viability - the ability to live or to succeed; the condition of being traversable + Julius Caesar: 'Veni, vedi, vici' (Latin 'I came, I saw, I conquered').

vicinal - neighbouring, adjacent, near + vicinus (l) - neighbor + vicinal way or road - a local common way as distinguished from a highway; a by-road or crossroad.

trespass - to transgress, offend + tread on someone's corns - to offend a person.

flumineus (l) - of, in or belonging to a river + [Via] Flaminia (l) - ancient Roman road, extending north from Rome (built by Gaius Flaminius, consul 223 B.C.)


unemancipated - held in slavery, not freed

slave - to employ at hard labor, to wear out by hard work + pave the way - to prepare the way (for, to something to come); to facilitate or lead on to a result or an object in view.

mausoleum - the magnificent tomb of Mausolus, King of Caria, erected in the middle of the 4th c. b.c. at Halicarnassus by his queen Artemisia, and accounted one of the seven wonders of the world; a stately tomb.

gigas (gr) - giant

multipopulipater (Latin artificial) - many-people's-father

milestone - a pillar set up on a highway or other road or course to mark the miles

faulter = falter - to move as if irresolutely or hesitatingly; to tremble, quiver + cead mile failte (ked mili falti) (geal) - a hundred thosand welcomes.

trame = tram - silk thread consisting of two or more single strands loosely twisted together + trame (fr) - thread (of life) + Strecke (ger) - track, line + tram tracks.

Brahm = Brahma - the supreme god of post vedic Hindy mythology

Hermes - Greek messenger of the gods (led souls to the realm of the dead, equated with Mercury)

omnibus (l) - for all, for everyone + per omnia saecula saeculorum (l) - in ages of ages, to all eternity, forever and ever.

amain - with full force, violently, suddenly + amen

r[h]aeda (l) - four-wheeled carriage + r[h]aeda-r[h]oad (l-eng) - carriage-road (O Hehir, Brendan; Dillon, John M. / A classical lexicon for Finnegans wake).

BOHERMORE - The name is from Bothar Mor, Ir. "Great Road." There were 5 "great roads" built in Ireland in the 2nd century, but none was uniquely called the Bothar Mor + Seo morbhothar Ui Chonaill (shu morvoher i khunil) (geal) - This is O' Connell highway.

rainy - wet, like rain, affected with rain + ridden - broken in, oppressed, taken advantage of.


Romeo - a lover, a passionate admirer; a seducer, a habitual pursuer of women

scallop - To bake (oysters, etc.) in a scallop-shell or similar-shaped pan or plate with bread crumbs, cream, butter, and condiments + I'll eat [swallow] my (old Rowley's) hat - an asseveration stating one's readiness to do this, if an event of which one is certain should not occur.

wonder + weapon + where upon.

fane - a temple

fiacre - a small hackney coach + SAINT FIACRE - Hotel Saint Fiacre, Rue St Martin, Paris. Vehices for hire in Paris are called "fiacres" after the hackney coaches which once were stationed at the hotel + Fiacre, St - 7th-century Irish saint + Fiachra (fikhre) (geal) - "Raven"; name of Irish founder of Breuil monastery, France.

halte (ger) - stop

hard by - close by + FDV: There It was on that resurfaced spot evidently the attacker, though under medium, with truly native pluck tackled him whom he took to be, saying he wd have his life & lay him out & [made use of sacriligeous language &] catching hold of a long bar he had & with which he usually broke furniture. 

howe - valley; the middle part of a night or winter; a hill, hillock; tumulus, barrow, burial mound + Howe - site of Thingmote (Dublin Viking assembly) + house + who's there? (sentry calling).

plainly - in a clear or distinct manner; so as to be clearly seen, heard, or understood

desolated - made or left desolate

Buchan - the name of a Scottish meteorologist, Alexander Buchan (1829-1907), used to designate certain specified periods of cold weather ("cold spots") foretold by him as of annual occurrence.

cold spot - Physiol., a spot upon the skin which is sensitive to cold, but insensitive to warmth, pain, or pressure.

rupes (l) - stone, rock + rupestrian - done on rock or cave walls + (notebook 1924): 'rupestre' + arte rupestre (Spanish) - cave paintings + rupestre (Italian) - rocky.

resurface - to provide with a new surface; to come to the surface again

Luttrell, Henry (1655-1717) - Irish soldier who betrayed Limerick to the Williamite besiegers in 1691 (his grave was violated and his skull broken with a pickax in 1800) 

saddle - a low point in a ridge

BRENNER PASS - Alpine pass, between Austria and Italy. The lowest and one of the oldest of the important Alpine passes + Cnoc Breanainn (knuk brenen) (geal) - Brendan's Hill, Co. Kerry, has ancient stone causeway leading to summit. 

Malpas, Colonel - erected an obelisk on Killiney Hill (at the southern edge of Dublin Bay), called thereafter Malpas High Hill + Malpas Place, Dublin.

verst - a Russian measure of length (about two-thirds of an English mile) + Joyce's note: 'shako verst' Jespersen: The Growth and Structure of the English Language 155 (sec. 152): 'There is, of course, nothing peculiarly English in the adoption of such words as... verst from Russian... shako from Hungarian'.

Traum (ger) - dream + traumhaft (ger) - like dream, charming + stop their trams halt (Sutton and Howth Electric Tramway ran to the summit of Howth, at the northern edge of Dublin Bay).

Ben Edar - anciently Howth, said to be named for Edar, a Dedanaan chief, buried on the hill + (conductor shouting).  

lowland - low or level land; the less mountainous region of Scotland, situated south and east of the Highlands. (now always pl.) + Livland - a Baltic province (better known as Livonia).

mear - to mark out (land) by means of 'meres' or boundaries; to be bounded by (obs.) + merged.

wilde = wild + Oscar Wilde.

lea - a tract of open ground, either meadow, pasture, or arable land; used loosely for 'ground'

Kropotkin, Prince (1842-1921) - Russian author, revolutionary + Cruach Phadraig (krukh fadrig) (geal) - Patrick's Rick (conical heap), mountain, Co. Mayo; anglic. Croagh Patrick.

medium - average + (under medium height) + medium - a person communicating with the dead (as in Travers Smith: Psychic Messages from Oscar Wilde).

off-color - not in good health or spirits

native - belonging to, or natural to, one by reason of the place or country of one's birth, or of the nation to which one belongs

pluck - courage, boldness, spirit

engage - to attack, enter into a combat with

adversary - an opponent, antagonist; an enemy, foe + Maitland: Life and Legends of St. Martin of Tours 22: 'The devil, in human form, accosted him... and asked him where he was going. "I go where God calls me", said Martin. "Know then", said the Adversary, "that go where you may, do what you will, I will constantly oppose you"'.

"And why behold you the mote that is in your brother's eye, but consider not the beam that is in your own eye?" (Matthew 7:3:)

plunder - the acquisition of property by violent, questionable, or dishonest means + (notebook 1924): 'for plunder' sake' Fleming: Boulogne-sur-Mer 62: 'Irish fleets were accustomed to sail over to Britain for the sake of plunder, and to bring to Ireland whomsoever they made prisoners'.

mistook - p. of mistake (to err as to the identity or nature of; to take to be somebody or something else)

Oglethorpe, James Edward (1696 - 1785) - founded the state of Georgia with the aim of helping criminals 

gink - person, fellow, guy + Genghis (Khan) + LDV: It was on this resurfaced spot evidently that the attacker, though under medium, with truly native pluck tackled him whom he mistook to be somebody else,

parr - a young salmon before it becomes a smolt + Parr, Thomas, "Old Parr" (1483-1635) - lived in the reigns of ten princes, got a girl with child when oven a hundred. 

Johnny I Hardly Knew Ye (song): 'Ye eyeless, noseless, chickenless egg'

Michelangelesque - pertaining to or after the manner of Michelangelo

sacrilegious - involving sacrilege (the profanation of anything held sacred)


hemisphere - each of the halves of the cerebrum of the brain

canonize - to sanction by the authority of the church; to give authoritative sanction or approval to

bloody bugger's + LDV: making use of sacrilegious language to the effect that he would have his life and lay him out at the same time catching hold of a long bar he had and with which he usually broke furniture.

contritely - in a contrite (crushed in spirit by a sense of sin, and so brought to complete penitence) manner + completely

as soon as the bugger had his bloody

paternoster - the Lord's Prayer, esp. in the Latin version + Cnoc Phadraig (knuk fadrig) (geal) - Patrick's Hill; anglic. Knockpatrick + *VYC*.

Hail Mary! - the angelic salutation to the Virgin (Luke i. 28), combined with that of Elizabeth, used as a devotional recitation, with the addition (in more recent times) of a prayer to the Virgin, as Mother of God + Muire (mwiri) (geal) - Mary (name of mother of Jesus only) + *IJ*.

tout est sacré pour un sacreur, femme à barbe ou homme-nourrice (fr) - all is sacred for a sacreur, bearded woman, or male nurse → "Black beard notwithstanding, Sackerson is apparently an old man who, like Eliot's Tiresias, has an old man's breasts. This hint of androgyny pairs him with his fellow servant Kate, who is distinguished by her facial hair. Together, as 'femme a barbe ou homme-nourrice', they illustrate a recurring Wake theme: 'when older links lock older hearts then he'll resemble she'." (135.32-3) (John Gordon: Finnegans Wake: a plot summary).

ghost - the soul or spirit, as the principle of life + bloody well let the bloody well ghost.

Holst (ger) - holly + catch hold of - to take hold of, seize + FDV: catching hold of a long bar he had & with which he usually broke furniture. 

oblong - elongated in one direction (usually as a deviation from an exact square or circular form) + Joyce's note: 'caught hold of a long bar he had + with which he broke in

boarder - a jouster + border + broader.

Napoleon + Nippon (Japanese) - Japan + Sino-Japanese War, 1894-1895.

Wellington + wei (Chinese) - awe + ling (Chinese) - honourable + tau (Chinese) - way, path + ta-ou (Chinese) - 'Great Europe'.

Russian + razzia (fr) - a military raid.

reconnoitre - to make an inspection or take observations of (an enemy, his strength, etc.)

Buckley + General Bobrikoff - Russian governor-general of Finland assassinated on 16 June 1904 (Ulysses.7.602: 'General Bobrikoff').