swamp - a piece of wet spongy ground; a marsh or bog

bogoak - oak that has become dark from long burial in a peat bog [(notebook 1923): 'bog oak'] + gravy - the fat and juices which exude from flesh during and after the process of cooking.

chicken hearted - timorous and cowardly as a chicken, faint-hearted + Greek, Jew (Leopold Bloom in 'Ulysses').

Jude (ger) - Jew

rosbif - roast beef, beef roasted in the English manner

ZEALAND (SEALAND, SJAELLAND) - Largest of the islands of Denmark; contains Copenhagen.

attouch - to touch (lightly)

somato - - body, corpse + -phage - one that eats + scatophage - a scatophagous (feeding upon  dung) insect or animal + somatophagos (gr) - body-devourer, corpse-eater.

merman - an imaginary marine creature with a man's head and trunk, and a fish's or cetacean's tail instead of the lower limbs.

to take someone’s fancy - to cause a person to develop a liking for something.

virga (l) - twig, switch, rod + vegetarian

run away with - to accept, believe (an idea, etc.), hurriedly, without due reflection.

hun (Danish) - she

pharsun (farsun) (gael) - parson + (notebook 1924): 'farsoonerite' + far (Danish) - father + forsone (Danish) - to atone + sønner (Danish) - sons.

to muddle through - to blunder through, to succeed in one's object in spite of one's lack of skill and foresight.

hash - a dish consisting of meat which has been previously cooked, cut small, and warmed up with gravy and sauce or other flavouring.

lentils - the seed of a leguminous plant (Ervum lens, Lens esculenta); also the plant itself, cultivated for food in European countries + Esau sold his birthright for a mess of pottage of lentils (Genesis 25:34).

meddle - to concern or busy oneself, to deal with

split pea - rhyming slang for 'tea' + DRAFT TWO: He preferred the mess hash of Europe's lentils lentils in Europe to Ireland's tight little pea. Once when in a state of helplessly hopeless intoxication he tried to lift the peel of a citron to either nostril and hiccupped, apparently impromptu, that he could live all his days by the smell, as the citr, as the cedron, as the cedar, of the founts, on the mountains, with lemon on, of Lebanon.

piscivorous - feeding on fishes + FDV: Once when in a state of helplessly hopeless inebriation he tried to lift the peel of a citron to his nostrils & hiccupped apparently impromptu he could live all his days on the smell of it, as the citr, as the cedron, as the cedar on the founts on the mountains, lemon on, of Lebanon. The O, the lowness of him was beyond all that was ever known sunk to.

citron - an ovate acid juicy tree-fruit with a pale yellow rind. Formerly the name included the lemon.

impromptu - to compose off-hand; to improvise, extemporize + (notebook 1924): 'apparently impromptu'.

habit + hiba (Hungarian) - defect, deformity, fault + hibat (Persian) - giving, bestowing.

glottal stop - a sound produced by the sudden opening or shutting of the glottis with an emission of breath or voice.

kukka (Finnish) - flower

flourish - Of persons: To prosper, do well + (notebook 1922-23): 'live on the smell' + Psalms 92:13: 'The innocent man will flourish as the palm tree flourishes; he will grow to greatness as the cedars grow on Lebanon' + James Joyce, Dubliners: 'Ivy Day in the Committee Room': 'He'd live on the smell of an oil-rag'.

KEDRON - Stream and valley, in Jordan, between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives + Cedar of Lebanon - An evergreen coniferous tree growing up to 40 m tall, with a trunk up to 2.5 m diameter; it is native to the mountains of the Mediterranean region, Lebanon, western Syria and south central Turkey. 

fount - a spring, source

firewater - any strong liquor or ardent spirits

shot - a supply or amount of drink (obs.) + phrase first come, first served.

gullet - the throat, neck

Barett (ger) - beret + FDV: No firewater or first shot or gutburning gin or honest red or brown beer (DRAFT TWO: honest ruddy beer either). No. O no. But he botched up sobbed himself sick on some kind of a wheywhinging rhubarbarous yallagreen decoction of sour soured grapes & according to to hear him retching off in his sentimentality cups to his disreputable with swillers who [when they found they cd not carry another drop] were rightly indignant at his hospitality it came straight from the noble white fat, the most noble wide sat her white hide that, from the winevat of the lovely exquisite archduchess, Fanny Urinia.

jester - a person given to uttering jests or witticisms, a joker; any professed maker of amusement, esp. one maintained in a prince's court or nobleman's household.

sob - to soak, saturate, sop

wheywhig - a beverage made of whey flavoured with herbs

rhubarb - the medicinal rootstock (purgative and subsequently astringent) of one or more species of Rheum; fig., as a type of bitterness or sourness; of the colour of medicinal rhubarb, yellowish-brown.

mandarin - a small flattened deep-coloured orange; a colour resembling that of the mandarin orange.

blue funk - extreme nervousness, tremulous dread + funkel- (ger) - sparkle + funkle (Danish) - sparkle.

windigo - In the folklore of the northern Algonquian Indians: a cannibalistic giant, the transformation of a person who has eaten human flesh + indigo

apllejack - brandy derived from cider

Joyce's note: 'grapefruit' + phrase sour grapes.

sedimental - of the nature of sediment

betwixt the cup and the lip - while a thing is yet in hand and on the very point of being achieved + proverb There's many a slip 'twixt the cup and the lip (implies that between the time we decide to do something and the time we do it, things often go wrong + cupshot (Slang) - drunk.

to gulf down - to swallow in large draughts or morsels hastily or with greediness.

gourd - a bottle or cup

retch - to stretch (oneself); to make efforts to vomit, to throw up in vomiting [(notebook 1922-23): 'retch off'].

swill - to drink freely, greedily, or to excess, like hogs devouring 'swill' or 'wash' + compotores (l) - drinking companions (literally 'withdrinkers')

notwithstanding - in spite of something, nevertheless

indignant - moved by an emotion of anger mingled with scorn or contempt + (notebook 1924): 'offended by his hospitality'.

wretch - a vile, sorry, or despicable person, a mean or contemptible creature

drop - a small quantity of drink or intoxicating liquor + John Milton: Paradise Lost III.25: 'a drop serene' (from Latin gutta serena, a medical term for blindness).

jo - used informally to address a man whose name the speaker does not know, guy, fellow + jo (Hungarian) - good, nice, pleasant + jo (Danish) - yes (as a reply to a negative question or assertion).

winevat - a vat in which the grapes are pressed in wine-making


archdiocese - the diocese of an archbishop + One night drinking with Ottocaro Weiss, who had returned from the army in January 1919, Joyce sampled a white Swiss wine called Fendant de Sion. This seemed to be the object of his quest, and after drinking it with satisfaction, he lifted the half-empty glass, held it against the window like a test tube, and asked Weiss, 'What does this remind you of?' Weiss looked at Joyce and at the pale golden liquid and replied, 'Orina.' 'Si,' said Joyce laughing, 'ma di un'arciduchessa' ('Yes, but an archduchess's'). From now on the wine was known as the Archduchess.

duchess - a lady holding in her own right a position equal to that of duke; a woman of  imposing demeanour or showy appearance (slang) + douche (fr) - shower.

fever + fervour - warmth or glow of feeling, passion, vehemence, intense zeal; an instance of the same + feherbor (Hungarian) - white wine.

Artax, Dux [Arostolym, Momfumbres & variants] - apocryphal stars whence Adam's name acronymically derives (O Hehir, Brendan; Dillon, John M. / A classical lexicon for Finnegans wake).

fanny - buttocks; the female genitals; a tin for holding anything to be drunk; vulva (Slang).

Urania - muse of astronomy, planet, Aphrodite as spiritual love + urine

swell - stylish, 'great', 'fine'

pea-mengro (Gipsy) - drunkard

any God's quantity - abundance, large amount ('Ulysses'.11.494, 'Ulysses'.12.15) + (notebook 1923): 'any dog's quantity'.

to ooze out - to emit or give forth (moisture, etc.) slowly or gradually + FDV: Lowness visibly oozed out from this dirty little beetle for the very first instant the Thornton girl with her Kodak saw him the as yet unremunerated national apostate who was genuinely guns (gun) & camera shy, walking taking a short cut when returning from a funeral into a Patatapapaveri's fruiterer & florist by the wrong [goods] entrance, she knew he was of a bad fast man by his walk on the spot.

black beetle - beetle (coleopterous insect) of black colour + blacking - the action of making black by applying some substance.

tulach (tulokh) (gael) - hill + DRAFT TWO: Talk about lowness! Any dog's quantity of It visibly oozed out thickly from this dirty black beetle for the very first instant the Kenny Turnbull girl with her kodak saw the as yet unremunerated national apostate who was cowardly gun & camera shy taking what he fondly thought was a short cut [after having buried a friend not long before] by the wrong goods entrance into Patatapapaveri's, fruiterer's & musical florist florists', she knew he was a bad fast man by his walk on the spot.

cold blood - coolly, without excitement

Kodak - the proprietary name of a range of cameras produced by Kodak Ltd.

as yet - up to this time, hitherto; nevertheless, notwithstanding

unremunerated - unrewarded, not compensated (for a work done)

apostate - one who abjures or forsakes his religious faith, or abandons his moral allegiance + New York Times Book Review 28 May 1922, 6: 'James Joyce's Amazing Chronicle' (review of Ulysses by Joseph Collins): (of Bloom's thoughts) 'the product of the unconscious mind of a moral monster, a pervert and an invert, an apostate to his race and his religion'.

gunshy - afraid of a gun

camerashy - not liking to be photographed or filmed, fearful of cameras

fondly - affectionately, lovingly, tenderly. Also, with show of affection, caressingly.

short cut - a path or a course taken between two places which is shorter than the ordinary road.

caer (Cornish) = caer (Welsh) - town, castle


steam ship - a ship propelled by steam

to bury the hatchet - to put away strife, settle a quarrel; to cease from hostilities

exeunt - (l = "they go out") a stage direction signifying that at this point two or more actors leave the stage.

nummer = number