viability - the ability to live under certain conditions; the condition of being traversable + Julius Caesar: 'Veni, vedi, vici' (Latin 'I came, I saw, I conquered').

vicinal - neighbouring, adjacent, near + vicinus (l) - neighbor + vicinal way or road - a local common way as distinguished from a highway; a by-road or crossroad.

tread on someone's corns - to offend a person + trespass - to transgress, offend.

flumineus (l) - of, in or belonging to a river + [Via] Flaminia (l) - Flaminian Vay (built by Gaius Flaminius, consul 223 B.C.)


unemancipated - held in slavery, not freed

slave - to employ at hard labor, to wear out by hard work + to pave the way - to prepare the way (for, to something to come); to facilitate or lead on to a result or an object in view.

mausoleum - the magnificent tomb of Mausolus, King of Caria, erected in the middle of the 4th c. b.c. at Halicarnassus by his queen Artemisia, and accounted one of the seven wonders of the world; a stately tomb.

multipopulipater (l artificial) - many-people's-father

milestone - a pillar set up on a highway or other road or course to mark the miles.

cead mile failte (ked mili falti) (geal) - a hundred thosand welcomes + faulter = falter - to move as if irresolutely or hesitatingly; to tremble, quiver.

trame = tram - silk thread consisting of two or more single strands loosely twisted together + trame (fr) - thread (of life) + tram - a tram-car.

Brahm = Brahma - the supreme god of post vedic Hindy mythology

Hermes - Greek messenger of the gods, equated with Mercury.

per omnia saecula saeculorum (l) - in ages of ages, to all eternity, forever and ever + omnibus (l) - for all, for everyone.

amain - with full force, violently, suddenly                                      amen

r[h]aeda (l) - four-wheeled carriage (spelling with -h- though to be found, is false) + r[h]aeda-r[h]oad (l-eng) - carriage-road (spelling with -h- is false) (O Hehir, Brendan; Dillon, John M. / A classical lexicon for Finnegans wake).

BOHERMORE - The name is from Bothar Mor, Ir "Great Road." There were 5 "great roads" built in Ireland in the 2nd century, but none was uniquely called the Bothar Mor + Seo morbhothar Ui Chonaill (shu morvoher i khunil) (geal) - This is O' Connell highway.

rainy - wet, like rain, affected with rain + ridden - broken in, oppressed, taken advantage of.

Romeo - a lover, a passionate admirer; a seducer, a habitual pursuer of women.

scallop - To bake (oysters, etc.) in a scallop-shell or similar-shaped pan or plate with bread crumbs, cream, butter, and condiments + I'll eat my (old Rowley's) hat - an asseveration stating one's readiness to do this, if an event of which one is certain should not occur.

wonder + weapon.

fane - a temple

fiacre - a small hackney coach + SAINT FIACRE - Hotel Saint Fiacre, Rue St Martin, Paris. Vehices for hire in Paris are called "fiacres" after the hackney coaches which once were stationed at the hotel +  Fiacre, St - 7th-century Irish saint + Fiachra (fikhre) (geal) - "Raven"; name of Irish founder of Breuil monastery, France.

halte (ger) - stop

howe - valley; the middle part of a night or winter; a hill, hillock, an artifical mound, tumulus.

plainly - in a clear or distinct manner; so as to be clearly seen, heard, or understood.

desolated - made or left desolate

Buchan - the name of a Scottish meteorologist, Alexander Buchan (1829-1907), used to designate certain specified periods of cold weather ("cold spots") foretold by him as of annual occurrence.

cold spot - Physiol., a spot upon the skin which is sensitive to cold, but insensitive to warmth, pain, or pressure.

rupes (l) - stone, rock + rupestrian - done on rock or cave walls + rupestral (l) - growing (as a plant) or drawn (as a painting) on rocks + (notebook 1924): 'rupestre'.

resurface - to provide with a new surface; to come to the surface again + FDV: There It was on that resurfaced spot evidently the attacker, though under medium, with truly native pluck tackled him whom he took to be, saying he wd have his life & lay him out & [made use of sacriligeous language &] catching hold of a long bar he had & with which he usually broke furniture.

Luttrell, Henry (1655-1717) - betrayed Limerick to De Ginkell, was murdered while riding in a sedan chair through Dublin. 

saddle - a low point in a ridge + Cnoc Breanainn (knuk brenen) (geal) - Brendan's Hill, Co. Kerry, has ancient stone causeway leading to summit.

BRENNER PASS - Alpine pass, between Austria and Italy. The lowest and one of the oldest of the important Alpine passes.  

Malpas, Colonel - erected an obelisk on Killiney Hill, called thereafter Malpas High Hill. 

verst - a Russian measure of length (about two-thirds of an English mile) [Joyce's note: 'shako verst' Jespersen: The Growth and Structure of the English Language 155 (sec. 152): 'There is, of course, nothing peculiarly English in the adoption of such words as... verst from Russian... shako from Hungarian'].

Traum (ger) - dream + traumhaft (ger) - like dream, charming.

Ben Edar - anciently Howth, said to be named for Edar, a Dedanaan chief, buried on the hill.  

lowland - low or level land; the less mountainous region of Scotland, situated south and east of the Highlands. (now always pl.)

mear - to mark out (land) by means of 'meres' or boundaries; to be bounded by (obs.).

wilde = wild

lea - a tract of open ground, either meadow, pasture, or arable land; used loosely for 'ground'.

Kropotkin, Prince (1842-1921) - Russian author, revolutionary + Cruach Phadraig (krukh fadrig) (geal) - Patrick's Rick (conical heap), mountain, Co. Mayo; anglic. Croagh Patrick.

medium - average

native - belonging to, or natural to, one by reason of the place or country of one's birth, or of the nation to which one belongs.

pluck - courage, boldness, spirit

engage - to attack, enter into a combat with

adversary - an opponent, antagonist; an enemy, foe + I Peter 5:8: 'your adversary the devil' + Maitland: Life and Legends of St. Martin of Tours 22: 'The devil, in human form, accosted him... and asked him where he was going. "I go where God calls me", said Martin. "Know then", said the Adversary, "that go where you may, do what you will, I will constantly oppose you"'.

And why behold you the mote that is in your brother's eye, but consider not the beam that is in your own eye? (Matthew 7:3:)

plunder - the acquisition of property by violent, questionable, or dishonest means + (notebook 1924): 'for plunder' sake' Fleming: Boulogne-sur-Mer 62: 'Irish fleets were accustomed to sail over to Britain for the sake of plunder, and to bring to Ireland whomsoever they made prisoners'.

mistook - p. of mistake (to err as to the identity or nature of; to take to be somebody or something else).

Oglethorpe, James Edward (1696 - 1785) - founded the state of Georgia with the aim of helping criminals. 

gink - person, fellow, guy

parr - a young salmon before it becomes a smolt + Parr, Thomas, "Old Parr" (1483-1635) - lived in the reigns of ten princes, got a girl with child when oven a hundred. 

song Johnny I Hardly Knew Ye: 'Ye eyeless, noseless, chickenless egg'

Michelangelesque - pertaining to or after the manner of Michelangelo

sacrilegious - involving sacrilege (the profanation of anything held sacred)


hemisphere - each of the halves of the cerebrum of the brain

canonize - to sanction by the authority of the church; to give authoritative sanction or approval to.

contritely - in a contrite (crushed in spirit by a sense of sin, and so brought to complete penitence) manner + completely

paternoster - the Lord's Prayer, esp. in the Latin version + Cnoc Phadraig (knuk fadrig) (geal) - Patrick's Hill; anglic. Knockpatrick.

Hail Mary! - the angelic salutation to the Virgin (Luke i. 28), combined with that of Elizabeth, used as a devotional recitation, with the addition (in more recent times) of a prayer to the Virgin, as Mother of God + Muire (mwiri) (geal) - Mary (name of mother of Jesus only).

tout est sacré pour un sacreur, femme à barbe ou homme-nourrice (fr) - all is sacred for a (sacreur), bearded woman, or male nurse.

ghost - the soul or spirit, as the principle of life

to catch hold of - to take hold of, seize + Holst (ger) - holly.

oblong - elongated in one direction (usually as a deviation from an exact square or circular form).

boarder - a jouster + border + broader

Napoleon + FDV: The struggle went on They struggled for a considerable time and in the course of it the masked man said to the other: Let me go, Pat. Later on the same man asked: Was six pounds fifteen taken from you by anyone two or three months ago? There was severe mauling and then a wooden affair in the shape of a revolver fell from the intruder who thereupon became friendly & wanted to know whether his chance companion who had the fender happened to have the change of a ten pound note because, if so, he would pay the six pounds odd out of that for what was lost last summer. The other than said: Would you be surprised to hear that I have not such a thing as the change of a ten pound note but I am able to see my way to give you at for the present four and 7 pence to buy whisky. At the mention of whisky the wouldbe burglar became calm and left him the place said he wd go good to him [remarking [gleefully]: You plucky stunning little Southdowner! You have some pluck Southdowner! This is my goalball I've struck this day!] He then went away with the four & _____ (seven) and his hurlbat while the fenderite who bore up under all of it [with no of bruises on him] reported the occurrence to the [Vicar Street] watch house, his face being all covered with nonfatal blood as a good proof that he was bleeding from the nose, mouth & ears while some of his hair had been pulled off his head though otherwise his allround health was good middling enough. As regards the fender pierced fender & fireguard the question of unlawfully obtaining is subsidiary to the far more capital point of the political bias of a person who, when mistakenly molested ambushed, was simply exercising one of the most primary liberties of the subject by walking along a public thoroughfare in broad daylight.    

Wellington + wei (Chinese) - awe + ling (Chinese) - honourable + tau (Chinese) - way, path + ta-ou (Chinese) - 'Great Europe'.

Russian + razzia (fr) - a military raid.

reconnoitre - to make an inspection or take observations of (an enemy, his strength, etc.)