gunpowdered - charged with gunpowder; fig. Readily inflamed or excited + Joyce's note: 'sweet-tempered (Si)' Collins: The Doctor Looks at Literature 49: (of Ulysses) 'Mr. Dædalus is a sweet-tempered, mealy-mouthed man given to strong drink and high-grade vagrancy'.

dust unto dust + didst - arhaic do.


mudhead - one of a Zuni ceremonial clown fraternity appearing in tribal rites in mud daubed masks symbolizing an early stage in the development of man; stupid person, a fool (Slang).

obtund - to blunt, deaden, dull, deprive of sharpness or vigour, render obtuse (the senses or faculties, physical qualities of things, etc.) + obtunditas (l) - bluntness, dulness + obtundo (l) - I thump.

pest - any thing or person that is noxious, destructive, or troublesome; a bane, 'curse' + I Corinthians 15:55: 'O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory?'

chop - to cut (with an axe, cleaver, etc.) into pieces, to mince

turnip - the fleshy, globular or spheroidal root of a biennial cruciferous plant, Brassica Rapa,  cultivated from ancient times as a culinary vegetable.

slit - to divide or sever by making a long straight cut or fissure

murphy - a potato

bullbeef - the flesh of bulls

butch - to cut up, hack (obs.) + (notebook 1924): 'butch (knife)' Jespersen: The Growth and Structure of the English Language 176 (sec. 173): 'butcher is the French boucher, derived from bouc 'a buck, goat' with no corresponding verb, but in English it has given rise to the rare verb to butch and to the noun a butch-knife'.

crackerjack - an exceptionally skilled person + hack - to cut with heavy blows in an irregular or random fashion + ..."mutton you ^cracker^hash, the more bacon you rasher, ^the more potherbs you pound^"... (Not only typists and typesetters miss lines, Joyce too, although in his case we'll never know with absolute certainty if it was on purpose or by accident. Here's a nice bunch of five words that didn't even make it into the second draft, let alone the first fair copy or the innumerable stages of Work in Progress still to follow. Maybe, one (I) would like to think, Joyce skipped "the more bacon you rasher" because 'rasher' sounds too much like 'hash' from his previous item "crackerhash". But this can't be the case, because "crackerhash" Joyce immediately in the next draft, not more than a few weeks later, changes into "crackerhack", and the 'bacon'-extension is left out. Now nothing sounds like 'hash' or 'rasher' anymore, whereas one of them could have been allowed to stand. Nevertheless, Joyce doesn't copy the 'bacon'-phrase, so it is up to the textual geneticists to make these authentic Joycean words known to the world.) (Robbert-Jan Henkes, 22 May 2002). 

potherb - wild greens gathered for food

pound - to break down and crush by beating, to reduce to pulp or powder

proverb He who sups with the devil hath need of a long spoon

gruel - to feed with gruel (broth or pottage of oatmeal in which chopped meat has been boiled).

elbow grease - hard physical work + Anglo-Irish phrase: more power to your elbow! (encouragement).

Irish stew - a dish composed of pieces of mutton, potatoes, and onions stewed together.

utmost - that is of the greatest or highest degree

politeness - polished manners, courtesy, refinement

ordinarily - in the ordinary way; as is normal or usual

birthright - the rights, privileges, or possessions to which one is entitled by birth; inheritance, patrimony. (Specifically used of the special rights of the first-born).

to fall in with - to harmonize with, suit, match, to coincide with

nationals - persons belonging to the same nation

nationist - a representative of a nation

Holy Office - an eccl. tribunal for the suppression of heresy and punishment of heretics + James Joyce: The Holy Office.

pro anno (l) - for the year, per year

Guinness - the proprietary name of a brand of stout manufactured by the firm of Guinness; a bottle or glass of this + Joyce's father urged James to seek a clerkship in Guinness's (Father Butt in Joyce's 'Stephen Hero' thought similarly; so did Stanislaus).

gulp - the action or an act of gulping or swallowing in large portions + phrase Guinness is good for you (advertisement).

boiler - a vessel in which water or any liquid is boiled + eyes

Boskop - of or belonging to the early type of man indicated by the skull of the late Pleistocene period found at Boskop + bishop

Yorick's skull (William Shakespeare: Hamlet V.1.169)

threepenny bit - threepence; fig. Something very small

burden - a load of labour, duty, responsibility, blame, sin, sorrow, etc. 

bourne - the ultimate point aimed at, or to which anything tends; destination, goal + William Shakespeare: Hamlet III.1.79-80: 'from whose bourn No traveller returns'.

travail - journeying, a journey; bodily or mental labour or toil, especially of a painful or oppressive nature.

ville - a town or village + valley of tears - the world regarded as a place of trouble, sorrow, misery, or weeping.

divine providence - the foreknowing and beneficent care and government of God (or of nature, etc.); divine direction, control, or guidance.

prodigence - extravagance; waste; prodigality (wastefulness; lavishness, profuseness).

gasp - a convulsive catching of the breath from distress, exertion, or the lessening of vital action; also, as a result of surprise + watergap - a break or opening in a range of mountains which is deep enough to serve as the course of a stream + (notebook 1924): 'where I breathe first breath of life'.

proverb Once bitten, twice shy

crypt - an underground cell, chamber, or vault; esp. one beneath the main floor of a church, used as a burial-place.

tailcoat - a coat with tails; esp. a dress or swallow-tailed coat

paraffin - a colourless (or white), tasteless, inodorous, crystalline, fatty substance, subsequently used for making candles.

smoker - something which emits smoke

slackly - without due vigour or force, slowly, loosely

shirk - to evade

every bullet has its billet - fate determines who shall be killed; more generally: fate plays a part in all human affairs.

to beat it - to go away + to bend backwards - to go to the opposite extreme.

boulengier (fr) - baker + Boulanger, George (1837-91) - French general with whom Irish revolutionists conspired. 

Joyce's note: 'Walk backward r & restore / blades of grass to position'; Black Thinking 350: The Valomotwa can crawl on their bellies flat year in and year out, under the trunks of trees felled to purposely Hoodwink strangers. Breaking through grass, they walk backwards and restore each blade to its natural position, defying wit of man to know where they have gone. Breaking through grass, they walk backwards and restore each blade to its natural position, defying wit of man to know where they have gone.  

song I'll Sing Thee Songs of Araby + (notebook 1923): 'sing me an alibi'.

Cuthona ("mournful sound of waves") - heroine of the Ossianic "Conlath and Cuthona." 

James Macpherson: The Poems of Ossian: Fingal VI: 'A thousand dogs fly off at once, gray-bounding through the heath'.

James Macpherson: The Poems of Ossian: Carric-Thura: 'slow-rolling eyes'.

oozy - damp (with moisture) + James Macpherson: The Poems of Ossian: Temora I: 'Foldath stands, like an oozy rock' + James Macpherson: The Poems of Ossian: The War of Inis-thona: 'Waves lash the oozy rocks'.

parapan (gr) - altogether, absolutely + pangelios (gr) - thoroughly ridiculous

praeposterus (l) - reversed, inverted, perverted + praeposteriora (l) - before the posteriors.

mooner - one who moons about + moon - to move or look listlessly or aimlessly.

nos - pl. of no + Antinous - leader of Penelope's suitors in the Odyssey, represented in 'Ulysses' by Mulligan and Boylan + antinoos (gr) - opposite in character + anti nos (l) - against us. 

skat (gr) - dung

thoroughpaced - thorougly trained, accomplished, complete

prosody - the rhythmic aspect of language; in literary criticism, the term chiefly denotes the metrical structure of poetry and the study of such structure.

mus = muss - mouth + sum + mus (l) - mouse

the wrong way - the way or method least conducive to a desired end or purpose; the (or an) incorrect manner.

sit on - to sit on judgement or council, to deliberate; to hold back, to keep to oneself without acting upon.

crooked - curved, twisted; wrong, perverted, out of order + nursery rhyme There was a Crooked Man (mentions 'crooked sixpence' and 'crooked stile').