Abies nobilis... The Noble Fir'.

implore - to beg or pray for (aid, favour, pardon, etc.) with tearful or touching entreaties.

recipiency - sensitivity, ability to receive + resipiscence - repentance, recognition of a past mistake and the desire to improve in the future.

infallible - not liable to prove false, erroneous, or mistaken; that unfailingly holds good + (papal infallibility).

spike - a stiff sharp-pointed object or part + Popes are elected by a "Conclave" or electoral assembly of cardinals; each day the smoke of burning voting papers from a Vatican chimney signals to waiting crowds that there is no election yet.

pontiff + FDV: But on the morrow morn of the suicide suicidal murder [unrescued] & expatriated half past eight ¼ to 9 o'clock saw the unfailing spike of smoke plume punctual from his chimneypipe 7th gable and ten thirsty p.m., the lamps of maintenance lighted for the long night a suffusion of the leadlight panes. 

punctual - direct, explicit, definite; up to time, in good time; not late.

gable - the triangular-topped end wall of a building; a gable-end.

Quintus Centimachus - Latin name for Conn of the Hundred Battles. Porphyry, the 3rd-century commentator on Plotinus, wrote a treatise on abstinence (from animal foods) + quintus (l) - fifth + centum (l) - hundred + mache (gr) - battle.

porphyroid - resembling or akin to porphyry (a beautiful and very hard rock anciently quarried in Egypt; in its non-geologic, traditional use, the term "porphyry" refers to the purple-red form of this stone, valued for its appearance) + porphyroeides (gr) - purply, purplish.

TOURS DE BEURRE - The "Butter Towers" of the late middle ages in Rouen and other cities are supposed to have been built with money raised by dispensations from fasting. The reference in context seems to be to the smoke rising from a chimney of the Vatican. 

ten thirsty (notebook 1922-23)

lastingness - long existance, enduringness

en caecos harauspices! (l) - behold the blind soothsayers! + caecus (l) - blind + haruspice = haruspex - one of a class of ancient Roman soothsayers, of Etruscan origin, who performed divination by inspection of the entrails of victims, and in other ways.

annos longos patimur (l) - we endure long years (O Hehir, Brendan; Dillon, John M. / A classical lexicon for Finnegans wake).

maintenance - the action of keeping in effective condition + (notebook 1922-23): 'lamp of maintenance (Tc H)' The Times 15 Dec 1922, 9/4: 'of "Toc H"... to celebrate the eighth birthday of this wonderful fellowship... will be the lighting by his Royal Highness of the lamps of maintenance which are to be presented to delegates from fifty branches. The lamp of maintenance is a replica of the old Christian catacomb lamp, except that the handle has been designed in the form of a cross to represent part of the arms of Ypres' (lamps lighted to commemorate dead).

beacon - a burning cresset raised on a pole, or fixed at the top of a building.

innerhalb (ger) - inside

ziggurat - a staged tower of pyramid form in which each successive storey is smaller than that below it, so as to leave a terrace all round; an Assyrian or Babylonian temple-tower + (notebook 1924): 'ziggurat' → Perry: The Origin of Magic and Religion 35: 'the Babylonian ziggurat or stepped pyramid'.

brevet (Archaic) - official document granting some privileges (Obsolete authoritative message, especially a papal indulgence).

wyvern - a representation of a chimerical animal imagined as a winged dragon with two feet like those of an eagle, and a serpent-like, barbed tail (used in heraldry).

tawny - name of a composite colour, consisting of brown with a preponderance of yellow or orange + (lion's tawny mane).

Swing Low, Sweet Chariot (song)

outstanding - prominent, conspicuous, eminent; striking

loll - a pet; an idle person + doll.

litten - lighted

Macaulay: Marriage of Tirzah and Ahirad: 'How long, O Lord, how long?

suffusion - the action of suffusing a surface with fluid, moisture, or colour; the process of permeating or infusing something with a substance.

Fionn-ghlais (finglash) (gael) - Clear Stream; village and stream N. of Dublin; anglic. Finglas + fine glass.

transom - a window divided by a transom (a horizontal bar of wood or stone across a mullioned window, dividing it in height); also a small window above the lintel of a door.

leadlight - a window in which small panes are fixed in leaden cames + John Henry, Cardinal Newman: The Pillar of the Cloud: (begins) 'Lead, kindly Light, amid th' encircling gloom'.

any thinking being

edifice - a building, usually a large and stately building, as a church, palace, temple, or fortress

Ivar Beinlaus and Olaf the White invaded Dublin in 852

Einstein, Albert (born in Ulm [.36])

venter - the belly, the abdomen; a vendor; one who utters or gives vent to a statement, doctrine, etc., esp. of an erroneous, malicious, or objectionable nature.

Bauch (ger) - stomach + Bauchredner (ger) - ventriloquist + bauch - inferior.

backword - expressing 'in the contrary direction'

tris- - thrice, tripled + Tristan + FDV: Therefore let it be neither said nor thought that the inhabitant of that sacred edifice was a parable merely nor [more strictly] H.C.E. a nonens

clue - that which points the way, or indicates a solution, or puts one on the track of a discovery; a key.

Weltraum (ger) - space

dodecagonal - of or pertaining to a dodecagon; twelve-sided (*O*) + dode (Dutch) - dead.

sammen - together + samliv (Danish) - 'cohabitation' + (companions).

dijk (Dutch) - dyke

authenticity - the quality of being authentic, genuineness

aliquant - contained in another, but not dividing it evenly, and so opposed to aliquot + aliquitudinis (l) - of somethingness + aliquid (l) - someone, something + aliquis (l) - of some consequence.

canonicity - canonical acceptability + Joyce's note: 'canonicity' Apocryphal New Testament xvii: Let us say that the best external test of the canonicity of a writing is, whether or not it was read in the public worship of Christian congregations which were in communion with the generality of other Christian congregations. MS 47474-162, TsILS: to doubt of his legitimate ^+canonicity+^ existence | JJA 46:063 | 1926-7 |

tesseract - the four dimensional analogue of a cube + FDV: Not one of his many contemporaries seriously doubted or for long of his real legitimate existence.

quick - living persons (chiefly in echoes of Acts x. 42 or the Apostles' Creed, in phr. quick and dead.)

sing dumb - to be silent

ulme - an elm tree + Ulm (ger) = ulmus (l) - elm tree.

dispersal - the action of dispersing or scattering abroad + dispersed - scattered or spread about; driven asunder; diffused.

fast - Of a person, his attributes, feelings, etc.: Not easily turned aside, constant, firm, steadfast.

tellus (l) - the earth, land + Gaea Tellus - Greek earth-goddess.

terra (l) - dry land, ground

Mark the Wans, why do I am alook alike a poss of porterpease? ...But the dour handworded her grace in dootch nossow: Shut!

note - a brief record or abstract of facts written down for the purpose of assisting the memory, or to serve as a basis for a more complete or full statement + Notes and Queries (periodical).

titbit - a brief and isolated interesting item of news or information + Titbits (periodical; Ulysses.4.467).

Answers (periodical)

long and the short of it - in sum, in the heart of the matter

ups and downs - a reverses of fortune + ard (ard) (gael) - high; height.

list - to give ear, listen, to record, to show

liss - tranquility, peace, joy, delight + liss (Anglo-Irish) - fort.

smoothen - to make (a surface, substance, etc.) smooth, level, even, calm, etc.

O'Mordha (o'morge) (gael) - descendant of Mordha ("majestic") + Unity Moore - early 20th century actress + Swift met Stella at Moor Park, Surrey.

varina (mod. l) - warning (coinage by Swift) + Jane Waring, whom Swift wooed as Varina.

Quarta Quaedam - Latin for "Some fourth woman," Mr O Hehir says + quaedam (Slang) - whore.

room + oom (Dutch) - uncle.

Onkel (ger) - uncle + Tommy, Make Room for Your Uncle (song).

pigeyed - having small and dip eyes + piggy - a little pig, or animal so called; also playfully applied, with various connotations, to a child + piger, hold op med jeres leg (Danish) - girls, cut out the nonsense.

hold up - raise, lift; to stop or impede the course or advance of; to exhibit, display + Hold op med jeres lege (Danish) - 'Stop your playing around'.

yer - your

FDV: Who then was the scourge of Lucalizod, it was wont to be asked, as once long ages behind what became of where is Peabody's money or and later later in time more to the point who shot Buckley though every schoolgirl knows by now that how it was Buckley who shot and how it was the Russian general & not Buckley who was shot? What fullpay poisonivy pry, or which hatefilled woman? And that such various vitriol of venom a quiet stamp could cover!

Scourge of God - a title given by historians to Attila, the leader of the Huns in the 5th c. + (notebook 1922-23): 'scourge of Littlehampton' Daily Sketch 7 Dec 1922, 2/2: 'Mystery of Littlehampton's Scourge': 'so cunningly had the trap been set by the unknown scourge of Littlehampton' (three-year mystery of libellous and obscene letters, resulting in wrongful conviction of a Mrs Gooding).

Lucalizod (notebook 1922-23) + Lucan - Dublin environ on the Liffey. Two earls of Lucan may have interested Joyce: (1) Patrick Sarsfield, a Wild Goose, who fought under James II, died in 1693, saying, "O that this were for Ireland!"; (2) Lord Lucan, who commanded cavalry at Balaclava and is associated by Joyce with the Light Brigade. In FW, Lucan is often linked with its neighboring environ, Chapelizod, usually as "Lucalizod," which links Issy and the two Isoldes to Lucia Joyce and Alice. (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake.)

homo capite erectus (l) - erect man with a head, man erect as to the head + (notebook 1924): 'Pithecanthropus erectus' → Homo erectus: an extinct genus of hominids (e.g. Java man, previously known as Pithecanthropus erectus, whose fossil remains were found in Java in 1891).

wont - custom, habit

what price - what is the value of; what is the likelihood of; freq. merely an expression of contempt, 'so much for' + FDV: what became of where is Peabody's money

peabody - a fast ballroom dance + Peabody, George (1795-1869) - American philanthropist. The Peabody Trust built working-class housing. 

bluntly - in a blunt direct manner, without delicacy, or the usual forms of civility

whence - from what place? from what source, origin, or cause?

cravat - an article of dress worn round the neck, chiefly by men

epoch - a period of history defined by the prevalence of some particular state of things; Geol. A period or division of the history of the formation of the earth's crust.

Cainozoic - of or pertaining to the third of the great geological periods [(notebook 1924): 'Cainozoic 80,000' ('80,000' replaces a cancelled '(reptiles)'; only first word crayoned)].

O'Buachalla (o'bukhele) (gael) - descendant of Buachaill ("boy") + 'Who struck Buckley?' - a catch-phrase used in the 19th century to annoy Irishmen + FDV: who shot Buckley

then time - the time that was then, the past time referred to

filly - a young lively girl + schoolfellow - one who is or formerly was at the same school at the same time with another + FDV: every schoolgirl knows by now that how it was Buckley who shot and how it was the Russian general & not Buckley who was shot?

score - 20

moon - the average period of redurrence of the moon equal to 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes.

colleen - a girl, an Irish girl + colleen bawn (Anglo-Irish) - fair-haired girl + cailin ban a run (kolin ban arun) (gael) - my darling white-haired girl + aroon (Anglo-Irish) - my dear, beloved (from Irish a rún).

red flannel - flannel dyed red and formerly used esp. for making undrwear + Flamme (ger) - flame.

Tolstoy: War and Peace

jaja (Serbian, Polish) - eggs; testicles + yayi (Kiswahili) - eggs + as sure as eggs is eggs = sure.

blooding - bleeding + bleeding = bloody - a vague epithet expressing anger or detestation.

da (Russian, Serbian) - yes

caddish - of the nature of a cad, offensively ill-bred, the opposite of gentlemanly + Kaddish - a Jewish prayer of mourning.

pry - to look, esp. to look closely or curiously; to peep or peer + FDV: What fullpay poisonivy pry, or which hatefilled woman?

Paul Pry - name of a very inquisitive character in a U.S. song of 1820 + (notebook 1922-23): ''Poison Ivy' (Cycl)'.

spy - to look at, examine, or observe closely or carefully; spec., to investigate with a spy-glass or telescope.

the Castle - until 1921, official residence of Lords Lieutenant, the highquarters of British administration, and the hated symbol of British rule. Spies were "in the pay of the Castle" or "Castle hacks" + three castles on Dublin coat of arms.

hatefilled women (notebook 1922-23) Daily Sketch 9 Dec 1922, 7/2: 'Zara the Cruel... splendid serial of Romance and Passion in the East... the shrill cries of many hate-filled women'.

smiley - exhibiting a smile + (smiley salesman).

vitriol - abusive or venomous language used to express blame or censure or bitter deep-seated ill will + FDV: And that such various vitriol of venom a quiet stamp could cover!

venom - toxin secreted by certain snakes and poisonous insects (e.g., spiders and scorpions); any malign or noxious influence or quality; bitter or virulent feeling, language, etc.

Peter: Dublin Fragments, Social and Historic 179: 'stamps are far easier of adhesion than the thick unperforated "Queen's Heads" (as they were called) with which our forefathers had to be satisfied'.

affranchissant (French) - liberating; paying postage on, stamping (letter)

sticking plaster - a material for covering and closing superficial wounds, consisting of linen, silk, or other textile fabric, or of plastic, spread with an adhesive substance.

zeal - passionate eagerness in favour of a person or cause; enthusiasm as displayed in action + (notebook 1922-23): 'a quiet stamp'  Irish Times 6 Dec 1922, 4/6: 'Free State Stamp': 'new issue of the 2d. postage stamp for the Irish Free State... a quiet stamp, in which the harmony of the design and the ornamentation of Celtic scrolls and headed outline are well balanced'. 

postered - described on posters, adorned with posters

postpaid - having the postage paid by the sender

lounge lizard - a social parasite; a ladies man (man who is very gallant in his attention to women); a parasite in fashionable society in search of a wealthy woman, a gigolo (Slang) [Joyce's note: 'lounge lizards'].

pump room - a room or building where a pump is worked; spec. a place at a spa where the medicinal water is dispensed for drinking, etc. [(notebook 1922-23): 'pump room (spa)' Daily Mail 17 Nov 1922, 8/4: 'Taking the Waters by F. Sinclair Park': 'There is no place where the process of camouflage can be seen to greater advantage than in the pump-room during the season at a fashionable spa'].

nine days wonder - an object or event thet creates a short lived sensation + jeer - a derisive speech or utterance; a scoff, flout + FDV: it was one more dearer than all who was to make him a the nine days' jeer for the lounge lizards of the pumproom.

scratch-cat - humorous epithet for a spiteful person + Prat (ger, dial) - babbling, talk + Pratchen (ger) - story, anecdote + Tratsch (ger) - gossip + praczka (Polish) = prachka (Russian) - laundress, washer-woman.

platschern (ger) - splash + plach (Russian, Serbian) - crying + pail - a vessel, usually of cylindrical or truncated or conical shape, made of wooden staves hooped with iron, or of sheet-metal, etc., and provided with a bail or hooped handle; used for carrying milk, water, etc. 

holen (ger) - fetch + Polen (ger) - Poland + Dom (ger) - cathedral + hoi polloi - the common people.

Spass (ger) - joke, jollity + ('szp' combination common in Polish).

pisma (Polish) - writings, works, newspapers + pisma (Serbian) - letters.

zhony (Russian) = żony (Polish) - 'wives'

own eyes + glass - a glass mirror + Owens - brand of American glass + owen (Anglo-Irish) = abhainn (Irish) - river + abhainn glas (Irish) - green river + glais (Irish) - rivulet, stream.

azure - the clear blue colour of the unclouded sky + izara (Basque) - star.

twinkling - shining intermittently with a sparkling light

Mouthless rivers / primitive rivers no mouth (notebook 1924) → Metchnikoff: La Civilisation et les Grands Fleuves Historiques 187: 'Aux temps primitifs, les grands cours d'eau... n'avaient pas de débouché du tout' (French 'In primitive times, the large streams... had no outlet at all').

impermanent - not permanent or lasting, transient

warming - that makes warm

bondwoman - a female slave

man of the house (Anglo-Irish) - householder, master (from Anglo-Irish fear an tighe)

mormor (Danish) - grandmother

maca mhic (moke vik) (gael) - sons of a son

(one) would give one's eye-teeth - (one) is very eager, or ready to make the greatest sacrifices (to do something) + to give an eye to - to give a share of one's attention to + Matthew 5:38: 'an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth' (also Exodus 21:24).

child-bearing women were said to lose a tooth for every child (as a consequence of calcium loss)

cadet - the youngest son + Caddy/Primas (motif) → "These sons called themselves Caddy and Primas".

prim - a pretty girl + primus (l) - first.


angry + ean- (Irish) - water-  + A hungry man, an angry man (proverb).


shutter - to close with a shutter + shattered + sheltered.

sparing - the action of showing mercy or forbearance; delay, respite

Cain + keen - an Irish funeral song accompanied with wailing in lamentation for the dead + tea.

Adah (dawn) and Zillah (shadow) - wives of Lamech (Genesis 4:19) + Adah and Zillah - sisters and wives of Cain and Abel, respectively, in 'Cain' by Lord Byron + zillar (Basque) - silver + azaleas - flowering shrubs making up part of the genus Rhododendron.

arche - arch + archê (gr) - beginning

Noe (l) - Noah + nose.

oceanic feeling - a phrase used in a communication with Freud by R. Rolland (1866-1944), French writer and philosopher, in describing the longing for something vast and eternal of which he and others felt aware + ôkeaneios (gr) - of the ocean.

far (Danish) - father

ur - an inarticulate sound (uttered instead of a word that the speaker is unable to remember or bring out) + ur (Basque) - water + uri (Basque) - rain + urre (Basque) - gold + urraide (Basque) - copper + ouria (gr) - for urine.

burni (Basque) - iron + {burning the old world for his sake}

Gorgon - Gr. Myth. One of three mythical female personages, with snakes for hair, whose look turned the beholder into stone; an ugly repulsive or terrifying woman + gorgonia (l) - coral + gor (Basque) - deaf + gori (Basque) - red; ardent.

gogor (Basque) - hard, severe

countryside - a rural area or its people + (notebook 1924): 'dragging countryside in wake' Haldane: Daedalus or Science and the Future 39: 'Human progress in historical time has been the progress of cities dragging a reluctant countryside in their wake'.

finick - to dawdle about

Louis Quinze - Louis XV, 1715-74 + Louis (fr. slang) - a whore + quean (Slang) - whore.

colander - a vessel with a perforated bottom used for straining food + cul (fr) - arse.

buzzle = bustle - a stuffed pad or cushion, or small wire framework, worn beneath the skirt of a woman's dress, for the purpose of expanding and supporting it behind.

bolero - a short jacket coming barely to the waist; worn by men in Spain; applied to a similar garment worn by women elsewhere, usually over a blouse or bodice.

boa - a snake-like coil of fur worn by ladies as a wrapper for the throat + Lillibullero - anti-Irish Williamite song (c. 1690) ('Lillibullero bullen a la' (refrain): "Lilly was clear and ours was the day").

curlicue - fantastic curl or twist + corny - tastelessly ols fashioned, tiresomely simple or sentimental + (forty bonnets).

headdress - a fanciful arrangement of woman’s hair often with accessories (as flowers, ribbons...)

speck - spot, stain + spectacles + Speck (ger) - bacon + Eier (ger) - eggs.

yeux (fr) - eyes

spud - potato

oreilles (fr) - ears 

Parisienne - a Parisian woman or girl

nez (fr) - nose

vaunt - a cause or subject of boasting; a front part or portion, face

straddle - the action of walking, standing, or sitting with the legs wide apart; saddle

equerry - the stables belonging to a royal or princely household (obs.), an officer in the service of a royal or other exalted personage, charged with the care of the horses +   Egueri (Basque) - Christmas.

egun (Basque) - day

church house - a house belonging to the (or a) church

septuagesima (l) - the seventieth + teplaya zima (Russian) - warm winter.

sola - Of females: Sole, solitary, alone

pawn - one of the pieces of smallest size and value in the game of chess; fig. (usually of a person).

prelate - an ecclesiastical dignitary of exalted rank and authority, as a bishop, archbishop, metropolitan, or patriarch.

pooka - a mischievous or malignant goblin or specter in the form of a horse + rook = castle - (chess) the piece that can move any number of unoccupied squares in a direction parallel to the sides of the chessboard.

pelot = pellet - any globe, ball, or spherical body, usually one of small size + pelota - Basque ball-game.

piecebag - a bag or box for holding pieces of cloth

handi (Basque) - big

chomp = champ

Euskara - ancestral language of the Basque people

slander - a false or malicious statement or utterance intended to injure, defame, or cast detraction on the person about whom it is made; rumour, disgrace, scandal +   Genesis 3:14-15: 'and the Lord God said unto the serpent... I will put enmity between thee and the woman... it shall bruise thy head'.

..."to crush the slander's head. ^Would we vision her ^(subconscious editor)^ with stereoptican relief^"...  (This addition probably refers to a passage following the first draft of Chapter 5 section 1, on page 25v of the so-called red-backed notebook. "Wonderfully well this explains the double nature of this gryphonic script and while its ingredients stand out with stereoptican relief we can speep ^tour^ beyond the figure of the scriptor into the subconscious editor's mind.").

wery = very

weeny - exceptionally small

wight - a human being, man or woman, person. Now arch. or dial. (often implying some contempt or commiseration).

moran mo (moran mo) (gael) - much more + mor (Danish) - mother.

Notre Dame de la Ville (fr) - Our Lady of the Town

merci (fr) - thank you

Barmherzigkeit (ger) - charity, mercy

ogrodnik (Polish) - gardener

herbata (Polish) - tea

tay - tea

wort - a plant, herb, or vegetable, used for food or medicine + Wort (ger) - word + {The old gardener is beyond tea, he himself is now physically in the herbs of the druggist}

druggist - one who sells or deals in drugs. In Scotland and United States the usual name for a pharmaceutical chemist + Drogist (ger) - druggist + Drogist (Dutch) - pharmacist + drogi (Polish) - dear, precious (masculine).

bulk - to gather into a mass + Ulyssess: "Just the place too. POST NO BILLS. POST 110 PILLS. Some chap with a dose burning him."... "Loans by post on easy terms. Any amount of money advanced on note of hand. Distance no object. No security."

bułki (Polish) - rolls, buns (of bread) + Balkis - Arabic poetic name of Queen of Sheba (Saba).



mar - to ruin, damage seriously (a person, his fortunes, etc.) (obs.) + Sabaean capital was Ma'rib.

bane - that which causes ruin, or is pernicious to well-being; the agent or instrument of ruin or woe, the 'curse.'

tut - an ejaculation (often reduplicated) expressing impatience or dissatisfaction with a statement or proceeding, or contemptuously dismissing it + Tutankhamen - Egyptian whose resplendent tomb was opened in the 1920s and the king "resurrected." A curse was laid on those who moved his bones.  

there's a little lady waiting & her name is (Joyce's note) → Key: John McCormack, His Own Life Story 15: 'McCormack... put an arm on the shoulder of his old-time comrade. "Run on into the house, now, like the good man you are; there's a little lady waiting, and her name's Mrs. McCormack"'.

holden - arch. p.p. of hold + Her Golden Hair Was Hanging Down Her Back (song).

amok = amuck - needlessly + among + amok (Malay) - attack fiercely, run amuck killing.

harumscarum - a reckless, unregulated person + harem.

poppy red

narancs (Hungarian) - orange

gialla (it) - yellow (feminine)

Chloris (gr) - "Greenness": goddess of flowers + Flora (l) - goddess of flowers.

Marinka (Czech) - name for a skivvy; nickname for Mary + marine blue.

-een (diminutive) + aniline, source of many dyes, originally obtained from indigo.

Parma violet (flower)

ilk - each, every

hues + [h]umores (l) - liquids, fluids + euhemerema (gr) - success, good luck.

whilk - which + hvilken (Danish) - whatever + whilk (Slang) - a silly girl.

whim - a capricious notion or fancy, a fantastic or freakish idea, an odd fancy

coin - to invent, make up, fabricate

tiff - a small argument, a petty quarrel + mishe/tauf (motif).

agelong - everlasting, unending

crippled - deprived of the use of one's limbs; lame, disabled + Crippled-with-Children, Dropping-with-Sweat - Eve and Adam after the fall. 

speak up - to speak strongly for (= on behalf of, in defence of) a person

dripping with sweet' (sic) (notebook 1924)Key: John McCormack, His Own Life Story 32: 'McCormack dripping with perspiration'.

lease - pasture, meadow land; untruth, falsehood; a contract between parties, by which the one conveys lands or tenements to the other for life, for years, or at will, usually in consideration of rent or other periodical compensation; the period of time for which the contract is made.

tress - a plait or braid of the hair of the head, usually of a woman

undress - partial or incomplete dress, dishabille

goo - a viscid or sticky substance. Also fig., sickly sentiment, gush + goo (Anglo-Irish) - a useless person, a fool (from Irish guag: silly, vain or light-headed person).

groot (Dutch) - great, big, large

gudgeon - one that will bite at any bait or swallow anything: a credulous, gullible person.

gulp - to swallow in large draughts or morsels hastily or with greediness

C.O.D. - 'cash (costs, or collect) on delivery' + At Trinity Church I Met My Doom (song): 'She told me her age was five-and-twenty, / Cash in the bank of course she'd plenty, / I like a lamb believed it all, / I was an M-U-G (Drum)'.

The Liffey is tidal to Island Bridge (spans the Liffey near the SE entrance to Phoenix Park). 

attaboy - exp. of encouragement or approval + Atterbom, Ebba - translated Portrait of the Artist into Swedish (192l), signed the International Protest (1927) against Roth's pirating of Ulysses.

up to the ears - heavily or deeply involved

hue and cry - to raise the hue and cry, make an outcry; to pursue with hue and cry.

woe - an exclamation of grief or lamentation: = Alas!

nomad - a person belonging to a race or tribe which moves from place to place to find pasture.

Nebuchadrezzar II - the second and greatest king of the Chaldean dynasty of Babylonia (reigned c. 605-c. 561 BC). He was known for his military might, the splendour of his capital, Babylon, and his important part in Jewish history.

NA'AMAN RIVER - Aka Belus; flows into Bay of Acre just South of Acre, North Palestine + Naaman was cured of leprosy when he washed in the Jordan (2 Kings, 5).  

Jordan - the name of a river in Palestine, the crossing of which is used (after Num. 33:51) in pietistic language to symbolize death.

sheet - winding sheet (a sheet in which a corpse is wrapped for burial; a shroud) + (spreading laundry to dry on stones).

bib - to drink, tipple (word may have originated in an imitation of repeated movements of the lips).

Babylon + Psalms 137: "By the waters of Babylon we sat down and wept: when we remembered thee, O Sion. We hanged our harps upon the willows in the midst thereof".