artifact - anything made by human art and workmanship; an artificial product. In Archæol. applied to the rude products of aboriginal workmanship as distinguished from natural remains.

fend - to make an effort, strive or try to do something; to defend + FDV: Let then the facts speak in their own favour.  

Crow: The Story of Confucius, Master Kung 34: 'what is now called the Yellow River... was nameless... It was the river, the only river that required consideration'.

Crow: The Story of Confucius, Master Kung 37: (for Chinese, the sea was) 'a symbol of oblivion. The fact that the brine-laden water... gave them this wonderful salt, which river water could not provide, probably added to the mystery'.

Bruin + brine + Brian O'Linn (song) + (Behan).

Crow: The Story of Confucius, Master Kung 34: (for Chinese, China) 'was not a country but the country'

dindin - dinner + zinzin (motif) + {The country asked for bearspaw (a Chinese delicacy) for dinner}  

bounding - a leaping or springing, esp. in an elastic way

abounding - overflowing or plentiful supply

surly - churlishly ill-humoured; rude and cross; 'gloomily morose' + surely

clovery - like clover or abounding in clover + meanings of Chinese names of China: 'Under Heaven', 'The Flowery Kingdom', 'The Middle Kingdom'.

overarch - to form an arch over


saint + Ireland, isle of saints and sages (phrase).

stern - serious and unrelenting, esp. in the assertion of authority and exercise of discipline

chuckler - a worker in leather, cobbler; one who chuckles + FDV: It was wont to be wittily wagged by the stern chuckler Mahappy Mahapnot that Lucalizod was the only place in the world where the possible was always the improbable and the improbable the inevitable.

mayhap - perhaps, maybe + Mahaffy, Sir John Pentland (b. 1839) - Irish classical scholar, Wilde's mentor, wit, who, according to Mr Atherton, said Dublin was where the possible was the improbable and the improbable was the inevitable. 

repeat + repletion.

lutra (l) - otter + lutron (gr) - ransom (pl. = lutra) + lutra (Albanian) - fine, fit + Lutheran + (flower conservatory).

conservatory - a greenhouse in which plants are arranged in a pleasing manner; a schoolhouse with special facilities for fine arts

ultimum aut nullum (l) - last or nothing + ultio aut nullum (l) - revenge or nothing + ultë (Albanian) - low + naltë (Albanian) - high.

madh (Albanian) - big + mad.

vaal (Dutch) - faded, sallow, ashen + valley of tears - the world regarded as a place of trouble, sorrow, misery, or weeping + 'This vale of tears' is the world and the suffering that life brings.

verdure - the fresh green colour characteristic of flourishing vegetation; greenness, viridity + verdhë (Albanian) - yellow.

Phaiton - "Shining One", son of Helios (sun) who drove his father's chariot (i.e. sun) too near the Earth, scorching the surface and falling to his death, struck by a bolt from Zeus + paiton (Albanian) - car + Phoenix park.

tambel (Albanian) - milk

tay - tea; a case, sheath, outer covering + Crow: The Story of Confucius, Master Kung 39: (in ancient China) 'There were no teapots, for tea was a beverage enjoyed by the barbarians living much further south'.

drame - tragicomedy + {whose greenness only yellows when Phaeton parks his car – the sun – too close, and the tea-coloured Liffey is the dream of would-be Ophelia’s}

Ophelia - the name of the heroine of Shakespeare's play Hamlet. Like St Kevin's Cathleen or Nuvoletta, Ophelia drowned herself because of male coldness to her + drainô (Greek) - to desire + trendafille (Albanian) - rose.

proverbial - addicted to the use of proverbs; that has passed into a proverb

Holy and Undivided Trinity + Bishop George Berkeley, the Irish philosopher whose dictum was "To be is to be perceived". Basically, the theory is that we can only directly know sensations and ideas of objects, not abstractions such as "matter". As a young man, Berkeley theorized that we cannot know if an object is, we can only know if an object is perceived by a mind. We can't think or talk about an object's being, we can only think or talk about an object's being perceived by someone. All that we know about an object is our perception of it. Berkeley was misunderstood and ridiculed for supposedly stating that the world didn't exist, that it was a dream. In the dream-state that is Finnegans Wake, reality and the dreamer are "undivided", there is no separate reality behind the existence of objects and people within the dream. A few lines down, Berkeley's "to be is to be perceived" is alluded to through Shakespeare's "to be, or not to be, that is the question". The passage goes on to describe how the events described are "utterly impossible" and are as alike as events "which may have taken place" as other events which never took place. This confusion is similar to the confusion invoked by Berkeley's philosophy. Berkeley repudiated John Locke's ("lock" appears a few lines down) concept of substance.


ken (Hebrew) - yes + me kenë (Albanian) - if, seeing that.

Zot- (ger) - obscenity + Zoti (Albanian) - God + zot (Dutch) - fool + zot (Hebrew) - this, that (feminine).

question + Quiztunes - United States radio programme + William Shakespeare: Hamlet III.1.56: 'To be, or not to be - that is the question'.  

havermout (Dutch) - oatmeal porridge

toenails + hit the nail on the head - to come at the very point of the matter, to say or do exactly the right thing.

in for - involved in some coming event, etc. from which no escape is possible; finally committed or destined to do or suffer something

sequentiality - the quality of being sequential (forming a sequence)

possible - that which is possible

grub - to take food, eat

lock - a quantity (usu. a small one) of any article esp. hay or straw; a handful

Aristotle (in a tragic plot Aristotle prefers a sequence of probable impossibles to one of improbable possibles) + FDV: This implies a sequentiality of impossible probables improbable possibles but though possibly nobody who has read up his subject probably in Aristotle will applaud the sentiment or sentence for utterly impossible as are all these events they are probably as like those which happened took place as any other which never took place at all are ever likely to be.


go out of one’s way - to make a special effort (to do something)

unbiassed - not unduly or improperly influenced or inclined; unprejudiced, impartial + boia (it) - executioner + boje (Albanian) - colour.

amen + Hahn (ger) - rooster + ahn- (ger) - suspect.

FDV: About that hen, first. Midwinter was in the offing when a poorly clad Shiverer, a the mere merest bantling, observed a cold fowl behaving strangely on the fatal dump at the spot called the orangery when in the course of its deeper demolition it unexpectedly threw up certain fragments of orange peel, the remnant of an outdoor meal of some unknown sunseeker illico in a mistridden past.

original sin - hereditary sin inherited from sinful choice of the first man of the human race + to hen (gr) - the One, the origin of all things.

midwinter - the middle of the winter

kuur (Dutch) - cure (noun); also, whim, vice or trick + kuura (Finnish) - hoarfrost + kura (Slovenian) - hen.

in the offing - about to happen

Primavera (Italian) - Spring (season) + prandverë (Albanian) - spring.

pril (Dutch) - (very) early + Prill (Albanian) - April.

kishë (Albanian) - church + kisha (Serbian) - rain + {bells chiming the hour [111.07-.08], birds singing life’s sad old song}

sweet song + sahat (Albanian) - hour + Love's Old Sweet Song (song).

shiverer - one that shivers

mere - nothing short of (what is expressed by the n.); absolute, entire, perfect

bantling - a young or small child, a brat + bantams.

fowl - a domestic cock or hen

midden - a dunghill, manure-heap, refuse-heap

chip - anything worthless or trifling + Impey: Origins of the Bushmen 49: mentions a prehistoric 'chip instrument factory'.

Impey: Origins of the Bushmen 45: mentions pottery with a 'conical bottom'. 

kopron (gr) - dung

dump - a pile or heap of refuse or other matter 'dumped' or thrown down

orangery - a place appropriated to the cultivation of orange-trees; spec. a structure or building in which orange-trees are reared and kept, where the climate does not allow them to be cultivated in the open.

a busman’s holiday - a holiday in which one does the same thing as one does at work

limon - a fine sandy soil; lemon + limun (Serbian) - lemon + limon (fr) - mud + limen (l) - threshold.

throw up - to produce or provide

orangepeel - the rind of an orange, esp. when separated from the pulp + [003.23]

sunseeker - one seeking a sunny place for a holiday or to live in

illico (l) - there, than; in that place, on the spot + all

priestridden - managed or controlled by a priest or priests

FDV: What child but little Kevin would ever in such a scene in such despondful weather in the desponful atmosphere of such biting cold have found a motive for future sainthood saintity by euchring the discovery of the Ardagh chalice by another innocent on the seasands near the scene of the massacre of most of the jacobiters.

Strandlooper - a member of a people, related to the Bushmen and Hottentots, living on the southern shores of S. Africa from prehistoric times until the present millennium; a vagrant + strandlooper (Dutch) - beach-walker; a collective name for the various kinds of sandpiper, stint, dunlin, knot and sanderling.

peepy - drowsy, sleepy; characterized by peeping

despond - depression or dejection of spirits through loss of resolution or hope


trouver (fr) - to find + (notebook 1923): 'child (found chalice in potatofield)' Flood: Ireland, Its Saints and Scholars 112: 'A child playing on the sea-shore near Drogheda found the Tara Brooch, and a boy digging potatoes near the old Rath of Ardagh in Limerick found the Ardagh Chalice'.

strate = strete - street + street (Anglo-Irish) - backyard (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation: strate) + In Acts 9:11, the Lord says to Ananias, "Arise, and go to the street which is called Straight," (to restore Saul's sight). "The Street which is called Straight" is the motto of C. T. M'Cready's Dublin Street Names.

strete (obs) - estreat, extract, a true copy of an original

saintity (obs) - sanctity

euchre - a game at cards, of American origin, played by 2, 3, or 4 persons, with a pack of 32 cards (the 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 of each suit being rejected). A player may, if he pleases, 'pass' or decline to play, but if he undertakes to play, and fails to take 3 tricks, he or his side is said to be 'euchred' and the other side gains two points. The highest cards at Euchre are the knave of trumps and the other knave of the same colour; the other cards used rank as in whist. There are various modifications of the game, as Railroad Euchre, played with the usual 32 cards and an extra blank card called 'the joker', or 'imperial trump', which is superior to all; (v.): to outwit an opponent in the card-game of Euchre.

Ardagh Chalice - large, two-handled silver cup, decorated with gold, gilt bronze, and enamel, one of the best-known examples of Irish ecclesiastical metalwork. It was discovered in 1868, together with a small bronze cup and four brooches, in a potato field in Ardagh, County Limerick, Ireland + Joyce's note: 'Ardagh Chalice (two handled)' Flood: Ireland, Its Saints and Scholars 112: 'The Ardagh Chalice is an almost unique example of the two-handled chalice used in the earliest Christian time'.

heily - haughty, proud; highly + heilig (German, Dutch) - holy + holy

whilst - while

clamour - to shout, or utter loud and continued cries or calls; to raise an outcry for; to seek, demand, or call importunately for + (notebook 1924): 'pious clamour' → Dupont: Les Légendes du Mont-Saint-Michel 63: 'The Abbot has told them about the ravages of Jean de Thomas on the lands of the abbey, and, after a short deliberation, the Benedictines decide — which is immediately entered in the registers of the Acts — that "without omitting a single day, it will be celebrated, before the altar of Saint Michel, while the mass is sung, a VERY PIOUS CLAMOUR in the presence of the Most Holy and very true Body of Our Lord Jesus Christ, chanting with tears MISERERE MEI and clamouring KYRIE ELEISON!"... Here is a week that the very pious clamour rises to the Archangel, and the fury of Jean, far from stopping, further increases!').

wheedle - to entice or persuade by soft flattering words