petrify - to convert into a stone + make

Joyce's note: 'suchanever'

contractor - one who contracts or undertakes to supply certain articles, or to perform any work or service (esp. for government or other public body), at a certain price or rate.

invulnerably - so as to be invulnerable (incapable of being damaged or injuriously affected by attack; not effectively assailable).

master builder - a person notably proficient in the art of building + FDV: This he blasted and then carefully lined the result with bricks & mortar, encouraging the public bodies to present him over & above that with a stone slab.

Cassivelaunus - British chieftain defeated by Julius Caesar, 54 B.C. 

blast - to blow up (rocks, etc.) by explosion

Samhain (souwen) (gael) - November; Feast of the dead; close of the harvest, beginning of winter half-year.

Bealtaine (byoultini) (gael) - May; May Day; Spring Festival; close of winter, beginning of summer half-year.

bombing - an attacking with bombs; bombarding + post - a place at which a body of soldiers is stationed, or the force occupying this + (notebook 1923): 'bombing post'.

ahoy - to call ahoy (Cf. to hurrah, halloo)

circiter - about

sternboard = starboard (the right-hand side of a ship)

aerial torpedo - torpedo dropped from an aircraft + (notebook 1923): 'convert torpedos into electrical contact land mines by tins of ammonia, lashed to sides of aerial torpedoes trip wiring to contact pieces into electric batteries' ('pieces' not clear).

auto dynamikon (gr) - self powerful 

expectant - characterized by expectation or waiting for the course of events.

minefield - a portion of the sea in which mines have been laid; also, an area of land in which mines have been laid [Joyce's note: 'minefield'].

tin - a vessel made of tin, or more usually of tinned iron + tons

improved - made better or more serviceable; brought to a higher or more desirable condition.

ammonia - a colourless gas with pungent smell and strong alkaline reaction

lashed - fastened with a lash or cord

plate - to cover with plate or plates, to overlay with metal plates

gunwale - the upper edge of a ship's side

fused - liquefied by heat, melted

slip - to slide on or down a slippery surface

play down - to minimize, to try to make (something) appear smaller or less important than it really is; to make little of.

conning tower - the pilot-house of a war-ship, esp. the shot-proof pilot-house of an iron-clad.

fusebox - box of fuses (a strip or wire of easily fusible metal (or a device containing this) inserted in an electric circuit, which melts (or 'blows') and thus interrupts the circuit when the current increases beyond a certain safe strength).

phrase as different as chalk and cheese

orologios (gr) - clock + oorlog (Dutch) - war + horologe (French) - clock.

Ryan, John - last bailiff of Dublin; title afterward changed to sheriff + an rioghan bhocht (un rien vukht) (gael) - the poor queen: Ireland.

Vogt (ger) - bailiff, warden + Rhine Vogt (Danish) - the Watch on the Rhine.

Pfeife (ger) - pipe + five

wanneer (Dutch) - when + whenever

Blatter (ger) - leaves

rough - having a surface diversified with small projections, points, bristles, etc., so as to be harsh or disagreeable to the touch; not even or smooth.

bark - the (human) skin (slang.)

wholly - completely, entirely

husky - dry, as a husk; without natural moisture

step by step

song Woodman, Spare That Tree

line - to cover the outside of

ferroconcrete - armoured concrete or reinforced concrete

rotproof - proof against damage by rot

mortar - a material consisting of lime and sand mixed with water, which is used to make the joints between stones and bricks in building, and which, when set, binds them together into a solid mass.

fosse - a ditch or dike formed to serve as a barrier against an advancing foe, a moat surrounding a fortified place + face to face

heptarchy - a government by seven persons

toweret - a little tower + TOWER OF LONDON - On Tower Hill, City of London. The White Tower is the Norman keep; among the towers on the walls are the Byward, the Beauchamp, the Bell, the Wardrobe, and the Bloody. 

byward - a ward or guard which is not a main one (as byward tower)

bloodied - smeared with blood

instep - the arched midle portion of foot + instappen, als 't u belieft (Dutch) - get in, please!, take your seats, please! all aboard, please! + liefde (Dutch) - love + This harks back to entering the Wellington museum in the first chapter.

alls - pl. of all + als het U belieft (Dutch) - if you please, I beg you (usually contracted as alstublieft).

als = also + als hatt's (ger) - as though it had.

council - a body of men associated with the president (or directors) of a society or institution, to consult upon its business and share in its administration; a deliberative and administrative committee.

lit. Abteilungen (ger) - compartments, departments + Hof (ger) - court + Hoofdafdeling (Dutch) - principal section, division or department (such as a phylum in biology) + hoofd (Dutch) - head + afdeeling (Dutch) - department.

holde af (Danish) = houde van (Dutch) - to like + ik houd wel van (Dutch) - I am pleased with + houden (Dutch) - to hold, to keep.

ladykind - ladies + konnt's d'Uhr (ger) - could you [tell me] the time + Ledikants te huur (Dutch) - Beds for hire + ledikant (Dutch) - bed, bedstead + te huur (Dutch) - for hire, to let.

to hear out - to listen to to the end + Hure (ger) - whore.

breeder - one who breeds cattle or other animals + Joyce's note: 'Breeders' Society'.

guild of merchants - an incorporated society of the merchants of a town or city, having exclusive rights of trading within the town.

staple - a town or place, appointed by royal authority, in which was a body of merchants having the exclusive right of purchase of certain classes of goods destined for export; also, the body of merchants so privileged.

et (l) - and

a.u.c. (l) - anno urbis conditae or ab urbe condita = in the year of the founded city or since the city was founded (designation of Roman-era years, reckoned from 753 B.C.) (O Hehir, Brendan; Dillon, John M. / A classical lexicon for Finnegans wake).

unto - to

funebrial - of or pertaining to funerals; sad, gloomy

pomp - splendid display or celebration, magnificent show

over and above - in addition

CAVE OF MACHPELAH - According to Genesis 25:9 and 50:13, the burial place of Abraham, and also of Sarah, Isaac, Rebecca, and Leah. 

valediction - the action of bidding or saying farewell; an utterance, discourse, etc., made at (or by way of) leave-taking or bidding farewell.

fair words - pleasant or attractive speech

gehellt (ger) - illuminated + geheel (Dutch) - whole, entire; entirely, completely; a whole + geheeld (Dutch) - healed, cured.

Heer (ger) - army + Herr (ger) - Mr + Heer (Dutch) - sir, gentleman; Lord.

overgive - to give over; surrender, desist, cease; to give in addition + overgeven (Dutch) - give up, vomit, hand over, surrender.

skidoo - used as an exclamation of disrespect (for a person) + skidoo! (Slang) - depart!

thuis (Dutch) - at home (derived from te huis)

winding sheet - a sheet in which a corpse is wrapped for burial; a shroud

goedkoop (Dutch) - cheap (literally 'good buy')

bier (Dutch) = Bier (German) - beer

cinerary - containing or used for ashes esp. of the cremated dead

blass (ger) - pale

snuff box - a box for holding snuff, usually small enough to be carried in the pocket.

poteen - whisky distilled in Ireland, privately, i.e. the produce of an illicit still.

lacrimal - Of a vase: Intended to contain tears

Hoden (ger) - testicles + Dose (ger) - box, canister + hoedendoos (Dutch, pronounced ''hoodendose'') - hatbox.

Reichwasser (ger) - perfume + Becher (ger) - A large drinking vessel with a wide mouth; an open cup or goblet + riekwater (Flamish slang) - perfume (lit. smelly water) + reukwater (Dutch) - scented water, perfume + waterbeker (Dutch) - water beaker or goblet + bekers (Dutch) - cups.

Literal translation of Braakmiddel (Dutch) - emetic

zoutzak (Dutch) - salt-sack; also: milksop, weak-kneed fellow + zoet (Dutch) - sweet + soutzoukia (Modern Greek) - smoked sausages.

eetlust (Dutch) - appetite + lit. Esslust (ger) - appetite.

Op je gezondheid! (Dutch) - "To your health!" (literally, "Up your health!"), a toast when drinking.

Rauchwurst (ger) - smoked sausage + rookworst (Dutch) - smoked sausage.

vleeschhouwer (Dutch) - butcher (literally 'meat-hewer')

forken - forked + varkenpootjes (Dutch) - pig's feet.

javel - a vagabond or worthless fellow; jail; a quantity of stalks of flax, corn, etc. laid in the sun to dry + Javel - A quarter of Paris that "Eau-de-javel" (bleach) is named after + jawel (Dutch) - yes, indeed.

inhumation - the action or practice of burying in the ground

bric a brac - old curiosities of artistic character, knick-knacks, antiquarian odds-and-ends, such as old furniture, plate, china, fans, statuettes, and the like.

adornment - the action of adorning, or embellishing; embellishment, ornamentation.

Honophreum - the tomb of Honophreus (modeled on Mausoleum (l) - the tomb of king Mausolus).

met deze trein (Dutch) - with this train + met de trein (Dutch) - by train.

konditie (Dutch) - condition

halas - alas

Wandel (ger) - behavior, change + Wandelung (ger) - transformation + wandeling (Dutch) - a walk, perambulation.

ze passen hem (Dutch) - they fit him (i.e. the shoes)