place - racing term for finish in the top two, top three, top four and sometimes also top five in a competition or event. A Place bet will win if the selection you bet on is among those placed. Usually, a horse runs a place if it finishes in the first three in fields of eight or more horses. If there are only six or seven runners the horse must finish first or second to place.

stoker - one who feeds and tends a furnace

eavesdrop - to stand within the 'eavesdrop' of a house in order to listen to secrets; hence, to listen secretly to private conversation, to listen to the secrets of (a person) + tempted by Eve (i.e. Adam).

avatar - the descent of a deity to the earth in an incarnate form; manifestation; display

dreamers + Dromios - twins in William Shakespeare's The Comedy of Errors + dromios (gr) - twins [McHugh has dromios meaning "twins" in Greek, which is inaccurate: is a rare form of name of the Greek god of the racecourse (David Hyman, Sam Slote: Genetic studies in Joyce)].

Dromios (gr) - god of the racecourse + dromos (gr) - racecourse + drÝm (Norwegian) - dream.

lentil - the seed of a leguminous plant (Ervum lens, Lens esculenta) + Esau sold his birthright for pottage of lentils (Genesis 25) + as alike as two peas in a pod - two identical items or people (this simile, of course, derives from the fact that two peas from the same pod are virtually indistinguishable).


pelt - to thrust away or out

coram populo - before the people, in public

by the powers! - Exclamation originating in its application to the pagan divinities.

in principal - principally, chiefly + Niccolo Machiavelli: Il Principe (The Prince).

Machiavelli's principles - methods preferring expediency to morality + ma che vuole! (it) - what does he want!

Roosky - Russian + Rooskay - village, County Roscommon.

kamerad - comrade, companion

Norwegian + Galwegian - inhabitant of Galloway, Scotland.

bishop + drunk as a fish (phrase).

whither - whether

smuke - to smoke

phlegm - the thick viscid fluid or semifluid substance secreted by the mucous membranes, esp. of the respiratory passages; mucus + burst into flames - to go on fire; to inflame with anger, passion or zeal. 

ejaculation - the hasty utterance of words expressing emotion; the discharging of the male sperm + Ajacis (l) - Ajax + Ajaccio - capital of Corsica.

Corsican + crosscut (intersect) lane + 'Cruiskeen Lawn' (little full jug) - Irish air. 

cosa (kuse) (geal) - legs, feet + cossa (Italian Dialect) - what?

corso - a pompous step or walk + corso (it) - course.

cursus - curse + in cursu (l) - in progress, underway + ricorso (Italian) - recurring (Vico).

coarse - rough, rude, uncivil, vulgar + curse + Father O'Flynn (song): 'slŠinte and slŠinte and slŠinte again'.

"Yellow Wat and the Fox" is the air of T Moore's song "Oh Doubt Me Not" + {Was the gracious miss aware of how the song was altered?}

alter (geld) [notebook 1924] Jespersen: The Growth and Structure of the English Language 248 (sec. 247): 'to alter is said in the Southern States instead of to geld'.

easily + usually + Esau (and Jacob two lines below)

O'Dubhda (o'dude) (geal) - descendant of Dubhda ("black")

see you Sunday (Joyce's note) → Key: John McCormack, His Own Life Story 424: '"So-long," he replied, "see you Thursday"'.

pederast - lower of boys, one that practices pederasty, a sodomite + pedigree

prig - a thief; a spruce fellow, a dandy + pig

bejabers - by Jesus (exclamation)

gentleman who pays the rent - a pig + lent - loan.

middle class - the class of society between the 'upper' and the 'lower' class

portavorax (l) - gate-devouring (O Hehir, Brendan; Dillon, John M. / A classical lexicon for Finnegans wake)

bynight - a letter dispatched by the night post

god tempers the wind to the shorn lamb - god is merciful to those who had suffered misfortune + (notebook 1924): 'a vomit to a poor man 3d'.

Ragnar Lodbrok ("shaggy breeches") - Viking, saga hero who, tradition says, died in Ireland + RagnarÝkr (Old Norse) - destruction of the Norse gods + recognized 

court martial - a judicial court, consisting of military or naval officers, for the trial of military or naval offences, or the administration of martial law

Corcaigh (kurki) (geal) - Swamp; anglic. Cork

skilly - an insipid beverage, tea or coffee, watery porridge or soup + sceillig (shkelig) (geal) - Reef; rocky islands off Co. Kerry; anglic. Skelligs; also, the Scillies.

gart (gort) (geal) - planted field; letter G; hospitality + Londonderry (Ulster), Cork (Munster), Skerries (Leinster), Gort (Connacht).

gate - method, way, technique, style + Irish riddle: 'Londonderry, Cork and Kerry, Spell me that without an R'; answer: 'THAT'.

heliotrope (Clytie pined for Apollo and turned into a heliotrope) + hardly a drop.

grazing rights - the rights of using grazing ground or pasture land

magistra (l) - mistress 

expiry - expiration

goodsire - grandfather

worshipful - honorific title for persons or bodies of distinguished rank or importance

waders - waterproof boots reaching above the knee

recipis (l) - you get back, retain, receive + recipe

velocipede - wheel; an early form of the bicycle or tricycle

kitcat - a portrait of less than half length but including the hands + that

maunder - to talk in the dreamy and foolish manner characteristic of dotage or imbecility; to ramble or wander in one's talk + 'A Tuscan tongue in a Roman mouth', i.e., Roman pronunciation and Tuscan syntax, is a definition of good Italian + maundering (Archaic) - begging + mandarin (T.S. Eliot's style has been described as 'mandarin').

pondering + Ezra Pound translated Chinese poetry.

ourdir (French) - to hatch (a plot) + further orders + Our Father.

pronunciation + pre- (i.e. pronunciation of initial letters [.17]).

distributary - distributive; something whose function is to distribute; applied to branch canals distributing water from a main one

ending - termination, conclusion, completion

Quare hircum (l) - Why the goat?

Unde gentium fe[stines] (l) - Whence on earth are you hurrying? Where are you hurrying from? + unde (l) - from where.

ah - O! Oh! + no answer + Noah + Albert and Victoria Nyanza - the two western reservoirs of the Nile.

siar (shir) (geal) - westward, backward + Siar - West Indian pronunciation of Sir + sir, indeed.

old + olda (Fulfulde) - yellow [see "yellowatty" in the lines above and the "maundarin tongue" a couple of lines above to confirm the translation (Karl Reisman)]

intendant - one who has the charge, direction, or superintendence of a department of public business, the affairs of a town or province, the household of a prince or nobleman, etc.; a superintendent, a manager + attendant

Pulu - Fulfulde ("Pullo" singular) [Note: the only Indo-European language besides Irish to have eclipsis is a rare language in India so that Fulfulde which does have
it - at the beginning - "prenanciation" - is a very relevant candidate (Karl Reisman)
"Darktongues": Fufulde and Hausa in Finnegans Wake Karl Reisman]

Ogma Sun-face - Irish god, inventor of ogam (on ogham) letters + Macalister: The Secret Languages of Ireland 47-48 lists types of Ogham ciphers: Shirt-of-two-strokes Ogham, Mac (or Son) Ogham, Finn's-ladder Ogham (has three forms).

threeheaded - having three heads + Macalister: The Secret Languages of Ireland 47-48 lists types of Ogham ciphers: Finn's-three-shanked Ogham, Head-in-a-bush Ogham, Head-uder-a-bush Ogham.

Ogma Sun-face invented Ogham

bait - to tease, rouse, to entice by bait + bate (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - beat.

millrace - the current of water that drives a mill wheel + Macalister: The Secret Languages of Ireland 47-48 lists types of Ogham ciphers: Serpent-through-the-heather Ogham, Millrace Ogham.

deaf and dumb (Ogham is a sign and gesture language, thus similar to deaf and dumb sign language) + Macalister: The Secret Languages of Ireland 47-48 lists types of Ogham ciphers: Arm Ogham, Bird Ogham, Colour Ogham + a, b, c, d, e, f.

glonsk (Shelta) - man + g, h, j.

(Ogham is spoken with the hands)  

Jotalpheson - Jason In The Secret Languages of Ireland (90-91), MacAlister says that in Bog Latin certain letters in Irish words are replaced by the name of the Irish letter-of-the-alphabet, "as if a Greek meaning Jason called him 'Jotalphason'."

hokey - a mild oath; hokey pokey, something worthless or untrue + Holy

Jason - leader of the Argonauts in the quest for the golden fleece. Legend says he came to Ireland + Jesus 

epexegesis (gr) - detailed explanation, addition of words to clarify the meaning intended in a preceding sentence + Pegasos (gr) - winged horse of the Muses + Macalister: The Secret Languages of Ireland 47-48 lists types of Ogham ciphers: Pig (Muc) Ogham.

pontiff - a chief or high priest (of any religion); a bishop (of the mediśval Western church); spec. and usually, the bishop of Rome, the pope + (Laudabiliter) [090.03]

true + Ture (ger) - door + sure as there's a tail on a cat (phrase).

athach (Irish) - peasant; churl; stammerer; giant + italic.

golo (Serbian) - naked + glory.

joss - a Chinese figure of a deity, an idol + joss (Pidgin) - God + glory be to God.

leally - loyally, truly, free from error + realy and truly.

handkerchief + Hankou - city in China (a revolutionary centre in 1911; also spelled Hankow).