James Joyce

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    riverrun, past Eve and Adam's, from swerve of shore to bend
of bay, brings us by a commodius vicus of recirculation back to
Howth Castle and Environs.
    Sir Tristram, violer d'amores, fr'over the short sea, had passen-
core rearrived from North Armorica on this side the scraggy
isthmus of Europe Minor to wielderfight his penisolate war: nor
had topsawyer's rocks by the stream Oconee exaggerated themselse
to Laurens County's gorgios while they went doublin their mumper
all the time: nor avoice from afire bellowsed mishe mishe to
tauftauf thuartpeatrick: not yet, though venissoon after, had a
kidscad buttended a bland old isaac: not yet, though all's fair in
vanessy, were sosie sesthers wroth with twone nathandjoe. Rot a
peck of pa's malt had Jhem or Shen brewed by arclight and rory
end to the regginbrow was to be seen ringsome on the aquaface.
    The fall (bababadalgharaghtakamminarronnkonnbronntonner-
nuk!) of a once wallstrait oldparr is retaled early in bed and later
on life down through all christian minstrelsy. The great fall of the
offwall entailed at such short notice the pftjschute of Finnegan,
erse solid man, that the humptyhillhead of humself prumptly sends
an unquiring one well to the west in quest of his tumptytumtoes:
and their upturnpikepointandplace is at the knock out in the park
where oranges have been laid to rust upon the green since dev-
linsfirst loved livvy. 

    What clashes here of wills gen wonts, oystrygods gaggin fishy-
gods! Brékkek Kékkek Kékkek Kékkek! Kóax Kóax Kóax! Ualu
Ualu Ualu! Quaouauh! Where the Baddelaries partisans are still
out to mathmaster Malachus Micgranes and the Verdons cata-
pelting the camibalistics out of the Whoyteboyce of Hoodie 
Head. Assiegates and boomeringstroms. Sod's brood, be me fear!
Sanglorians, save! Arms apeal with larms, appalling. Killykill-
killy: a toll, a toll. What chance cuddleys, what cashels aired 
and ventilated! What bidimetoloves sinduced by what tegotetab-
solvers! What true feeling for their's hayair with what strawng 
voice of false jiccup! O here here how hoth sprowled met the
duskt the father of fornicationists but, (O my shining stars and
body!) how hath fanespanned most high heaven the skysign of
soft advertisement! But was iz? Iseut? Ere were sewers? The oaks
of ald now they lie in peat yet elms leap where askes lay. Phall if
you but will, rise you must: and none so soon either shall the
pharce for the nunce come to a setdown secular phoenish.
    Bygmester Finnegan, of the Stuttering Hand, freemen's mau-
rer, lived in the broadest way immarginable in his rushlit toofar-
back for messuages before joshuan judges had given us numbers
or Helviticus committed deuteronomy (one yeastyday he sternely 
struxk his tete in a tub for to watsch the future of his fates but ere
he swiftly stook it out again, by the might of moses, the very wat-
er was eviparated and all the guenneses had met their exodus so
that ought to show you what a pentschanjeuchy chap he was!)
and during mighty odd years this man of hod, cement and edi-
fices in Toper's Thorp piled buildung supra buildung pon the
banks for the livers by the Soangso. He addle liddle phifie Annie
ugged the little craythur. Wither hayre in honds tuck up your part
inher. Oftwhile balbulous, mithre ahead, with goodly trowel in
grasp and ivoroiled overalls which he habitacularly fondseed, like
Haroun Childeric Eggeberth he would caligulate by multiplicab-
les the alltitude and malltitude until he seesaw by neatlight of the
liquor wheretwin 'twas born, his roundhead staple of other days
to rise in undress maisonry upstanded (joygrantit!), a waalworth 
of a skyerscape of most eyeful hoyth entowerly, erigenating from 

next to nothing and celescalating the himals and all, hierarchitec-
titiptitoploftical, with a burning bush abob off its baubletop and
with larrons o'toolers clittering up and tombles a'buckets clotter-
ing down.
    Of the first was he to bare arms and a name: Wassaily Boos-
laeugh of Riesengeborg. His crest of huroldry, in vert with
ancillars, troublant, argent, a hegoak, poursuivant, horrid, horned.
His scutschum fessed, with archers strung, helio, of the second.
Hootch is for husbandman handling his hoe. Hohohoho, Mister
Finn, you're going to be Mister Finnagain! Comeday morm and,
O, you're vine! Sendday's eve and, ah, you're vinegar! Hahahaha,
Mister Funn, you're going to be fined again!
    What then agentlike brought about that tragoady thundersday
this municipal sin business? Our cubehouse still rocks as earwitness 
to the thunder of his arafatas but we hear also through successive
ages that shebby choruysh of unkalified muzzlenimiissilehims that
would blackguardise the whitestone ever hurtleturtled out of
heaven. Stay us wherefore in our search for tighteousness, O Sus-
tainer, what time we rise and when we take up to toothmick and
before we lump down upown our leatherbed and in the night and
at the fading of the stars! For a nod to the nabir is better than wink
to the wabsanti. Otherways wesways like that provost scoffing 
bedoueen the jebel and the jpysian sea. Cropherb the crunch-
bracken shall decide. Then we'll know if the feast is a flyday. She
has a gift of seek on site and she allcasually ansars helpers, the
dreamydeary. Heed! Heed! It may half been a missfired brick, as
some say, or it mought have been due to a collupsus of his back
promises, as others looked at it. (There extand by now one thou-
sand and one stories, all told, of the same). But so sore did abe 
ite ivvy's holired abbles, (what with the wallhall's horrors of rolls-
rights, carhacks, stonengens, kisstvanes, tramtrees, fargobawlers,
autokinotons, hippohobbilies, streetfleets, tournintaxes, mega-
phoggs, circuses and wardsmoats and basilikerks and aeropagods 
and the hoyse and the jollybrool and the peeler in the coat and
the mecklenburk bitch bite at his ear and the merlinburrow bur-
rocks and his fore old porecourts, the bore the more, and his 

blightblack workingstacks at twelvepins a dozen and the noobi-
busses sleighding along Safetyfirst Street and the derryjellybies
snooping around Tell-No-Tailors' Corner and the fumes and the
hopes and the strupithump of his ville's indigenous romekeepers,
homesweepers, domecreepers, thurum and thurum in fancymud
murumd and all the uproor from all the aufroofs, a roof for may 
and a reef for hugh butt under his bridge suits tony) wan warn-
ing Phill filt tippling full. His howd feeled heavy, his hoddit did
shake. (There was a wall of course in erection) Dimb! He stot-
tered from the latter. Damb! he was dud. Dumb! Mastabatoom,
mastabadtomm, when a mon merries his lute is all long. For
whole the world to see.
    Shize? I should shee! Macool, Macool, orra whyi deed ye diie?
of a trying thirstay mournin? Sobs they sighdid at Fillagain's
chrissormiss wake, all the hoolivans of the nation, prostrated in
their consternation and their duodisimally profusive plethora of
ululation. There was plumbs and grumes and cheriffs and citherers 
and raiders and cinemen too. And the all gianed in with the shout-
most shoviality. Agog and magog and the round of them agrog.
To the continuation of that celebration until Hanandhunigan's
extermination! Some in kinkin corass, more, kankan keening.
Belling him up and filling him down. He's stiff but he's steady is
Priam Olim! 'Twas he was the dacent gaylabouring youth. Sharpen 
his pillowscone, tap up his bier! E'erawhere in this whorl would ye
hear sich a din again? With their deepbrow fundigs and the dusty 
fidelios. They laid him brawdawn alanglast bed. With a bockalips 
of finisky fore his feet. And a barrowload of guenesis hoer his head.
Tee the tootal of the fluid hang the twoddle of the fuddled, O!
    Hurrah, there is but young gleve for the owl globe wheels in
view which is tautaulogically the same thing. Well, Him a being
so on the flounder of his bulk like an overgrown babeling, let wee
peep, see, at Hom, well, see peegee ought he ought, platterplate.
Hum! From Shopalist to Bailywick or from ashtun to baronoath
or from Buythebanks to Roundthehead or from the foot of the
bill to ireglint's eye he calmly extensolies. And all the way (a
horn!) from fiord to fjell his baywinds' oboboes shall wail him

rockbound (hoahoahoah!) in swimswamswum and all the livvy-
long night, the delldale dalppling night, the night of bluerybells,
her flittaflute in tricky trochees (O carina! O carina!) wake him.
With her issavan essavans and her patterjackmartins about all
them inns and ouses. Tilling a teel of a tum, telling a toll of a tea-
ry turty Taubling. Grace before Glutton. For what we are, gifs 
a gross if we are, about to believe. So pool the begg and pass the
kish for crawsake. Omen. So sigh us. Grampupus is fallen down
but grinny sprids the boord. Whase on the joint of a desh? Fin-
foefom the Fush. Whase be his baken head? A loaf of Singpan-
try's Kennedy bread. And whase hitched to the hop in his tayle?
A glass of Danu U'Dunnell's foamous olde Dobbelin ayle. But,
lo, as you would quaffoff his fraudstuff and sink teeth through
that pyth of a flowerwhite bodey behold of him as behemoth for
he is noewhemoe. Finiche! Only a fadograph of a yestern scene.
Almost rubicund Salmosalar, ancient fromout the ages of the Ag-
apemonides, he is smoltenin our mist, woebecanned and packt
away. So that meal's dead off for summan, schlook, schlice and
    Yet may we not see still the brontoichthyan form outlined a-
slumbered, even in our own nighttime by the sedge of the trout-
ling stream that Bronto loved and Brunto has a lean on. Hiccubat 
edilis. Apud libertinam parvulam. Whatif she be in flags or flitters,
reekierags or sundyechosies, with a mint of mines or beggar a
pinnyweight. Arrah, sure, we all love little Anny Ruiny, or, we
mean to say, lovelittle Anna Rayiny, when unda her brella, mid
piddle med puddle, she ninnygoes nannygoes nancing by. Yoh!
Brontolone slaaps, yoh snoores. Upon Benn Heather, in Seeple
Isout too. The cranic head on him, caster of his reasons, peer yu-
thner in yondmist. Whooth? His clay feet, swarded in verdigrass,
stick up starck where he last fellonem, by the mund of the maga-
zine wall, where our maggy seen all, with her sisterin shawl.
While over against this belles' alliance beyind Ill Sixty, ollol-
lowed ill! bagsides of the fort, bom, tarabom, tarabom, lurk the
ombushes, the site of the lyffing-in-wait of the upjock and hock-
ums. Hence when the clouds roll by, jamey, a proudseye view is

enjoyable of our mounding's mass, now Wallinstone national
museum, with, in some greenish distance, the charmful water-
loose country and the two quitewhite villagettes who hear show
of themselves so gigglesomes minxt the follyages, the prettilees!
Penetrators are permitted into the museomound free. Welsh and
the Paddy Patkinses, one shelenk! Redismembers invalids of old
guard find poussepousse pousseypram to sate the sort of their butt.
For her passkey supply to the janitrix, the mistress Kathe. Tip.
    This the way to the museyroom. Mind your hats goan in!
Now yiz are in the Willingdone Museyroom. This is a Prooshi-
ous gunn. This is a ffrinch. Tip. This is the flag of the Prooshi-
ous, the Cap and Soracer. This is the bullet that byng the flag of
the Prooshious. This is the ffrinch that fire on the Bull that bang
the flag of the Prooshious. Saloos the Crossgunn! Up with your
pike and fork! Tip. (Bullsfoot! Fine!) This is the triplewon hat of
Lipoleum. Tip. Lipoleumhat. This is the Willingdone on his
same white harse, the Cokenhape. This is the big Sraughter Wil-
lingdone, grand and magentic in his goldtin spurs and his ironed
dux and his quarterbrass woodyshoes and his magnate's gharters 
and his bangkok's best and goliar's goloshes and his pullupon-
easyan wartrews. This is his big wide harse. Tip. This is the three
lipoleum boyne grouching down in the living detch. This is an
inimyskilling inglis, this is a scotcher grey, this is a davy, stoop-
ing. This is the bog lipoleum mordering the lipoleum beg. A
Gallawghurs argaumunt. This is the petty lipoleum boy that
was nayther bag nor bug. Assaye, assaye! Touchole Fitz Tuo-
mush. Dirty MacDyke. And Hairy O'Hurry. All of them
arminus-varminus. This is Delian alps. This is Mont Tivel,
this is Mont Tipsey, this is the Grand Mons Injun. This is the
crimealine of the alps hooping to sheltershock the three lipoleums.
This is the jinnies with their legahorns feinting to read in their
handmade's book of stralegy while making their war undisides
the Willingdone. The jinnies is a cooin her hand and the jinnies is
a ravin her hair and the Willingdone git the band up. This is big
Willingdone mormorial tallowscoop Wounderworker obscides
on the flanks of the jinnies. Sexcaliber hrosspower. Tip. This

is me Belchum sneaking his phillippy out of his most Awful
Grimmest Sunshat Cromwelly. Looted. This is the jinnies' hast-
ings dispatch for to irrigate the Willingdone. Dispatch in thin
red lines cross the shortfront of me Belchum. Yaw, yaw, yaw!
Leaper Orthor. Fear siecken! Fieldgaze thy tiny frow. Hugact-
ing. Nap. That was the tictacs of the jinnies for to fontannoy the
Willingdone. Shee, shee, shee! The jinnies is jillous agincourting
all the lipoleums. And the lipoleums is gonn boycottoncrezy onto
the one Willingdone. And the Willingdone git the band up. This
is bode Belchum, bonnet to busby, breaking his secred word with a
ball up his ear to the Willingdone. This is the Willingdone's hur-
old dispitchback. Dispitch desployed on the regions rare of me
Belchum. Salamangra! Ayi, ayi, ayi! Cherry jinnies. Figtreeyou!
Damn fairy ann, Voutre. Willingdone. That was the first joke of
Willingdone, tic for tac. Hee, hee, hee! This is me Belchum in
his twelvemile cowchooks, weet, tweet and stampforth foremost,
footing the camp for the jinnies. Drink a sip, drankasup, for he's
as sooner buy a guinness than he'd stale store stout. This is Roo-
shious balls. This is a ttrinch. This is mistletropes. This is Canon
Futter with the popynose. After his hundred days' indulgence.
This is the blessed. Tarra's widdars! This is jinnies in the bonny 
bawn blooches. This is lipoleums in the rowdy howses. This is the
Willingdone, by the splinters of Cork, order fire. Tonnerre!
(Bullsear! Play!) This is camelry, this is floodens, this is the
solphereens in action, this is their mobbily, this is panickburns.
Almeidagad! Arthiz too loose! This is Willingdone cry. Brum!
Brum! Cumbrum! This is jinnies cry. Underwetter! Goat
strip Finnlambs! This is jinnies rinning away to their ouster-
lists dowan a bunkersheels. With a nip nippy nip and a trip trip-
py trip so airy. For their heart's right there. Tip. This is me Bel-
chum's tinkyou tankyou silvoor plate for citchin the crapes in
the cool of his canister. Poor the pay! This is the bissmark of the
marathon merry of the jinnies they left behind them. This is the
Willingdone branlish his same marmorial tallowscoop Sophy-
Key-Po for his royal divorsion on the rinnaway jinnies. Gam-
bariste della porca! Dalaveras fimmieras! This is the pettiest 

of the lipoleums, Toffeethief, that spy on the Willingdone from
his big white harse, the Capeinhope. Stonewall Willingdone
is an old maxy montrumeny. Lipoleums is nice hung bushel-
lors. This is hiena hinnessy laughing alout at the Willing-
done. This is lipsyg dooley krieging the funk from the hinnessy.
This is the hinndoo Shimar Shin between the dooley boy and the
hinnessy. Tip. This is the wixy old Willingdone picket up the
half of the threefoiled hat of lipoleums fromoud of the bluddle
filth. This is the hinndoo waxing ranjymad for a bombshoob.
This is the Willingdone hanking the half of the hat of lipoleums
up the tail on the buckside of his big white harse. Tip. That was
the last joke of Willingdone. Hit, hit, hit! This is the same white
harse of the Willingdone, Culpenhelp, waggling his tailoscrupp
with the half of a hat of lipoleums to insoult on the hinndoo see-
boy. Hney, hney, hney! (Bullsrag! Foul!) This is the seeboy,
madrashattaras, upjump and pumpim, cry to the Willingdone:
Ap Pukkaru! Pukka Yurap! This is the Willingdone, bornstable
ghentleman, tinders his maxbotch to the cursigan Shimar Shin.
Basucker youstead! This is the dooforhim seeboy blow the whole
of the half of the hat of lipoleums off of the top of the tail on the
back of his big wide harse. Tip (Bullseye! Game!) How Copen-
hagen ended. This way the museyroom. Mind your boots goan
    What a warm time we were in there but how keling is here the
airabouts! We nowhere she lives but you mussna tell annaone for
the lamp of Jig-a-Lanthern! It's a candlelittle houthse of a month
and one windies. Downadown, High Downadown. And num-
mered quaintlymine. And such reasonable weather too! The wa-
grant wind's awalt'zaround the piltdowns and on every blasted
knollyrock (if you can spot fifty I spy four more) there's that
gnarlybird ygathering, a runalittle, doalittle, preealittle, pouralittle,
wipealittle, kicksalittle, severalittle, eatalittle, whinealittle, kenalittle,
helfalittle, pelfalittle gnarlybird. A verytableland of bleakbardfields!
Under his seven wrothschields lies one, Lumproar. His glav toside
him. Skud ontorsed. Our pigeons pair are flewn for northcliffs.

The three of crows have flapped it southenly, kraaking of de
baccle to the kvarters of that sky whence triboos answer; Wail,
'tis well! She niver comes out when Thon's on shower or when
Thon's flash with his Nixy girls or when Thon's blowing toom-
cracks down the gaels of Thon. No nubo no! Neblas on you liv!
Her would be too moochy afreet. Of Burymeleg and Bindme-
rollingeyes and all the deed in the woe. Fe fo fom! She jist does
hopes till byes will be byes. Here, and it goes on to appear now,
she comes, a peacefugle, a parody's bird, a peri potmother,
a pringlpik in the ilandiskippy, with peewee and powwows
in beggybaggy on her bickybacky and a flick flask fleckflinging
its pixylighting pacts' huemeramybows, picking here, pecking
there, pussypussy plunderpussy. But it's the armitides toonigh,
militopucos, and toomourn we wish for a muddy kissmans to the
minutia workers and there's to be a gorgeups truce for happinest
childher everwere. Come nebo me and suso sing the day we
sallybright. She's burrowed the coacher's headlight the better to
pry (who goes cute goes siocur and shoos aroun) and all spoiled
goods go into her nabsack: curtrages and rattlin buttins, nappy
spattees and flasks of all nations, clavicures and scampulars, maps,
keys and woodpiles of haypennies and moonled brooches with
bloodstaned breeks in em, boaston nightgarters and masses of
shoesets and nickelly nacks and foder allmicheal and a lugly parson
of cates and howitzer muchears and midgers and maggets, ills and
ells with loffs of toffs and pleures of bells and the last sigh that
come fro the hart (bucklied!) and the fairest sin the sunsaw
(that's cearc!). With Kiss. Kiss Criss. Cross Criss. Kiss Cross.
Undo lives 'end. Slain.
    How bootifull and how truetowife of her, when strengly fore-
bidden, to steal our historic presents from the past postpropheti-
cals so as to will make us all lordyheirs and ladymaidesses of a
pretty nice kettle of fruit. She is livving in our midst of debt and
laffing through all plores for us (her birth is uncontrollable), with
a naperon for her mask and her sabboes kickin arias (so sair! so
solly!) if yous ask me and I saack you. Hou! Hou! Gricks may
rise and Troysirs fall (there being two sights for ever a picture)

for in the byways of high improvidence that's what makes life-
work leaving and the world's a cell for citters to cit in. Let young
wimman run away with the story and let young min talk smooth
behind the butteler's back. She knows her knight's duty while
Luntum sleeps. Did ye save any tin? says he. Did I what? with
a grin says she. And we all like a marriedann because she is mer-
cenary. Though the length of the land lies under liquidation
(floote!) and there's nare a hairbrow nor an eyebush on this glau-
brous phace of Herrschuft Whatarwelter she'll loan a vesta and
hire some peat and sarch the shores her cockles to heat and she'll
do all a turfwoman can to piff the business on. Paff. To puff the
blaziness on. Poffpoff. And even if Humpty shell fall frumpty
times as awkward again in the beardsboosoloom of all our grand
remonstrancers there'll be iggs for the brekkers come to mourn-
him, sunny side up with care. So true is it that therewhere's a
turnover the tay is wet too and when you think you ketch sight
of a hind make sure but you're cocked by a hin.
    Then as she is on her behaviourite job of quainance bandy,
fruting for firstlings and taking her tithe, we may take our review
of the two mounds to see nothing of the himples here as at else-
where, by sixes and sevens, like so many heegills and collines,
sitton aroont, scentbreeched ant somepotreek, in their swisha-
wish satins and their taffetaffe tights, playing Wharton's Folly,
at a treepurty on the planko in the purk. Stand up, mickos!
Make strake for minnas! By order, Nicholas Proud. We may see
and hear nothing if we choose of the shortlegged bergins off
Corkhill or the bergamoors of Arbourhill or the bergagambols
of Summerhill or the bergincellies of Miseryhill or the country-
bossed bergones of Constitutionhill though every crowd has its
several tones and every trade has its clever mechanics and each
harmonical has a point of its own, Olaf's on the rise and Ivor's
on the lift and Sitric's place's between them. But all they are all
there scraping along to sneeze out a likelihood that will solve
and salve life's robulous rebus, hopping round his middle like
kippers on a griddle, O, as he lays dormont from the macroborg
of Holdhard to the microbirg of Pied de Poudre. Behove this

sound of Irish sense. Really? Here English might be seen.
Royally? One sovereign punned to petery pence. Regally? The
silence speaks the scene. Fake!
    So This Is Dyoublong?
    Hush! Caution! Echoland!
    How charmingly exquisite! It reminds you of the outwashed 
engravure that we used to be blurring on the blotchwall of his
innkempt house. Used they? (I am sure that tiring chabelshovel-
ler with the mujikal chocolat box, Miry Mitchel, is listening) I
say, the remains of the outworn gravemure where used to be
blurried the Ptollmens of the Incabus. Used we? (He is only pre-
tendant to be stugging at the jubalee harp from a second existed
lishener, Fiery Farrelly.) It is well known. Lokk for himself and
see the old butte new. Dbln. W. K. O. O. Hear? By the mauso-
lime wall. Fimfim fimfim. With a grand funferall. Fumfum fum-
fum. 'Tis optophone which ontophanes. List! Wheatstone's
magic lyer. They will be tuggling foriver. They will be lichening
for allof. They will be pretumbling forover. The harpsdischord
shall be theirs for ollaves.
    Four things therefore, saith our herodotary Mammon Lujius 
in his grand old historiorum, wrote near Boriorum, bluest book
in baile's annals, f. t. in Dyffinarsky ne'er sall fail tilheathersmoke
and cloudweed Eire's ile sall pall. And here now they are, the fear
of um. T. Totities! Unum. (Adar.) A bulbenboss surmounted up-
on an alderman. Ay, ay! Duum. (Nizam.) A shoe on a puir old
wobban. Ah, ho! Triom. (Tamuz.) An auburn mayde, o'brine
a'bride, to be desarted. Adear, adear! Quodlibus. (Marchessvan.) A
penn no weightier nor a polepost. And so. And all. (Succoth.)
    So, how idlers' wind turning pages on pages, as innocens with
anaclete play popeye antipop, the leaves of the living in the boke
of the deeds, annals of themselves timing the cycles of events
grand and national, bring fassilwise to pass how.
    1132 A.D. Men like to ants or emmets wondern upon a groot 
hwide Whallfisk which lay in a Runnel. Blubby wares upat Ub-
    566 A.D. On Baalfire's night of this year after deluge a crone that

hadde a wickered Kish for to hale dead turves from the bog look-
it under the blay of her Kish as she ran for to sothisfeige her cow-
rieosity and be me sawl but she found hersell sackvulle of swart
goody quickenshoon and small illigant brogues, so rich in sweat.
Blurry works at Hurdlesford.
    566 A.D. At this time it fell out that a brazenlockt damsel grieved 
(sobralasolas!) because that Puppette her minion was ravisht of her
by the ogre Puropeus Pious. Bloody wars in Ballyaughacleeagh-
    1132. A.D. Two sons at an hour were born until a goodman 
and his hag. These sons called themselves Caddy and Primas.
Primas was a santryman and drilled all decent people. Caddy
went to Winehouse and wrote o peace a farce. Blotty words for
    Somewhere, parently, in the ginnandgo gap between antedilu-
vious and annadominant the copyist must have fled with his
scroll. The billy flood rose or an elk charged him or the sultrup
worldwright from the excelsissimost empyrean (bolt, in sum)
earthspake or the Dannamen gallous banged pan the bliddy du-
ran. A scribicide then and there is led off under old's code with
some fine covered by six marks or ninepins in metalmen for the
sake of his labour's dross while it will be only now and again in
our rear of o'er era, as an upshoot of military and civil engage-
ments, that a gynecure was let on to the scuffold for taking that
same fine sum covertly by meddlement with the drawers of his
neighbour's safe.
    Now after all that farfatch'd and peragrine or dingnant or clere 
lift we our ears, eyes of the darkness, from the tome of Liber Li-
vidus and, (toh!), how paisibly eirenical, all dimmering dunes
and gloamering glades, selfstretches afore us our fredeland's plain!
Lean neath stone pine the pastor lies with his crook; young pric-
ket by pricket's sister nibbleth on returned viridities; amaid her
rocking grasses the herb trinity shams lowliness; skyup is of ever-
grey. Thus, too, for donkey's years. Since the bouts of Hebear
and Hairyman the cornflowers have been staying at Ballymun,

the duskrose has choosed out Goatstown's hedges, twolips have
pressed togatherthem by sweet Rush, townland of twinedlights,
the whitethorn and the redthorn have fairygeyed the mayvalleys
of Knockmaroon, and, though for rings round them, during a
chiliad of perihelygangs, the Formoreans have brittled the too-
ath of the Danes and the Oxman has been pestered by the Fire-
bugs and the Joynts have thrown up jerrybuilding to the Kevan-
ses and Little on the Green is childsfather to the City (Year!
Year! And laughtears!), these paxsealing buttonholes have quad-
rilled across the centuries and whiff now whafft to us, fresh and
made-of-all-smiles as, on the eve of Killallwho.
    The babbelers with their thangas vain have been (confusium
hold them!) they were and went; thigging thugs were and hou-
hnhymn songtoms were and comely norgels were and pollyfool
fiansees. Menn have thawed, clerks have surssurhummed, the
blond has sought of the brune: Elsekiss thou may, mean Kerry
piggy?: and the duncledames have countered with the hellish fel-
lows: Who ails tongue coddeau, aspace of dumbillsilly? And they
fell upong one another: and themselves they have fallen. And
still nowanights and by nights of yore do all bold floras of the
field to their shyfaun lovers say only: Cull me ere I wilt to thee!:
and, but a little later: Pluck me whilst I blush! Well may they
wilt, marry, and profusedly blush, be troth! For that saying is as
old as the howitts. Lave a whale a while in a whillbarrow (isn't
it the truath I'm tallin ye?) to have fins and flippers that shimmy
and shake. Tim Timmycan timped hir, tampting Tam. Fleppety!
Flippety! Fleapow!
    In the name of Anem this carl on the kopje in pelted thongs a
parth a lone who the joebiggar be he? Forshapen his pigmaid
hoagshead, shroonk his plodsfoot. He hath locktoes, this short-
shins, and, Obeold that's pectoral, his mammamuscles most
mousterious. It is slaking nuncheon out of some thing's brain
pan. Me seemeth a dragon man. He is almonthst on the kiep
fief by here, is Comestipple Sacksoun, be it junipery or febrew-
ery, marracks or alebrill or the ramping riots of pouriose and

froriose. What a quhare soort of a mahan. It is evident the mich-
indaddy. Lets we overstep his fire defences and these kraals of
slitsucked marrogbones. (Cave!) He can prapsposterus the pil-
lory way to Hirculos pillar. Come on, fool porterfull, hosiered
women blown monk sewer? Scuse us, chorley guy! You toller-
day donsk? N. You tolkatiff scowegian? Nn. You spigotty an-
glease? Nnn. You phonio saxo? Nnnn. Clear all so! 'Tis a Jute.
Let us swop hats and excheck a few strong verbs weak oach ea-
ther yapyazzard abast the blooty creeks.
    Jute.       Yutah!
    Mutt.      Mukk's pleasurad.
    Jute.       Are you jeff?
    Mutt.      Somehards.
    Jute.       But you are not jeffmute?
    Mutt.      Noho. Only an utterer.
    Jute.       Whoa? Whoat is the mutter with you?
    Mutt.      I became a stun a stummer.
    Jute.       What a hauhauhauhaudibble thing, to be cause! How,
    Mutt.      Aput the buttle, surd.
    Jute.       Whose poddle? Wherein?
    Mutt.      The Inns of Dungtarf where Used awe to be he.
    Jute.       You that side your voise are almost inedible to me.
                  Become a bitskin more wiseable, as if I were
    Mutt.      Has? Has at? Hasatency? Urp, Boohooru! Booru
                  Usurp! I trumple from rath in mine mines when I
    Jute.       One eyegonblack. Bisons is bisons. Let me fore all
                  your hasitancy cross your qualm with trink gilt. Here
                  have sylvan coyne, a piece of oak. Ghinees hies good
                  for you.
    Mutt.      Louee, louee! How wooden I not know it, the intel-
                  lible greytcloak of Cedric Silkyshag! Cead mealy 
                  faulty rices for one dabblin bar. Old grilsy growlsy!
                  He was poached on in that eggtentical spot. Here

                  where the liveries, Monomark. There where the mis-
                  sers moony, Minnikin passe.
    Jute.       Simply because as Taciturn pretells, our wrongstory-
                  shortener, he dumptied the wholeborrow of rubba-
                  ges on to soil here.
    Mutt.      Just how a puddinstone inat the brookcells by a
    Jute.       Load Allmarshy! Wid wad for a norse like?
    Mutt.      Somular with a bull on a clompturf. Rooks roarum
                  rex roome! I could snore to him of the spumy horn,
                  with his woolseley side in, by the neck I am sutton
                  on, did Brian d' of Linn.
    Jute.       Boildoyle and rawhoney on me when I can beuraly
                  forsstand a weird from sturk to finnic in such a pat-
                  what as your rutterdamrotter. Onheard of and um-
                  scene! Gut aftermeal! See you doomed.
    Mutt.      Quite agreem. Bussave a sec. Walk a dunblink 
                  roundward this albutisle and you skull see how olde 
                  ye plaine of my Elters, hunfree and ours, where wone 
                  to wail whimbrel to peewee o'er the saltings, where
                  wilby citie by law of isthmon, where by a droit of
                  signory, icefloe was from his Inn the Byggning to
                  whose Finishthere Punct. Let erehim ruhmuhrmuhr.
                  Mearmerge two races, swete and brack. Morthering 
                  rue. Hither, craching eastuards, they are in surgence:
                  hence, cool at ebb, they requiesce. Countlessness of
                  livestories have netherfallen by this plage, flick as
                  flowflakes, litters from aloft, like a waast wizzard all of 
                  whirlworlds. Now are all tombed to the mound, isges 
                  to isges, erde from erde. Pride, O pride, thy prize!
    Jute.       'Stench!
    Mutt.      Fiatfuit! Hereinunder lyethey. Llarge by the smal an'
                  everynight life olso th'estrange, babylone the great-
                  grandhotelled with tit tit tittlehouse, alp on earwig,
                  drukn on ild, likeas equal to anequal in this sound
                  seemetery which iz leebez luv.

    Jute.       'Zmorde!
    Mutt.      Meldundleize! By the fearse wave behoughted. Des-
                  pond's sung. And thanacestross mound have swollup 
                  them all. This ourth of years is not save brickdust 
                  and being humus the same roturns. He who runes 
                  may rede it on all fours. O'c'stle, n'wc'stle, tr'c'stle,
                  crumbling! Sell me sooth the fare for Humblin! Hum-
                  blady Fair. But speak it allsosiftly, moulder! Be in
                  your whisht!
    Jute.       Whysht?
    Mutt.      The gyant Forficules with Amni the fay.
    Jute.       Howe?
    Mutt.      Here is viceking's graab.
    Jute.       Hwaad!
    Mutt.      Ore you astoneaged, jute you?
    Jute.       Oye am thonthorstrok, thing mud.
    (Stoop) if you are abcedminded, to this claybook, what curios 
of signs (please stoop), in this allaphbed! Can you rede (since
We and Thou had it out already) its world? It is the same told
of all. Many. Miscegenations on miscegenations. Tieckle. They
lived und laughed ant loved end left. Forsin. Thy thingdome is
given to the Meades and Porsons. The meandertale, aloss and
again, of our old Heidenburgh in the days when Head-in-Clouds
walked the earth. In the ignorance that implies impression that
knits knowledge that finds the nameform that whets the wits that
convey contacts that sweeten sensation that drives desire that
adheres to attachment that dogs death that bitches birth that en-
tails the ensuance of existentiality. But with a rush out of his
navel reaching the reredos of Ramasbatham. A terricolous vively-
onview this; queer and it continues to be quaky. A hatch, a celt,
an earshare the pourquose of which was to cassay the earthcrust at
all of hours, furrowards, bagawards, like yoxen at the turnpaht.
Here say figurines billycoose arming and mounting. Mounting and
arming bellicose figurines see here. Futhorc, this liffle effingee is for
a firefing called a flintforfall. Face at the eased! O I fay! Face at the
waist! Ho, you fie! Upwap and dump em, ace to ace! When a

part so ptee does duty for the holos we soon grow to use of an
allforabit. Here (please to stoop) are selveran cued peteet peas of
quite a pecuniar interest inaslittle as they are the pellets that make
the tomtummy's pay roll. Right rank ragnar rocks and with these
rox orangotangos rangled rough and rightgorong. Wisha, wisha,
whydidtha? Thik is for thorn that's thuck in its thoil like thum-
fool's thraitor thrust for vengeance. What a mnice old mness it
all mnakes! A middenhide hoard of objects! Olives, beets, kim-
mells, dollies, alfrids, beatties, cormacks and daltons. Owlets' eegs
(O stoop to please!) are here, creakish from age and all now
quite epsilene, and oldwolldy wobblewers, haudworth a wipe o
grass. Sss! See the snake wurrums everyside! Our durlbin is
sworming in sneaks. They came to our island from triangular
Toucheaterre beyond the wet prairie rared up in the midst of the
cargon of prohibitive pomefructs but along landed Paddy Wip-
pingham and the his garbagecans cotched the creeps of them
pricker than our whosethere outofman could quick up her whats-
thats. Somedivide and sumthelot but the tally turns round the
same balifuson. Racketeers and bottloggers.
    Axe on thwacks on thracks, axenwise. One by one place one
be three dittoh and one before. Two nursus one make a plaus-
ible free and idim behind. Starting off with a big boaboa and three-
legged calvers and ivargraine jadesses with a message in their
mouths. And a hundreadfilled unleavenweight of liberorumqueue
to con an we can till allhorrors eve. What a meanderthalltale to
unfurl and with what an end in view of squattor and anntisquattor
and postproneauntisquattor! To say too us to be every tim, nick
and larry of us, sons of the sod, sons, littlesons, yea and lealittle-
sons, when usses not to be, every sue, siss and sally of us, dugters
of Nan! Accusative ahnsire! Damadam to infinities!
    True there was in nillohs dieybos as yet no lumpend papeer
in the waste, and mightmountain Penn still groaned for the micies
to let flee. All was of ancientry. You gave me a boot (signs on
it!) and I ate the wind. I quizzed you a quid (with for what?) and
you went to the quod. But the world, mind, is, was and will be
writing its own wrunes for ever, man, on all matters that fall

under the ban of our infrarational senses fore the last milch-
camel, the heartvein throbbing between his eyebrowns, has still to
moor before the tomb of his cousin charmian where his date is
tethered by the palm that's hers. But the horn, the drinking, the
day of dread are not now. A bone, a pebble, a ramskin; chip them,
chap them, cut them up allways; leave them to terracook in the
muttheringpot: and Gutenmorg with his cromagnom charter,
tintingfast and great primer must once for omniboss step rub-
rickredd out of the wordpress else is there no virtue more in al-
cohoran. For that (the rapt one warns) is what papyr is meed
of, made of, hides and hints and misses in prints. Till ye finally
(though not yet endlike) meet with the acquaintance of Mister
Typus, Mistress Tope and all the little typtopies. Fillstup. So you
need hardly spell me how every word will be bound over to carry
three score and ten toptypsical readings throughout the book of
Doublends Jined (may his forehead be darkened with mud who
would sunder!) till Daleth, mahomahouma, who oped it closeth
thereof the. Dor.
    Cry not yet! There's many a smile to Nondum, with sytty 
maids per man, sir, and the park's so dark by kindlelight. But
look what you have in your handself! The movibles are scrawl-
ing in motions, marching, all of them ago, in pitpat and zingzang
for every busy eerie whig's a bit of a torytale to tell. One's upon
a thyme and two's behind their lettice leap and three's among the
strubbely beds. And the chicks picked their teeths and the domb-
key he begay began. You can ask your ass if he believes it. And
so cuddy me only wallops have heels. That one of a wife with
folty barnets. For then was the age when hoops ran high. Of a
noarch and a chopwife; of a pomme full grave and a fammy of
levity; or of golden youths that wanted gelding; or of what the
mischievmiss made a man do. Malmarriedad he was reverso-
gassed by the frisque of her frasques and her prytty pyrrhique.
Maye faye, she's la gaye this snaky woman! From that trippiery
toe expectungpelick! Veil, volantine, valentine eyes. She's the
very besch Winnie blows Nay on good. Flou inn, flow ann.
Hohore! So it's sure it was her not we! But lay it easy, gentle

mien, we are in rearing of a norewhig. So weenybeeny-
veenyteeny. Comsy see! Hetwis if ee newt. Lissom! lissom!
I am doing it. Hark, the corne entreats! And the larpnotes
    It was of a night, late, lang time agone, in an auldstane eld,
when Adam was delvin and his madameen spinning watersilts,
when mulk mountynotty man was everybully and the first leal
ribberrobber that ever had her ainway everybuddy to his love-
saking eyes and everybilly lived alove with everybiddy else, and
Jarl van Hoother had his burnt head high up in his lamphouse,
laying cold hands on himself. And his two little jiminies, cousins
of ourn, Tristopher and Hilary, were kickaheeling their dummy
on the oil cloth flure of his homerigh, castle and earthenhouse.
And, be dermot, who come to the keep of his inn only the niece-
of-his-in-law, the prankquean. And the prankquean pulled a rosy
one and made her wit foreninst the dour. And she lit up and fire-
land was ablaze. And spoke she to the dour in her petty perusi-
enne: Mark the Wans, why do I am alook alike a poss of porter-
pease? And that was how the skirtmisshes began. But the dour
handworded her grace in dootch nossow: Shut! So her grace
o'malice kidsnapped up the jiminy Tristopher and into the shan-
dy westerness she rain, rain, rain. And Jarl van Hoother war-
lessed after her with soft dovesgall: Stop deef stop come back to
my earin stop. But she swaradid to him: Unlikelihud. And there
was a brannewail that same sabboath night of falling angles some-
where in Erio. And the prankquean went for her forty years'
walk in Tourlemonde and she washed the blessings of the love-
spots off the jiminy with soap sulliver suddles and she had her
four owlers masters for to tauch him his tickles and she convor-
ted him to the onesure allgood and he became a luderman. So then
she started to rain and to rain and, be redtom, she was back again
at Jarl van Hoother's in a brace of samers and the jiminy with
her in her pinafrond, lace at night, at another time. And where
did she come but to the bar of his bristolry. And Jarl von Hoo-
ther had his baretholobruised heels drowned in his cellarmalt,
shaking warm hands with himself and the jimminy Hilary and

the dummy in their first infancy were below on the tearsheet,
wringing and coughing, like brodar and histher. And the prank-
quean nipped a paly one and lit up again and redcocks flew flack-
ering from the hillcombs. And she made her witter before the
wicked, saying: Mark the Twy, why do I am alook alike two poss
of porterpease? And: Shut! says the wicked, handwording her
madesty. So her madesty aforethought set down a jiminy and
took up a jiminy and all the lilipath ways to Woeman's Land she
rain, rain, rain. And Jarl von Hoother bleethered atter her with
a loud finegale: Stop domb stop come back with my earring stop.
But the prankquean swaradid: Am liking it. And there was a wild
old grannewwail that laurency night of starshootings somewhere
in Erio. And the prankquean went for her forty years' walk in
Turnlemeem and she punched the curses of cromcruwell with
the nail of a top into the jiminy and she had her four larksical
monitrix to touch him his tears and she provorted him to the
onecertain allsecure and he became a tristian. So then she started
raining, raining, and in a pair of changers, be dom ter, she was
back again at Jarl von Hoother's and the Larryhill with her under
her abromette. And why would she halt at all if not by the ward
of his mansionhome of another nice lace for the third charm?
And Jarl von Hoother had his hurricane hips up to his pantry-
box, ruminating in his holdfour stomachs (Dare! O dare!), and
the jiminy Toughertrees and the dummy were belove on the
watercloth, kissing and spitting, and roguing and poghuing, like
knavepaltry and naivebride and in their second infancy. And the
prankquean picked a blank and lit out and the valleys lay twink-
ling. And she made her wittest in front of the arkway of trihump,
asking: Mark the Tris, why do I am alook alike three poss of por-
ter pease? But that was how the skirtmishes endupped. For like
the campbells acoming with a fork lance of lightning, Jarl von
Hoother Boanerges himself, the old terror of the dames, came
hip hop handihap out through the pikeopened arkway of his
three shuttoned castles, in his broadginger hat and his civic chol-
lar and his allabuff hemmed and his bullbraggin soxangloves
and his ladbroke breeks and his cattegut bandolair and his fur-

framed panuncular cumbottes like a rudd yellan gruebleen or-
angeman in his violet indigonation, to the whole longth of the
strongth of his bowman's bill. And he clopped his rude hand to
his eacy hitch and he ordurd and his thick spch spck for her to
shut up shop, dappy. And the duppy shot the shutter clup (Per-
rumathunaradidillifaititillibumullunukkunun!) And they all drank
free. For one man in his armour was a fat match always for any
girls under shurts. And that was the first peace of illiterative
porthery in all the flamend floody flatuous world. How kirssy the
tiler made a sweet unclose to the Narwhealian captol. Saw fore
shalt thou sea. Betoun ye and be. The prankquean was to hold
her dummyship and the jimminies was to keep the peacewave
and van Hoother was to git the wind up. Thus the hearsomeness
of the burger felicitates the whole of the polis.
    O foenix culprit! Ex nickylow malo comes mickelmassed bo-
num. Hill, rill, ones in company, billeted, less be proud of. Breast
high and bestride! Only for that these will not breathe upon
Norronesen or Irenean the secrest of their soorcelossness. Quar-
ry silex, Homfrie Noanswa! Undy gentian festyknees, Livia No-
answa? Wolkencap is on him, frowned; audiurient, he would
evesdrip, were it mous at hand, were it dinn of bottles in the far
ear. Murk, his vales are darkling. With lipth she lithpeth to him
all to time of thuch on thuch and thow on thow. She he she ho
she ha to la. Hairfluke, if he could bad twig her! Impalpabunt,
he abhears. The soundwaves are his buffeteers; they trompe him
with their trompes; the wave of roary and the wave of hooshed
and the wave of hawhawhawrd and the wave of neverheedthem-
horseluggarsandlisteltomine. Landloughed by his neaghboormis-
tress and perpetrified in his offsprung, sabes and suckers, the
moaning pipers could tell him to his faceback, the louthly one
whose loab we are devorers of, how butt for his hold halibutt, or
her to her pudor puff, the lipalip one whose libe we drink at, how
biff for her tiddywink of a windfall, our breed and washer givers,
there would not be a holey spier on the town nor a vestal flout-
ing in the dock, nay to make plein avowels, nor a yew nor an eye

to play cash cash in Novo Nilbud by swamplight nor a' toole o'
tall o' toll and noddy hint to the convaynience.
    He dug in and dug out by the skill of his tilth for himself and
all belonging to him and he sweated his crew beneath his auspice
for the living and he urned his dread, that dragon volant, and he
made louse for us and delivered us to boll weevils amain, that
mighty liberator, Unfru-Chikda-Uru-Wukru and begad he did,
our ancestor most worshipful, till he thought of a better one in
his windower's house with that blushmantle upon him from ears-
end to earsend. And would again could whispring grassies wake
him and may again when the fiery bird disembers. And will
again if so be sooth by elder to his youngers shall be said. Have
you whines for my wedding, did you bring bride and bedding,
will you whoop for my deading is a? Wake? Usgueadbaugham!
    Anam muck an dhoul! Did ye drink me doornail?
    Now be aisy, good Mr Finnimore, sir. And take your laysure 
like a god on pension and don't be walking abroad. Sure you'd
only lose yourself in Healiopolis now the way your roads in
Kapelavaster are that winding there after the calvary, the North
Umbrian and the Fivs Barrow and Waddlings Raid and the
Bower Moore and wet your feet maybe with the foggy dew's
abroad. Meeting some sick old bankrupt or the Cottericks' donkey
with his shoe hanging, clankatachankata, or a slut snoring with an
impure infant on a bench. 'Twould turn you against life, so
'twould. And the weather's that mean too. To part from Devlin
is hard as Nugent knew, to leave the clean tanglesome one lushier
than its neighbour enfranchisable fields but let your ghost have
no grievance. You're better off, sir, where you are, primesigned
in the full of your dress, bloodeagle waistcoat and all, remember-
ing your shapes and sizes on the pillow of your babycurls under
your sycamore by the keld water where the Tory's clay will scare
the varmints and have all you want, pouch, gloves, flask, bricket,
kerchief, ring and amberulla, the whole treasure of the pyre, in the
land of souls with Homin and Broin Baroke and pole ole Lonan
and Nobucketnozzler and the Guinnghis Khan. And we'll be
coming here, the ombre players, to rake your gravel and bringing

you presents, won't we, fenians? And it isn't our spittle we'll stint
you of, is it, druids? Not shabbty little imagettes, pennydirts and
dodgemyeyes you buy in the soottee stores. But offerings of the
field. Mieliodories, that Doctor Faherty, the madison man,
taught to gooden you. Poppypap's a passport out. And honey is
the holiest thing ever was, hive, comb and earwax, the food for
glory, (mind you keep the pot or your nectar cup may yield too
light!) and some goat's milk, sir, like the maid used to bring you.
Your fame is spreading like Basilico's ointment since the Fintan
Lalors piped you overborder and there's whole households be-
yond the Bothnians and they calling names after you. The men-
here's always talking of you sitting around on the pig's cheeks
under the sacred rooftree, over the bowls of memory where every
hollow holds a hallow, with a pledge till the drengs, in the Salmon
House. And admiring to our supershillelagh where the palmsweat
on high is the mark of your manument. All the toethpicks ever
Eirenesians chewed on are chips chepped from that battery
block. If you were bowed and soild and letdown itself from the
oner of the load it was that paddyplanters might pack up plenty and
when you were undone in every point fore the laps of goddesses
you showed our labourlasses how to free was easy. The game old
Gunne, they do be saying, (skull!) that was a planter for you, a
spicer of them all. Begog but he was, the G.O.G! He's dudd-
andgunne now and we're apter finding the sores of his sedeq
but peace to his great limbs, the buddhoch, with the last league
long rest of him, while the millioncandled eye of Tuskar sweeps
the Moylean Main! There was never a warlord in Great Erinnes
and Brettland, no, nor in all Pike County like you, they say. No,
nor a king nor an ardking, bung king, sung king or hung king.
That you could fell an elmstree twelve urchins couldn't ring
round and hoist high the stone that Liam failed. Who but a Mac-
cullaghmore the reise of our fortunes and the faunayman at the
funeral to compass our cause? If you was hogglebully itself and
most frifty like you was taken waters still what all where was
your like to lay the cable or who was the batter could better
Your Grace? Mick Mac Magnus MacCawley can take you off to

the pure perfection and Leatherbags Reynolds tries your shuffle
and cut. But as Hopkins and Hopkins puts it, you were the pale
eggynaggy and a kis to tilly up. We calls him the journeyall
Buggaloffs since he went Jerusalemfaring in Arssia Manor. You
had a gamier cock than Pete, Jake or Martin and your archgoose
of geese stubbled for All Angels' Day. So may the priest of seven
worms and scalding tayboil, Papa Vestray, come never anear you
as your hair grows wheater beside the Liffey that's in Heaven!
Hep, hep, hurrah there! Hero! Seven times thereto we salute
you! The whole bag of kits, falconplumes and jackboots incloted,
is where you flung them that time. Your heart is in the system
of the Shewolf and your crested head is in the tropic of Copri-
capron. Your feet are in the cloister of Virgo. Your olala is in the
region of sahuls. And that's ashore as you were born. Your shuck
tick's swell. And that there texas is tow linen. The loamsome
roam to Laffayette is ended. Drop in your tracks, babe! Be not
unrested! The headboddylwatcher of the chempel of Isid,
Totumcalmum, saith: I know thee, metherjar, I know thee, sal-
vation boat. For we have performed upon thee, thou abrama-
nation, who comest ever without being invoked, whose coming
is unknown, all the things which the company of the precentors
and of the grammarians of Christpatrick's ordered concerning
thee in the matter of the work of thy tombing. Howe of the ship-
men, steep wall!
    Everything's going on the same or so it appeals to all of us,
in the old holmsted here. Coughings all over the sanctuary, bad
scrant to me aunt Florenza. The horn for breakfast, one o'gong
for lunch and dinnerchime. As popular as when Belly the First
was keng and his members met in the Diet of Man. The same
shop slop in the window. Jacob's lettercrackers and Dr Tipple's
Vi-Cocoa and the Eswuards' desippated soup beside Mother Sea-
gull's syrup. Meat took a drop when Reilly-Parsons failed. Coal's
short but we've plenty of bog in the yard. And barley's up again,
begrained to it. The lads is attending school nessans regular, sir,
spelling beesknees with hathatansy and turning out tables by
mudapplication. Allfor the books and never pegging smashers

after Tom Bowe Glassarse or Timmy the Tosser. 'Tisraely the
truth! No isn't it, roman pathoricks? You were the doublejoynted
janitor the morning they were delivered and you'll be a grandfer
yet entirely when the ritehand seizes what the lovearm knows.
Kevin's just a doat with his cherub cheek, chalking oghres on
walls, and his little lamp and schoolbelt and bag of knicks, playing
postman's knock round the diggings and if the seep were milk
you could lieve his olde by his ide but, laus sake, the devil does
be in that knirps of a Jerry sometimes, the tarandtan plaidboy,
making encostive inkum out of the last of his lavings and writing
a blue streak over his bourseday shirt. Hetty Jane's a child of
Mary. She'll be coming (for they're sure to choose her) in her
white of gold with a tourch of ivy to rekindle the flame on Felix
Day. But Essie Shanahan has let down her skirts. You remember
Essie in our Luna's Convent? They called her Holly Merry her
lips were so ruddyberry and Pia de Purebelle when the redminers
riots was on about her. Were I a clerk designate to the Williams-
woodsmenufactors I'd poster those pouters on every jamb in the
town. She's making her rep at Lanner's twicenightly. With the
tabarine tamtammers of the whirligigmagees. Beats that cachucha
flat. 'Twould dilate your heart to go.
    Aisy now, you decent man, with your knees and lie quiet and
repose your honour's lordship! Hold him here, Ezekiel Irons, and
may God strengthen you! It's our warm spirits, boys, he's spoor-
ing. Dimitrius O'Flagonan, cork that cure for the Clancartys! You
swamped enough since Portobello to float the Pomeroy. Fetch
neahere, Pat Koy! And fetch nouyou, Pam Yates! Be nayther
angst of Wramawitch! Here's lumbos. Where misties swaddlum,
where misches lodge none, where mystries pour kind on, O
sleepy! So be yet!
    I've an eye on queer Behan and old Kate and the butter, trust me.
She'll do no jugglywuggly with her war souvenir postcards to
help to build me murial, tippers! I'll trip your traps! Assure a
sure there! And we put on your clock again, sir, for you. Did or
didn't we, sharestutterers? So you won't be up a stump entirely.
Nor shed your remnants. The sternwheel's crawling strong. I

seen your missus in the hall. Like the queenoveire. Arrah, it's
herself that's fine, too, don't be talking! Shirksends? You storyan
Harry chap longa me Harry chap storyan grass woman plelthy
good trout. Shakeshands. Dibble a hayfork's wrong with her only
her lex's salig. Boald Tib does be yawning and smirking cat's
hours on the Pollockses' woolly round tabouretcushion watch-
ing her sewing a dream together, the tailor's daughter, stitch to
her last. Or while waiting for winter to fire the enchantement,
decoying more nesters to fall down the flue. It's allavalonche that
blows nopussy food. If you only were there to explain the mean-
ing, best of men, and talk to her nice of guldenselver. The lips
would moisten once again. As when you drove with her to Fin-
drinny Fair. What with reins here and ribbons there all your
hands were employed so she never knew was she on land or at
sea or swooped through the blue like Airwinger's bride. She
was flirtsome then and she's fluttersome yet. She can second a
song and adores a scandal when the last post's gone by. Fond of
a concertina and pairs passing when she's had her forty winks
for supper after kanekannan and abbely dimpling and is in her
merlin chair assotted, reading her Evening World. To see is
it smarts, full lengths or swaggers. News, news, all the news.
Death, a leopard, kills fellah in Fez. Angry scenes at Stormount.
Stilla Star with her lucky in goingaways. Opportunity fair with
the China floods and we hear these rosy rumours. Ding Tams he
noise about all same Harry chap. She's seeking her way, a chickle
a chuckle, in and out of their serial story, Les Loves of Selskar
et Pervenche, freely adapted to The Novvergin's Viv. There'll
be bluebells blowing in salty sepulchres the night she signs her
final tear. Zee End. But that's a world of ways away. Till track
laws time. No silver ash or switches for that one! While flattering
candles flare. Anna Stacey's how are you! Worther waist in the
noblest, says Adams and Sons, the wouldpay actionneers. Her
hair's as brown as ever it was. And wivvy and wavy. Repose you
now! Finn no more!
    For, be that samesake sibsubstitute of a hooky salmon, there's
already a big rody ram lad at random on the premises of his

haunt of the hungred bordles, as it is told me. Shop Illicit,
flourishing like a lordmajor or a buaboabaybohm, litting flop
a deadlop (aloose!) to lee but lifting a bennbranch a yardalong
(Ivoeh!) the breezy side (for showm!), the height of Brew-
ster's chimpney and as broad below as Phineas Barnum; humph-
ing his share of the showthers is senken on him he's such a
grandfallar, with a pocked wife in pickle that's a flyfire and three
lice nittle clinkers, two twilling bugs and one midgit pucelle.
And aither he cursed and recursed and was everseen doing what
your fourfootlers saw or he was never done seeing what you cool-
pigeons know, weep the clouds aboon for smiledown witnesses,
and that'll do now about the fairyhees and the frailyshees.
Though Eset fibble it to the zephiroth and Artsa zoom it round
her heavens for ever. Creator he has created for his creatured
ones a creation. White monothoid? Red theatrocrat? And all the
pinkprophets cohalething? Very much so! But however 'twas
'tis sure for one thing, what sherif Toragh voucherfors and
Mapqiq makes put out, that the man, Humme the Cheapner,
Esc, overseen as we thought him, yet a worthy of the naym,
came at this timecoloured place where we live in our paroqial
fermament one tide on another, with a bumrush in a hull of a
wherry, the twin turbane dhow, The Bey for Dybbling, this
archipelago's first visiting schooner, with a wicklowpattern
waxenwench at her prow for a figurehead, the deadsea dugong
updipdripping from his depths, and has been repreaching him-
self like a fishmummer these siktyten years ever since, his shebi
by his shide, adi and aid, growing hoarish under his turban and
changing cane sugar into sethulose starch (Tuttut's cess to him!)
as also that, batin the bulkihood he bloats about when innebbi-
ated, our old offender was humile, commune and ensectuous
from his nature, which you may gauge after the bynames was
put under him, in lashons of languages, (honnein suit and
praisers be!) and, totalisating him, even hamissim of himashim
that he, sober serious, he is ee and no counter he who will be
ultimendly respunchable for the hubbub caused in Eden-


riverrun - the course which a river shapes and follows through the landscape + 'rn' or 'ren' (Egyptian hieroglyphic) - name. On the first picture, 'divine name', as god is depicted as third symbol. On the second picture: 'accursed name'. That 'rn' later becomes 'rann' that destroys HCE, and 'wren' (king of all birds) + Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan: "In Xanadu did Kubla Khan / A stately pleasure-dome decree: / Where Alph, the sacred river, ran / Through caverns measureless to man / Down to a sunless sea." (poem was composed one night after Coleridge experienced an opium influenced dream. Upon waking, he set about writing lines of poetry that came to him from the dream until he was interrupted. The poem could not be completed according to its original 200–300 line plan as the interruption caused him to forget the lines: "though he still retained some vague and dim recollection of the general purport of the vision, yet, with the exception of some eight or ten scattered lines and images, all the rest had passed away like the images on the surface of a stream into which a stone had been cast, but, alas! without the after restoration of the latter").

'Church of the Immaculate Conception', also known as Adam and Eve's, is located on Merchants Quay, Dublin + "Old as they were, her aunts also did their share. Julia, though she was quite grey, was still the leading soprano in Adam and Eve's, and Kate, being too feeble to go about much, gave music lessons to beginners on the old square piano in the back room." (The Dead) + Miss Kate and Miss Julia are based on Joyce's grand aunts, the Misses Flynn who, as their great-nephew put it, 'trilled and warbled in a Dublin church up to the age of seventy'. This was the ancient Franciscan church on the south quays popularly known as Adam and Eve's. (Biography by Peter Costello).

swerve - an abrupt change of direction, an erratic deflection from an intended course

bay - a body of water partially enclosed by land but with a wide mouth, affording access to the sea + Dublin Bay (on picture). Howth Head (Ceann Bhinn Éadair in Irish) peninsula forms the northerly bound of the great crescent of Dublin Bay. Ireland's Eye (Irish: Inis Mac Neasáin), a small uninhabited island off the coast, is situated directly north of Howth Harbour.

commodious - roomy and comfortable + Commodus - Roman Emperor from 180 to 192. The son of Marcus Aurelius, he is often considered to have been one of the worst Roman Emperors, and his reign brought to a close the era of the 'five good emperors'. He had a twin brother, Antoninus, who died when he was about four years old, and a sister Lucilla who was implicated in plots to overthrow him + Joyce's old headmaster, Father John Conmee, uses the words 'commodious' to describe roads in his Old Times in the Barony (remembered in Ulysses): 'For the little roads are now almost quite deserted, the exigencies of a busier time hurrying the scantier population along routes more direct and more commodious.'

vicus (l) - village, hamlet; row of houses, quarter of a city + Giambattista Vico + vicious circle - situation in which a cause produces a result that itself produces the original cause  → "The world of objects and solidity is a way of making our passage on earth convenient. It is only a description that was created to help us. Each of us, or rather our reason, forgets that the description is only a description, and thus we entrap the totality of ourselves in a vicious circle from which we rarely emerge in our lifetime." (Carlos Castaneda: Tales of Power).

recirculation - a renewed or fresh circulation

environs - surroundings, outskirts

FDV: brings us to Howth Castle & Environs! Sir Tristram, viola d'amores, had not encore arrived passencore rearrived on a merry isthmus from North Armorica to wielder fight his peninsular war, nor stones sham rocks by the Oconee exaggerated theirselves in exaggerated themselse to Laurens county, Ga, doubling all the time, nor a voice redffire from afire answered bellowsed mishe mishe chishe to tufftuff thouartpatrick thouartpeatrick

Tristram, Tristan - (1) Sir Amory Tristram from Armorica (Brittany), one of Ireland's Norman conquerors, founder of the St Lawrence family of Howth (Joyce: "Sir Amory Tristram 1st earl of Howth changed his name to Saint Lawrence, in Brittany (North Armorica)"); (2) Tristan of Lyonnesse (hero of medieval romance, nephew of Mark of Cornwall, lover of Isolde of Ireland) + Sir Tristrem - metrical romance by Thomas the Rhymer from 13. c.

violer - a player of the viol, in early use esp. one attached to the household of the king, a noble, etc.; a fiddler

d'amore (it) - of love + d'amores (Portuguese) - of loves.

A long sea implies an uniform and steady motion of long and extensive waves; on the contrary, a short sea is when they run irregularly, broken, and interrupted, so as frequently to burst over a vessel's side or quarter.

pas encore (fr) - not yet + passe encore (fr) - Said of something passable or tolerable + cor (l) - heart.

rearrive - to arrive again

Armorica - name of the north-western part of Gaul, now called Bretagne or Brittany

scraggy - rough, irregular or broken in outline or contour + scrag (Slang) - neck.

isthmus - a narrow portion of land, enclosed on each side by water, and connecting two larger bodies of land; a neck of land + isthmos (gr) - neck.

minor - small

wielder - a ruler, governer; one who uses or acts skilfully + wieder (ger) - again + wiel (Dutch) - wheel.

top sawyer - a worker at a sawpit who stands above the timber; one who holds a superior position, a first-rate hand at something + Tom Soyer

rocks (Slang) - testicles

Oconee - river in Georgia + ochone - exclamation of regret or grief.

exaggerate - to heap up

Laurens county - county in northern South Carolina; county in Georgia {Your annotation states that Laurens County is a county in South Carolina, which I'm sure is true, but I think Joyce is referring to a county in Georgia also called Laurens because earlier in the sentence is a reference to the Oconee, which you correctly identify as a river in Georgia. Also, the use of the word "doublin" later in the sentence is a reference to Dublin, the county seat of Laurens County. The Oconee is a river that passes though Dublin, Georgia in Laurens County (Govind Shanadi)}

gorgio - designation given by gipsies to one who is not a gipsy (from Gipsy gorgio: a Gentile, a person who is not a Gypsy, one who lives in a house and not in a tent) + (notebook 1922-23): 'gorgios (Gentiles)' + Joyce, Giorgio (1905-1976) - James Joyce's son, once married to Helen Joyce, father of Stephen Joyce.

Dublin, Georgia - Town, Laurens County, Georgia, US, on Oconee River. Joyce explained to Harriet Weaver that it was founded by a Dubliner named Peter Sawyer (actually it was Jonathan Sawyer), and that its motto was "Doubling all the time."   

mumper - beggar, a begging impositor, one that sulks; halfbred gipsy (slang) + (notebook 1922-23): 'mumper roadfolk who shelter' → Daily Mail 28 Dec 1922, 6/5: 'Gipsies in Winter': 'the Romanichal, the true-bred gipsy, scorns the "mumpers" or road-folk who seek cover at night under house-roof' + number.

afire - flaming, on fire + a fire

bellows - to blow (with bellows) + bellow - to call, yell + bellowed = the response of the peatfire of faith to the windy words of the apostle (Letters, I, 248).

Mishe (Irish) - I am + Moshe (Hebrew) - Moses + Exodus 3:2: 'the bush burned with fire... God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I.'

Tauf = baptize (German)

In Greek petros, "Peter", is a masculine form of petra, which means "rock"; Jesus says: "Thou art Peter (petros), and upon this rock (petra) I will build my church.

FDV: Not yet though venisoon after had a kidson kidscadet buttended an a bland old isaac not yet & all's fair in vanessy, had twin were sosie sesthers played siege to wroth with twone Jonathan jonathan. Not Rot a peck of pa's malt had Shem and Son Hem or Sen Jhem or Sen brewed by arclight & bad luck worse end bloody end rory end to the regginbrew regginbrow was to be seen on ringsun ringsome the waterface.

venison - any beast of chase or other wild animal killed by hunting + very soon

scad - a dollar + hit squad - a group of esp. politically-motivated assassins or kidnappers.

buttend - to use the butt end (e.g. of a gun) + butt (Colloquial) - buttock.

bland - suave, dull, uninteresting + blind

Isaac - Isaac ben Abraham (known as Isaac the blind) + Letters, I, 248 says: "The venison purveyor Jacob got the blessing meant for Esau".

sosie - double, twin esp. an identical twin + sosie (fr) - twin + Macbeth was seduced by 'three weird sisters' + Inverness - Macbeth's castle + William Shakespeare: Macbeth I.1.11: 'Fair is foul, and foul is fair'.

wroth - to manifest anger, to become angry + Roth, Samuel - piratically published some of "Work in Progress" in Two Worlds (New York, 1925-26), and in 1926-27 published more than half of Ulysses.

twenty nine + (one) Jonathan Swift, "nathandjoe," and his amours with two girls, Esther Johnson (Stella) and Esther Vanhomrigh (Vanessa) + nat (Dutch) - wet.

rot - to decompose

peck - a liquid measure of two gallons; a considerable quantity or number, a 'quantity'.

Jim + Shem.

Shaun + John + shen (Hebrew) - tooth.

malt - barley or other grain prepared for brewing or distilling + Willy Shakespeare brewed a peck of malt during a famine (song O, Willie brew'd a peck o' malt).


brew - to concoct, to convert (barley, malt, or other substance) into a fermented liquor.

arclight = arclamp - a lamp in which the light is produced by an electric arc.

rory - dewy, gaudy in colour + Rory - Joyce glosses the word (Letters, I, 248) thus: "rory = Irish = red"/ "rory = Latin, roridus = dewy"/ "At the rainbow's end are dew and the colour red: bloody end to the lie in Anglo-Irish = no lie." In FW, "rainbow" has the Biblical meaning of peace, covenant between God and man; "dew" is its opposite, a promise of continued war, because Vico says that, after the flood, the climate was dry and it did not thunder till after "dew" appeared (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake).

regina (l) - a queen + Regen (ger) - rain + rainbow + bloody end to the lie (Anglo-Irish) - no lie.

ringsum (ger) - all around

aqua (l) - water + Genesis 1:2: 'And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters'.

gaireachtach (garokhtokh) (gael) - boisterous

Joyce asked me "Aren't there 4 terrible things in Japan, "Kaminari" being one of them?" I counted for him: Jishin (earthquake), kaminari (thunder), kaji (fire), oyaji (paternity)." & he laughed - Takaoki Katta, "15 juillet, 1926."

Donner (ger) - thunder

trovão (Portuguese) - thunder

Varuna - Hindu creator and storm god 

scan (scan) (gael) - crack + åska (Swedish) - thunder.

torden (Danish) - thunder

tornach (tornokh) (gael) - thunder

Wallstreet - New York stock exchange (Wall Street Crash of 1929, but this sentence already appears in Transition #1, published in 1927) + strait - difficulty, crisis + JN: 'a once Wall street broker'.

Parr, Thomas, "Old Parr" (1483-1635) - lived in the reigns of ten princes, got a girl with child when oven a hundred + parr - a young salmon before it becomes a smolt

retell - to tell again + re - - 'again, 'anew' + tale - to discourse, talk, gossip.

minstrelsy - the singing and playing of a minstrel + Christy Minstrels - black face troop which came from America to London in 1857. Moore and Burgess were their rivals + proverb Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise. 

'Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall, Humpty Dumpty had a great fall' + oeuf (French) - egg.

entail - to bring on by way of necessary consequence

at short notice - with little time for action or preparation

pfui - an exclamation of contempt or disgust + chute (fr) - fall.

Erse - Irish + Erseman - a man who is Erse by birth or descent.

'The Solid Man' - W.J. Ashcroft, American-Irish Dublin music hall performer (because of his famous rendering of song Muldoon the Solid Man).

humpty - humped, hump-backed + Humpty Dumpty - A short, dumpy, hump-shouldered person. In the well-known nursery rime or riddle (quoted below) commonly explained as signifying an egg (in reference to its shape); thence allusively used of persons or things which when once overthrown or shattered cannot be restored. (In the nursery rime or riddle there are numerous variations of the last two lines, e.g. 'Not all the king's horses and all the king's men Could [can] set [put] Humpty Dumpty up again [in his place again, together again]'.)


inquiring - that inquires, inquisitive

Weston, Jessie - her book From Ritual to Romance is a principal source of Eliot's The Waste Land. FW straightforwardly associates her with the Grail Quest (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake)

quest - search

turnpike - a barrier placed across a road to stop passage till the toll is paid; a toll-gate + to turn up one's toes - to die

pike - a sharp point, pointed tip, peak + TURNPIKE - The Dublin turnpike system was introduced in the reign of George II. An 1821 map shows 10 Dublin turnpikes, almost all located on the North Circular Road and South Cicrcular Road at the crossing of main roads. The turnpike in Chapelizod was just East of the Phoenix Tavern (where the Mullingar House now stands) at the curve of the Dublin road to the bridge. It is described on the 1st page of Le Fanu's House by the Churchyard. The Dublin-Mullingar road was a turnpike road until 1853. 

palec (Pan-Slavonic) - toe

cnoc (knuk) (gael) - hill + knock out - a knock-out blow.

rust - decompose + to lay to rest - to put in the last resting-place, to bury + rust (Dutch) - rest.

FDV: What clashes of wills & wits were not here & there abouts! What chance cuddleys, what castles aired & ventilated, what biddymetolives sinduced by what egosetabsolvers tegotetabsolvers, what true feeling for hay hair with false voice of haycup jiccup, what rorycrucians rosycrucians byelected by rival contested of simily emilies! But And O here how has sprawled upon the dust the father of fornications fornicationers fornicationists but O, my shining stars & body, how has finespanned in high heaven the skysign of soft advertisement. Was Wasis? Isot! Ere we were sure? The oaks of old maythey rest rust in peat. Elms leap where ashes lay. Till nevernever may our pharce be phoenished!


gen (gegen) (ger) - against

Ostrogoth - an East Goth; a name given to the division of the Teutonic race of the Goths which towards the end of the 5th c. conquered Italy, and in 493, under Theodoric, established a kingdom which continued till 555.

gag - to strangle, choke + gegen (ger) - against.

Visigoth - a West-Goth; A member of that branch of the Gothic race which entered Roman territory towards the end of the fourth century and subsequently established a kingdom in Spain, overthrown by the Moors in 711.

A croaking of Aristophanes' Frogs (405 b.c.) 


Badelaire - a type of sword with one back and one edge large and curving towards the tip like the scimitar of the Turks (Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais). 

partisan - supporter, adherent + Partisane or pertuisane, a strong pike with a straight iron head and two edges (Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais).

math - mathematics + master - to get the better of, in any contest or struggle; to overcome or defeat + song Master McGrath (Master McGrath (1866-1871) was a famous greyhound in the sport of hare coursing).


Micgranes, Malachus - Joyce's Rabelais list contains malchus (a curved sword similar to a cutlass), migraine (a fire grenade, from Provençal migrano: pomegranate (fruit)), verdun (a long and narrow sword, properly sword of Verdun, a town ever renowned for its manufacturing of steel blades) + Malachi, Mulligan + micragne (Italian Colloquial) - penuries, poverties.

catapelt = catapult - to hurl as from a catapult, to discharge a catapult [Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.91: 'catapulte' (French 'catapult')].

Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.90: ' Camisade... "An attack on the enemy before dawn, or at another time during the night, by armed men dressed in white shirts or similar covering to recognise themselves"' + Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.91: 'Baliste' (French 'Ballista').


white boy - a favored person, pet; agrarian association formed in 1761. in Ireland (against collection of tithes by landlords).

hoddie - a hooded gull + Hode (ger) - testicle + REFERENCE


assieger (fr) - to besiege + Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.71: 'Aze gaye, zagaie... a name of a spear'.


Strom (ger) - stream, current + boom (Dutch) = strom (Czech) - tree.

sod - Ireland; one who practices or commits sodomy

brood - offspring 


salve (l) - hail + ave (l) - hail.

appeal - to call one to defend himself (as by wager of battle); to challenge.

larm - alarm + Larm (ger) - noise.

appalling - frightful, horrifying


kill (Anglo-Irish) - church

toll - payment, tax, duty + toll (ger) - mad + Anglo-Irish phrase: at all, at all ("taken together," "collectively," "altogether.")

chance - that occurs or is by chance; happening to be such; casual, incidental. 

cuddle - fondle + cudgel - a short thick stick used as a weapon; a club.

cashel - the ancient circular wall found in Scotland and Ireland enclosing group of ecclesiastical buildings; stone fort or building + kashyel (Russian) - cough.

air - ventilate, expose; to expose to the open or fresh air, so as to remove foul or damp air; to ventilate + phrase castles in the air.

ventilate - to shoot (someone or something) with a gun, usu. to kill. Also of a bullet: to make a hole in (something).


bidimetoloves - from Herrick's poem "Bid me to live and I will live thy protestant to be" (quoted Ulysses, 645) The FW sentence is about Protestants sinfully seduced by Catholics, who believe in absolution + bi- (l) = di- (gr) - two-.

FDV (First draft version): egosetabsolvers; + ego te absolvo: (Latin) "I absolve you" (from the confessional rite of the Catholic Church) hence, Tegogetabsolvers = Catholics (contrasted with bidimetoloves, or Protestants).

hair + there's hair! - there's a girl with a lot of hair! (catch-phrase of the early 20th century) + FDV: what true feeling for hay hair with false voice & of haycup jiccup, what rorycrucians rosycrucians byelected by rival contested of simily emilies!


hiccup + Genesis 27:22: 'And Jacob went near unto Isaac his father; and he felt him, and said, The voice is Jacob's voice, but the hands are the hands of Esau'.

sprowl = sprawl - recline, lounge


met (Dutch) - with

fornication - sin, adultery 

hath - arhaic present 3d. sing of have

finespun - elaborated to flimsiness, excessively subtle or refined + fane - a flag, banner + span - spread + Isaiah 48:13: 'my right hand hath spanned the heavens'.

skysign - electric display sign on top of a building

was ist? (ger) - what's the matter?


where are + FDV: Ere we were sure?

sewer - an artificial watercourse for draining marshy land and carrying off surface water into a river or the sea; an artificial channel or conduit, now usually covered and underground, for carrying off and discharging waste water and the refuse from houses and towns.

ald - old

peat - vegetable matter decomposed by water and partially carbonized by chemical change, often forming bogs or 'mosses' of large extent, whence it is dug out, and 'made' into peat.

ashes - remains of what is burned + Ask and Embla (Ashe and Elm) - Adam and Eve of Norse myth. Ask is (Norwegian) "ashes", Embla is (Norwegian) "elm".


farce - a dramatic work (usually short) which has for its sole object to excite laughter, something as ridiculous as a theatrical farce; meat stuffing (obs.)

nunce = nonce + for the nonce - for the particular purpose; for the time being.


set down - described in books, recognized

secular - worldly, temporal, profane

phoenix - a mythical bird, of gorgeous plumage, fabled to be the only one of its kind, and to live five or six hundred years in the Arabian desert, after which it burnt itself to ashes on a funeral pile of aromatic twigs ignited by the sun and fanned by its own wings, but only to emerge from its ashes with renewed youth, to live through another cycle of years + finish

Bygmester Solness (1892; The Master Builder) - drama by Henrik Ibsen, in which Halvard Solness rises from "death" by climbing (at the bidding of a girl) a tower he has erected. He falls from the tower, blasted by the god he has rivaled and defied. The girl hears harps in the air + FDV: Bygmister Finnegan of the Stuttering Hand, builder, lived on in the broadest way imaginable imaginoble imarginable in his [rushlit] toofarback for messuages and during mighty odd years this man of Hod Cement & ____ made piled buildung upon super buildung on pon the banks of for the livers by the Soandso Soangso.

stuttering - that stutters

freeman - one not a slave or vassal

Maurer (ger) - mason, freemason

broadway - a wide open road or highway, as opposed to a narrow lane or byway. From the former practice of treating it as a compound, it has often come to be the proper name of a street, as the Broadway in New York + Bygmester Finnegan ... lived in the broadest way - Finnegan's Wake (song): "Tim Finnegan lived in Walkin Street''.

imaginable - capable of being imagined; conceivable

rushlight - a candle made of the pith of various rushes dipped in grease + rushlight (Slang) - liquor.

farback (Dublin Slang) - house with two back rooms

messuage - a dwelling-house with its outbuildings and curtilage and the adjacent land  assigned to its use + messages

Joshua - old testament patriarch.

Helvetic - Helvetian (pertaining to the ancient Helvetii), Swiss + helveticus (l) - Swiss + Helvetius, Claude (1715-71) - French freethinker. His book De l'esprit answered Montesquieu's L'Esprit des lois and treated the Bible with derision. It was publicly burned. 

Deuteronomy - the name or title of the fifth book of the Pentateuch, which contains a repetition, with parenetic comments, of the Decalogue, and most of the laws contained in Exodus xxi-xxiii, and xxxiv.

yeasty - cons. of yeast; turbulent, ebullient, full of vitality + yesterday

sternly - with sternness of temper, aspect, utterance, etc.; severely, harshly + Sterne (ger) - stars.

tete (fr) - head


wash + watch + Watsche (ger) - slap in the face.


feature + future.


stook - to arrange in shocks + took


Moses - Jewish lawgiver, prophet, leader from bondage. The Book of Moses is a theosophical work. 

evaporate - to convert or turn into vapour


Jews + Genesis - the first in order of the books of the Old Testament, containing the account of the creation of the world.

exodus - a mass departure + Joshua, Judges, Numbers, Leviticus, Deutoronomy (Hebrew: 'book of words'), Genesis, Exodus.


Pentateuchos - Five Volumes (first 5 books of bible) + Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais II.300: 'Proper names (to refer to the male member): Jean Chouart... Jean Jeudi'.

Finnegan's Wake (song): "a gentleman Irish mighty odd" 

hod - an open receptacle for carrying mortar, and sometimes bricks or stones, to supply builders at work; also the quantity carried in it, a hodful + Deutoronomy 33:1: 'man of God' (Moses).

edifice - building

toper - one who topes or drinks a great deal; a hard drinker; a drunkard.

thorp - vilage, hamlet + Thorpe, Thomas - printed Shakespeare's sonnets, 1609. 

pile - to heap up


building + Bildung (ger) - education.

supra (l) - above, beyond

pon - upon

liver - one that lives, resident, a well to do person

so and so - an unnamed person, an indefinite phrase (= such a thing, person, number,' etc.) used in place of a more lengthy statement, or as a substitute for an expression or name not exactly remembered or not requiring to be explicitly stated.

addle - to muddle, confound, spoil; to earn by labour, gain + and + FDV: He addle iddle wife wyfie and he annie Annie hugged the liddle crathur wither Wither tear tare in hares hayre in honds tuck up your pardner part-in-her.

liddle = little

wifie - little wife: used as a term of endearment for a wife

ugged - horrid, loathsome + had

craythur - creature + Finnegan's Wake (song): "Now Tim [Finnegan] had a sort o' the tipplin' way, / With the love of the liquor he was born, / An' to help him on with his work each day, / He'd a drop of the craythur every morn.

wither - shrivel, decay + with her

hond - hand (obs.) + hond (Dutch) - dog.

tuck up - the action or an act of tucking someone up in bed + Finnegan's Wake (song) - "dance to your partner".

part - Theatr. a rôle


in her + inhere (obs) - to stick in.

ofttime - many times; on many occasions, or in many cases; frequently, often + FDV: Though oftwhile balbulous [He would see by the light of the liquor his roundup tower to rise on itself [(joy grant it joygrantit!)], with a skierscape of an eyeful hoyth entirely and larrons of toolers o' toolers clittering up on it & tumblers a' buckets clottering down.]

bibulous - addicted to drinking or tippling + balbulus (l) - somewhat stuttering + Balbus - a Roman said to have built a wall, probably in some Latin primer (James Joyce: A Portrait I: 'Balbus was building a wall').

mithra - a persian god of light + mitre - a sacerdotal head-dress.

goodly - large, considerable

trowel - a tool consisting of a flat (or, less commonly, rounded) plate of metal or wood, of various shapes, attached to a short handle; used by masons, bricklayers, plasterers, and others for spreading, moulding, or smoothing mortar, cement, and the like.

grasp - a gripping or fast hold; the grip of the hand

overalls - trousers of strong material

particularly + habitaculum (l) - dwelling place + habits (Archaic) - clothes, attire. 

fond - to entertain a fond or foolish affection for


Harun al-Rashid - Caliph of Baghdad in 'The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night'.


Egbert (d.837) - West Saxon king

calculate + (notebook 1924): 'Caligula gathers shell on shore' {The following winter Caligula spent along the Rhine and in Gaul. Neither his planned German campaign nor a proposed military expedition to Britain ever took place. Though there are reports of his soldiers being ordered to gather shells on the shore as trophies for Caligula's 'conquest of the sea'. Meanwhile, a terrified senate granted him all kind of honours for his imaginary victories}.

multiplicable - capable of being multiplied

altitude - height above the ground, or, strictly, above the level of the sea; height in the air + in one's altitudes (Slang) - drunk.

multitude - a great quantity of something (obs.), (pl.) great numbers, 'crowds'.

seesaw - to move up and down, alternate

nightlight - the faint light which is perceptible during the night, a light which burns or shines during the night.

liquor - alcohol

wherein - in what, where

roundhead - round-headed (Of things which assume a rounded form towards the top or end).

staple = steeple (obs. rare.) - a tall tower; a building of great altitude in proportion to its length and breadth (obs.)

undress - to strip of ornamentation + (notebook 1923): 'undressed masonry' + Flood: Ireland, Its Saints and Scholars 116: 'The earliest buildings were made without cement, and with undressed masonry'.

upstand - to rise to a standing position

wallwort - any of several plants that grow on or in walls + waal = well + wellworthy - worthy in a high degree + WOOLWORTH BUILDING - In Lower Manhattan; one of the first skyscrapers and for many years the world's tallest building.  

skyscraper - a high building of many stories

eyeful - visually attractive + Anita Loos: Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, chapter 4: 'when a girl looks at the Eyefull Tower she really knows she is looking at something'; James Joyce: Letters I.246: letter 08/11/26 to Harriet Shaw Weaver: (of Weaver's "order" for the contents of chapter I.1) 'I set to work at once on your esteemed order... and so hard indeed that I almost stupefied myself and stopped, reclining on a sofa and reading Gentlemen Prefer Blondes for three whole days'.

height - the quality of being high

originate - to take its origin or rise, to spring + erigo (l) - to erect + The Encyclopædia Britannica vol. IX, 'Erigena, Johannes Scotus', 744a: 'The infinite essence of God, which may indeed be described as nihilum (nothing) is that from which all is created, from which all proceeds or emanates'.

next to nothing - hardly anything


caeli (l) - heavens

Himalaya + Himmel (ger) - sky

toploftical - very superior in air or in attitude

burning bush - an object described by the Book of Exodus as being located on Mount Horeb; according to the narrative, the bush was on fire, but was not consumed by the flames, hence the name. In the narrative, the burning bush is the location at which Moses was appointed by Yahweh to lead the Israelites out of Egypt and into Canaan.

abob - to astonish, confound + atop - on the top of, above + bob - a knot or bunch of hair; a small roundish or knob-like body. 

bauble - a child's plaything or toy, something foolish + Genesis, Chapter 11 of the Bible: the Tower of Babel was a tower built by a united humanity to reach the heavens. God, observing the unity of humanity in the construction, resolves to destroy the tower and confuse the previously uniform language of humanity, thereby preventing any such future efforts; therefore the city was called Babel (babal, Heb. "confound"). 

larrom - a tumultuous noise, a hubbub, uproar + larron (French) - a thief (Jacob, the thief of Esau’s birthright) + Sts. Thomas Becket and Lawrence O'Toole, the antagonistic clergy who experienced different treatment during the reign of King Henry (Becket being murdered in Canterbury while O'Toole was being made Bishop of Dublin by the conquering Anglo-Normans). Their careers make them prototypes of the antagonistic brothers in the Wake (Benstock, Bernard / Joyce-again's wake : an analysis of Finnegans wake)

tooler - a broad chisel used by stone-masons for random tooling + A bucket to carry building material and a tool to work with it - these are the first necessities of the mason + Thom's Directory of Ireland/Dublin (1905): lists Richard Toole, James Beckett and William Beckett as Dublin builders.

clitter - to make frictional or rattling sound + clittering (Anglo-Irish) - the noise of hurrying feet (from Anglo-Irish: cliotar).

tomble = tumble - an act of tumbling, a fall, downfall + il en tombe à seaux (French phrase) - it's raining in buckets.

clotter - to run together in clots, to coagulate

arms = heraldic arms - heraldic insignia or devices, borne originally on the shields of fully armed knights or barons, to distinguish them in battle (hence properly called armorial bearings), which subsequently became hereditary, and are the property of their families + William Shakespeare: Hamlet V.1.27-35: (CLOWN):... 'There is no ancient gentlemen but gard'ners, ditchers, and grave-makers. They hold up Adam's profession... 'A was the first that ever bore arms... The Scripture says Adam digg'd. Could he dig without arms?'                      

FDV: The first was he to bare arms and the name. His  creast [in vert with ancillars:] a hegoat, horrid, horned. His shield, fessed, helio [with archers strung,] of the second. Haitch is for Husbandman planting handling his hoe. Hohohoho Mister Finn you're going to be Mr Mister Finn again. Comeday morning morn when and your you're feelin ho oh, you're Vine! senday end evening eve you' re foulin, and, ah,Vinegar. Hahahaha Mister Finn Fine Funn you're going to be fined again.

wassail - a carousal; riotous festivity, revelling; a salutation used when drinking to someone's health, the liquor thus drunk.

boose, laugh + boos (Dutch) - angry, evil, malicious + Buslaev, Vasilii - hero of the Novgorod epic cycle, Russian buslai, a "fallen man" or "drunkard" + buadth (bue) (gael) - victory + laoch (leokh) (gael) - warrior.

reisen - obs. of raise + Riesen (ger) - giant + Riesengebirge - the Sudetic Mountains (lit. "Giants' Mountains") which divide Bohemia and Moravia from Saxony.

crest - a figure or device (originally borne by a knight on his helmet) placed on a wreath, coronet or chapeau and borne above the shield and helmet in a coat of arms; the apex or ''cone'' of a helmet; hence a helmet or head piece + COAT OF ARMS

heraldry - heraldic title or rank, a collection of heraldic devices + Hure (ger) - whore.

vert - green

ancillary - serving to aid of assist + ancilla (l) - maid servant, female slave ancillae (l) - handmaidens, maidservants (two female supporters on the Dublin coat of arms).

troublance - the action of troubling, disturbance, sorrow, pain + troublant (fr) - perturbing, disturbing + tremblant -  Of an ornament, jewel, etc.: incorporating springs or fine projecting wires which tremble or vibrate when affected by movement + true blue - faithful, staunch and unwavering.

argent - the silver of a coat of arms; the silver or white colour in armorial bearings.

hegoat - male goat + heoak - an Australian tree

poursuivant - a follower, a junior heraldic officer attendant on the heralds.

horrid - terrible + horrid horn (Anglo-Irish) - fool.

horned - having, bearing, or wearing an appendage, ornament, etc., called a horn; having horn-like projections or excrescenses; cuckolded (obs).

scutcheon = escutcheon - the shield or shield-shaped surface on which a coat of arms is depicted; also in wider sense, the shield with the armorial bearings.

fesse - an ordinary formed by two horizontal lines drawn across the middle of the field, and usually containing between them one third of the escutcheon.

archer - one who shoots with bow and arrows, a bowman

strung - in a state of tension

helio - heliotrope; a shade of purple like that of the flowers of the heliotrope.

hootch = hooch - alcoholic liquor esp. when inferior or obtained illicitly (from Hoochinoo, an Alaskan Indian village who produced such spirits) [Joyce's note: 'hootch'].

husbandman - one that plows or cultivates land, farmer

hoe - an agricultural and gardening tool, consisting of a thin iron blade fixed transversely at the end of a long handle.

Finn - the name used by the Teut. nations for an individual of a people in North-Eastern Europe and Scandinavia.

sunday + someday - at some time in future.

fine - to purify from extraneous or impure matter, to clarify, refine

agent - a deputy, emissary, any natural force acting upon matter; one who acts for another + agent (Dutch) - policeman + Was denn eigentlich (ger) - What then really.

bring about - to cause to take place, effect, accomplish

Donnerstag (ger) - Thursday

municipal - pertaining to the internal affairs of a state as distinguished from its foreign relations; pertaining to the local self-government or corporate government of a city or town.

cubby house - a little house built by children in play; a very small and confined room + Joyce's note: 'cubehouse' Mohammed consecrated the Kaaba (named for its resemblance to a die or cube), former a heathen temple. The chief sanctuary of Islam, aka the "Ancient House," it contains the sacred Black Stone which was white when it fell from heaven, but turmed black from the sins of those who have touched it. 

earwitness - a person who can testify to something heard by himself

ARAFAT - Granite hill 15 miles South-East of Mecca, Saudi Arabia + Joyce's note: 'Mt Arafat thunderous' Holland 52 (REFERENCE): In his early days as a shepherd Mohammed had lived much with nature; he had seen the pale dawn touch the grim summits of Mount Hira and Mount Arafat, had heard the thunder roll through the sounding passes of the hills.  

shabby - discreditably inferior in quality, making a poor appearance + Joyce's note: 'Sheb (rock)'.

chorus + Joyce's note: 'Choraysh' (the entry is preceded by a cancelled 'K') + Gerausch (ger) - noise.

unqualified + Joyce's note: 'Khalif (successor)' + calif - the title given in Muslim countries to the chief civil and religious ruler, as successor of Muhammad + Kali - Hindu goddess of death and destruction. 

Muslim muezzins + muezzin - in Muslim countries, a public crier who proclaims the regular hours of prayer from the minaret or the roof of a mosque.

blackguardize - to reduce to the condition of a blackguard + Joyce's note: 'inblack stone'.

whitestone - memorial of a fortunate event (among the ancients) + At the Irish bar, Counsellor Shannon, whose witnesses had been accused of perjury by Counsellor Whitestone, responded: "all the water in the Shannon, with the Liffey to back it, could not wash a Whitestome into a Blackstone." 

hurtle - to propel violently, catapult + turtle - to turn over.

stay - to remain in order to wait, to prop, sustain

wherefore - on account of or because of which; in consequence or as a result of which.

righteousness - justice, uprightness, rectitude + Joyce's note: 'Islam (strife for righteousness)' Holland 45: He did not pretend that the religion he taught was something new, but called it the faith of Abraham, and the particular name he gave it was Islam, which signifies "striving after righteousness."

sustainer - one who or that which upholds, supports, or keeps in being; one who provides another with the necessaries of life [Joyce's note: 'O Sustainer'].

toothpick + Joyce's note: 'what time thou risest and in the night and at the fading of the stars'.

lump - to sit down heavily


featherbed - a bed stuffed with feathers + Holland 93: Mohammed enjoined his followers to pray five times a day. 1. Before sunrise. 2. When the sun has begun to decline. 3. In the afternoon. 4, A little after sunset. 5. At night fall. These are the regular hours of prayer to be observed by all good Moslems, but many follow the example of their Prophet, and pray at other times as well. For it is written, "Celebrate the praises of thy Lord what time thou risest and in the night and at the fading of the stars."

a nod is as good as a wink - a sign is all that is necessary + a nod is as good as a wink to a blind horse - a fanciful assertion, often abbreviated (a nod is as good as a wink) that the slightest hint is enough to convey one's meaning in the case.

nadir - point directly opposite the zenith + Joyce's note: 'Prayer is better than sleep' → Holland: The Story of Mohammed 94: (of Bilal, the first muezzin) Before the early morning prayer he added, "Prayer is better than sleep" + nabi (Arabic) - prophet.

otherways - otherwise

weswas (Arabic) - whisperer (an epithet of the devil)

provost - the head or president of a chapter, or of a community of religious persons; Applied by Caxton to a Muslim muezzin; the chief magistrate of a town; an officer charged with the apprehension, custody, and punishment of offenders.

scoff - to speak derisively, mock, jeer + Joyce's note: 'coffin between M & S' ('M & S' not clear).

Bedouin - an Arab of the desert [Joyce's note: 'bedouin'] + between

between the devil and the deep sea - between two comparable evils

jebel - a hill in northern Africa, a hill or mountain + jebel (Arabic) - mount.

crop - to cut off or remove the 'crop' or head of (a plant ,tree,etc.) + Joyce's note: 'al Kaswa (the cropeared camel)'.

crunch - an act, or the action, of crunching; to crush or grind under foot, wheels, etc., with the accompanying noise.

bracken - a fern

decide - to cut off, separate (obs. rare.) + Joyce's note: 'camel shall decide' Holland 90: As Mohammed entered Medinah, he was beset on all sides by the invitations of the Faithful, pressing him to alight and enter their houses… But Mohammed, perhaps fearing to create jealousies by favouring one more than another, said: "The camel shall decide…"

Joyce's note: ' Friday mosque'

on site - on a particular site

occasionally + Holland 84: Mohammed and the guide rode a camel called "Al-Kaswa," or the Crop-eared… Al-Kaswa came to be famous in the history of Islam, and carried the prophet in several of his battle.

helper - one who helps or assists; spec. a groom's assistant in a stable + Joyce's note: 'ansar helper' Holland 91: There were many exiles from Meccah, who had fled from the persecutions of the Kuraysh; they were known as the Muhajirin or Refugees, while the citizen of Medinah, who were converts, were called Ansars, or Helpers.

dreamy - given to dreaming or fantasy; delightful, beautiful (colloq.)

heed - to have a care, pay attention, take notice


missfire - to make a mistake, to fail; Of a gun or its charge: To fail to be discharged or exploded.

mought - might

extend - to widen the range, scope, area of application of (a law, operation, dominion, state of things, etc.)

'The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night'

sore - painful, grievous + FDV: And, as sure as Eve Abe ate little bit Ivvy's red apples, wan warning Finn felt tippling full. His howth howd filled heavy, his hodd hoddit did shake. There was a wall in course of erection. He fell stottered from the latter. Damb! He was dead dudd. Dump Dumb! For all the world to see.

abe - be + Adam

ivy + Eve's + The Holly and the Ivy (song): a Christmas carol → holired in the same line.


Walhalla = Valhalla - In Old Northern mythology, the hall assigned to those who have died in battle, in which they feast with Odin.

Rolls-Royce - a Rolls-Royce motor car, any product considered to be of the highest quality + ROLLRIGHT STONES - Ancient stone circle on the border of Oxfordshire and Warwickshire, England.

hack - hackney coach, taxi cab + CARHAIX - town in Brittany, Department of Cotes du Nord. In Bedier's Tristan and Isolde, Tristan dies there after raising the siege of the castle and marrying Iseult of the White Hands. The region to the West abounds in standing stones (menhirs), like Stonehenge + carraig (korig) (gael) - rock, stone.

Engen (ger) - narrow + Stonehenge

(notebook 1924): ' kistvaen' {kistvaen - tomb or burial chamber formed from flat stone slabs in a box-like shape. If set completely underground, it may be covered by a tumulus. The word is derived from the Welsh cist (chest) and maen (stone)}.

Tristram Tree - Mr Senn found in The Castles of Ireland, by C. L. Adams (London, 1904): "Near the garden stands the old elm known as 'The Tristram Tree' which has been carefully propped and preserved. . . on account of the tradition as long as this tree lives there will be an heir to the noble house which was founded by Sir Armoricus Tristram." Joyce said: ". . . the oldest tree in the island is the elm tree in the demesne of Howth Castle and Environs" (Letters, III, 309).  

Fargo, William (1818-81) - American pioneer expressman, as in Wells Fargo + fag a'bealach (fago byalokh) (gael) - clear the way; name for a useless person.

autokineton (gr) - self moving + autokinêton (Modern Greek) - self-moving (thing), automobile.

hippos (gr) - horse 

(notebook 1922-23): ' fleet of motorcars'

THURN AND TAXIS - Former German state; the counts of Thurn and Taxis had a monopoly as German Imperial postmasters from 16th into the 19th centuries [(notebook 1924): 'Turn & Taxis']

megapod + Phogg, Phineas - hero of Verne's Around the World in Eighty Days

wardmote - a meeting of the citizens of a ward; esp. in the City of London, a meeting of the liverymen of a ward under the presidency of the alderman;                        moat - trench.

basilica - an early christian church [Joyce's note: 'basilica'] + kerk (Dutch) - church.

Areopagus (gr, "hill of Ares") - seat of the highest judicial tribunal of ancient Athens and the spot where St Paul preached + pagoda - an far eastern temple.


hoyse (obs) - hose


brool (Archaic) - a murmur

peeler - a nickname given to members of the Irish constabulary; a strip-tease artist, a stripper + The Peeler and the Goat (song) - a satirical ballad by Darby Ryan; it was written in 1830 to ridicule over-officious officers of the Royal Irish Constabulary (nicknamed "Peelers" after Robert Peel, who had created the Metropolitan Police the previous year) who had "arrested" a goat for roistering in the main street of Bansha, County Tipperary, and butting an officer.

Mecklenburg - region in northern Germany

to bite one's ear (Slang) - to borrow money

Marlborough - provincial district in New Zealand + merlin - a European species of falcon + MARLBOROUGH BARRACKS - Between Blackhouse Avenue and the Phoenix Park Zoo + burrock (Archaic) - a wicker basket for catching fish.

burrock - an aparatus made of wickerwork for catching fish

pore - to gaze, study or think long or earnestly + forecourt - the court or enclosed space in front of a building, the first or outer court.

bore - a hole made by boring, a perforation; an aperture (irrespective of shape), a chink, crevice, or cranny; a fit of ennui or sulks, a dull time.

the more = the rather, the more so (because, etc.) + bothar mor (boher mor) (gael) - highway, main road.

blight - decay, disease + night black

stack - heap

twelve penny - 1 shilling + The Twelve Pins - group of mountains, Joyces' Country, Co. Galway.

omnibus - a four-wheeled public vehicle for carrying passengers, with the inside seats extending along the sides, and the entrance at the rear, and with or without seats on the roof.

sleigh - to travel or ride in a sleigh + sliding

Derry = Londonderry - borough in northern Ireland

snoop - to go around in a sly or a prying manner + stopping


Horace: Odes III.29.12 (l) - 'Fumum et opes strepitumque Romae' (Latin 'The smoke and the grandeur and the noise of Rome').

ville - a town or village + A slang term for London is "Romeville".

indigenous - native

housekeeper - a person in charge of a house, office, place of business, etc.


Turm (ger) - tower + (notebook 1924): 'durum & durum non faciunt murum' durum et durum non faciunt murum (l) - stern measures do not build a protective wall (literally 'hard and hard do not make a wall').

uproar - an insurrection or rising of the populace; a serious tumult, commotion, or outbreak of disorder among the people or a body of persons; loud outcry or vociferation; noise of shouting or tumult + roor - roar (obs.) + Aufruhr (ger) - commotion, revolt.


Aufruf (ger) - summons, appel


reef - one of the horizontal portions of a sail which may be successively rolled or folded up in order to diminish the extent of canvas exposed to the wind.


butt - stump, tail end + BUTT BRIDGE - Aka Swivel Bridge. The last (and East-most) bridge as the Liffey flows except for the Loop Line Railway bridge. Erected 1879; named for the 19th-century politician Isaac Butt. + but

suit - agree with, adapt

tony - fool, simpleton; fashionable, stylish

wan - pale + one



Phil the Fluter's Ball - Percy French song + REFERENCE + Philip, Phil, Pip - the name means "horse lover" + "Finnegan's Wake (song): "One morning Tim felt tippling full".

tippling - the drinking of intoxicating drink, habitual indulgence in liquor

howd - a lurching rocking movement + head + hoved (Danish) - head.

hand + hodet (Norwegian) - the head.

stotter - to stumble, stagger

latter - last mentioned + ladder

damb - damn

dud - of little or no worth + dead

mastaba - an Egyptian tomb + toom - empty + Finnegan tumbles from the ladder through time and space into an ancient Egyptian mastaba-tomb + (notebook 1924): '(mastaba)' Perry: The Origin of Magic and Religion 34: 'the tombs used in the first dynasties by the royal family... were called mastabas'.

mon - man + Amen or Ammon or Ammun, etc. ("the hidden one") - according to Budge, he began as chief god of Thebes, was later identified with Ra, later assumed all the attributes of the old gods of Egypt + song: 'Needles and pins, blankets and shins, when a man is married his sorrow begins'. 

lute - lite; loot; lout

all along - all through the course of  

schizō (Greek) - I split, I cleave, I separate → Issy's split personality; Adaline Glasheen recognizes Issy in "Shize? I should shee"; presumably the following remark (spoken by Biddy O'Brien in the ballad Finnegan's Wake) is to be attributed to Issy + Scheisse (German) - shit!

shee - she + shee (Anglo-Irish) - fairy (from Anglo-Irish: sídhe; in Anglo-Irish folk belief, the cry of the banshee is associated with death) + sidhe (shi) (gael) - tomb, tumulus + shee (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - see + FDV: Size! I should say! MacCool, Macool, macool, why did ye die! Sore They sighed at Finn Funnigan's wake chrismiss chrissormiss cake wake.

Finn MacCumhaill (MacCool) - legendary Irish king

orra - odd; idle, worthless + arrah (Anglo-Irish) - but, now, really.

why did you die? - how do you do? + song Pretty Molly Brannigan: 'When I hear yiz crying round me "Arrah, why did ye die?"'

of (Dublin Colloquial) - on (when referring to days of the week)

trying - difficult, annoying

Miss Hooligan's Christmas Cake (song): a 19th Century broadside ballad from Scotland + REFERENCE + song Finnegan's Wake.

hooligan - a young street rough, a member of a street gang + holy ones 

prostrate - to lay flat on the ground

consternation - dismay, shock

duodecimal - rel. to twelfth parts or to the number twelve; proceeding by twelves + dismally - gloomily, dolorously.

profusive - lavish (adj.)

plethora - overabundance

ululate - to utter a howl or wail

plumb - the weight attached to a mason's plumb-line, to secure its perpendicularit + plumber - a workman who installs and repairs piping and fittings to do with water supply, sanitation, and drainage + FDV: There was plumbs and grooms grumes and sheriffs and zitherers citherers & raiders and cittamen too. And they all chimed in with the shoutmost shoviality. 'Twas he was the dacent gaylabouring youth!

grume = groom - a man servant

sherif - a high officer

cither = An anglicized form of cithara, applied to the ancient instrument, as well as its later modifications; cider. 

raider - one who raids, a marauder + writer

"Miss Hooligan's Christmas Cake" (song): "There was plums and prunes and cherries/ And citron and raisins and cinnamon too"

utmost - that is of the greatest or highest degree; of the largest amount, number, etc.; extreme + "Phil the Fluther's Ball" (song): "Then all joined in wid the utmost joviality".

joviality - the quality of being jovial; hearty mirth, humour, or good-fellowship; jollity + show - an appearance which makes a strong impression on the beholder.

agog - eager, enthusiastic + Gog and Magog - represent the nations that are deceived by Satan (Revelations, 20). In legends of Alexander, Gog and Magog are enemies he sealed behind a great wall in the Caucasus. In The Faerie Queene, Gogmagog is the chief giant of Albion.  

gogmagog - a giant, a man of  immense stature and strength

han (Danish) - he + hun (Danish) - she

kinkin - a small barrel, a keg + cinn (kin) (gael) - head, principal; heads wail, lament + kingking (Malay) - lift up a leg (as a dog does) + Kincora (Weir Head, Co. Clare) - birthplace and royal seat of Brian Ború, High King of Ireland.

kangkang (Malay) - (sit or stand) with legs wide apart

keen - to utter the keen, or Irish lamentation for the dead; to wail or lament bitterly.

bell - to bellow, roar, make a loud noise

Brian O'Linn - Irish ballad hero, first to wear clothes, make them of simple materials like sheepskin, shells, etc. + Priam - last king of Troy, character of Homer's, Shakespeare's + Priomh Ollamh (priv uluv) (gael) - Chief Poet (highest rank in ancient Irish bardic system) + olim (l) - once.

dacent - decent

day labor - labor done or paid for by the day + song Barnaby Finegan: 'I'm a decent gay laboring youth' (a similar version entitled song Mr. Finagan has: 'I'm a dacent laboring youth').

sharpen - grind to sharpness + FDV: His A scone as for his pillow Sharphen his pillowscone tap up his bier. Arrah where in this world would you hear such a din again? The owl whole hangsigns & the thirsty thirstey therstey fidelios! They laid him low lax along his last broadon his bed. With abuckalyps abucketlips of finisky at his feet & a barrowload of guinesis guenesis guennesis at his head. To Tee the total tootal of the fluid & the twaddle of the fuddled, O.

pillar stone - a pillar shaped monument or memorila stone + scone - a large round cake; the head (Austral. slang.) + Stone of Destiny (Coronation Stone) brought from Scone in Scotland to Westminster Abbey (believed to be the same stone Jacob used as a pillow (Genesis 28:11)).

bier - the movable stand on which a corpse, whether in coffin or not, is placed before burial + Bier (German= bier (Dutch) - beer.

whorl - spiral, convolution + world

sich = such

din - commotion, clamor, hubbub + song Barnaby Finegan: 'I married but once in my life, But I'll never commit such a sin again'.

brow - [= the second element in highbrow, low-brow, etc.] colloq. Level of intellectual attainment or interest + de profundis (l) - "from the depths": Opening of Ps. 130, traditionally said at wakes + The first four lines are from the song Finnegan's Wake and the fifth from Phil the Fluther's Ball: They wrapped him up in a nice clean sheet / And laid him out across the bed, / With a gallon of whiskey at his feet / And a barrel of porter at his head. / With the toot of the flute and the twiddle of the fiddle, O.

dusty - covered with dust + adaste fideles (l) - "be present, faithful ones," i.e., "Come all ye faithful" (carol). 

Fidelio - the name of Beethoven's only opera. In the opera, a faithful wife saves her imprisoned husband from death. In the song Finnegan's Wake, Tim Finnegan is saved from death when whiskey is splashed on him; this occurs as the result of a fight originating between two women, both of whom claim to be Tim's significant other. Thus, Tim is saved by his infidelity, without which there would have been no fight, no spilled whiskey, and no resurrection. (The riot which ensues during Tim's wake is precipitated by an altercation between two women, Biddy O'Brien and Maggy O'Connor.) 

braw - fine, splendid, pleasant + bradan (bradan) (gael) - salmon + brow down: i.e., face down.

pocalips - apocalypse (obs.) + bocal - a glass bottle or jar with a short wide neck + Apocalypse - the last book of the Bible, dealing with the end of the world → contrasted with guenesis in the following line + "Finnegan's Wake" (song): "with a gallon of whiskey at his feet".

finis - end, coclusion + whiskey

barrow - wheelbarrow + "Finnegan's Wake" (song): "and a barrel of porter at his head".

Guiness - the proprietary name of a brand of stout manufactured by the firm of Guinness; a bottle or glass of this.


tee - prepare, arrange + "Phil the Fluther's Ball" (song): "To the toot of the flute and the twiddle of the fiddle, O".

teetotal - absolute, complete; total abstinence from alcoholic drinks.

twaddle - senseless, silly or trifling talk

fuddled - intoxicated

hurrah - hooray! + FDV: Hurrah, there is but one globe for the owlglobe wheels anew which is testamount to the same thing as who shall see. He, a being so on the flat flounder of his bulk, with far far away back, let wee peep at Hom, plate Ш.

gleve - a lance or spear; a solder armed with gleve; a sword



tautology - a needless repetition of an idea

flat on one's back - ill in bed, in a helpless situation + proverb As flat as a flounder (fish) + bulk - mass, extent.

overgrown - abnormally or excessively grown

Babel + Dublin + baby + (notebook 1924): '*E* overgrown child'.

wee (Colloquial) - to urinate

hom - them, themselves + Ш - Joyce said of this sign that it means HCE interred in the landscape, and also that it is a Chinese letter-word, meaning "mountain" and called "Chin".

platter - dinner plate + After much searching, Isis was able to gather together the pieces of Osiris, and added an artificial phallus. With the aid of words of magical power granted her by Thoth, she unified the parts of her brother husband and roused him. The image of Osiris' literal erection from the dead, effected by Isis in the shape of a bird is a vivid one. It is central to the cycle of Osiris, and important in FW. Mr. Slomczynski has discovered that, within the text of FW, we are referred to a photographic plate depicting the act. This happens at 6.32: "well, see peegee ought he ought, platterplate." If we observe the aural value of the phrase, and follow the suggestion of "see pg eighty-eight" in Moret's Rois et Dieux d'Egypte (1911, reprinted soon after the opening of Tutankhamen's tomb and popular at that time), we will find a "platterplate", that is a plate of "dished" or fallen Osiris, roused by Isis. This plate, reproduced here, is titled "The Wake of Osiris" ("Veillée funèbre d'Osiris-Ounnefer mort").                     Mark L. Troy

Seipeal Iosaid (shepel isid') (gael) - Iosada's [Iseult's] chapel; anglic. Chapelizod + FDV: From Shopalist to Bailiwick Bailywick [or from Ashtun to baronsoath baronoath [or from Long Longthe Buythebanks to Roundthehead [he swim, swam, swum. [[All the way] the his baywinds [choir oboe oboboes] shall wail him  [rockbound (HoaHoahoath hoahoahoath! HoaHoahoath hoahoahoath!)] in swimswamswum & all the livvylong night [the delldale dalppled dappling dalppling night, the night of blue hells bluerybells bluerabells] her flutaflute flitafluta flitaflute [in tricky trochees of blueorofbells (how O carina! how O carina!)] [shall] wake him [with her kitti issavan essavans & her patterjackmartins [and about all the them inns & ouses.] tilling Tillinga teel of a tub tum, telling a toll of a tears teary turdy Tublin.]]]]] For what we are, and if we are, about to believe. So pass the kish [& pooll the begg].

bailiwick - surrounding territory; an area under the jurisdiction of a bailiff + Baile (bolye) (gael) - Homestead; anglic. Bailey (lighthouse, Howth Head).

to foot the bill - to pay the bill


fjord - a long, narrow arm of the sea, running up between high banks or cliffs, as on the coast of Norway + fjord (Norwegian) - bay.

fjeld - a barren plateau of Scandinavian uplands + fjell (Norwegian) - mountain.

oboe - a wooden double-reed wind-instrument, forming the treble to the bassoon.

rockbound - surrounded with rocks

lifelong - lasting or continuing for a lifetime

telltale - betraying, revealing, informing

dapple - to variegate with rounded spots or cloudy patches of different colour or shade.

bluebell - a species of Campanula (C. rotundifolia) which grows on open downs, hills, and dry places, and flowers in summer and autumn, with a loose panicle of delicate blue bell-shaped flowers on slender peduncles. 

tricky - manifesting trickery, intricate, ingenious

trochee - a metrical foot of one long plus one short syllable

carina - the two petals forming the base of a papilionaceous corolla + carina (l) - keel of a ship + o carina! (it) - that's nice!, nice girl! 

patter - babble, chatter + Peter, Jack, Martin - in Swift's Tale of a Tub, they are the Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran churches. In FW they are also the Three.

ins and outs - the small details + in-and-out (Slang) - copulation.

till - to put (money) into a till, to labour, cultivate, to take care

teel = till + a tale of a tub - an apocryphal tale; a 'cock and bull' story.

tum - the sound of plucked string, the sound of a drum; tummy + tum (l) - than.

teary - tearful, pathetic + Dear Dirty Dublin - Lady Morgan's epithet becomes in FW a paradigm of punning. Before modern paving came in, Dublin's streets were in fact notorious for their grime; something to do with the cobblestones and the soil in which they were laid. 

taub (l) - deaf + Dublin

glutton - to feed voraciously or excessively + phrase grace before meat.

gif - if, whether + it's

gross - thick, stout, massive, big (obs.)

POOLBEG - Deep anchorage (Irish, "the little hole") in Dublin Bay beyond the Pigeonhouse. The Poolbeg lighthouse is at the end of the South Wall. Before the lighthouse, a Poolbeg lightship marked the anchorage.  

kish - a large square wicker basket used in Ireland for carrying peat + fish

craw - stomach

so sei es (ger) - so be it + FDV: So sigh us! Whose Whase on the gyant goint joyiant giant joint joyant joiyorite joint of a dish desh? Finfaw Finnfoefaw the Fush. What's at his baken head? A loaf of Singpatherick's Singpantry's Keannedy's bread. And what's at his hitched to hop in his tail tayl tayle? A glass of O'Connell's O'Donnell's Danu U'Dunnell's famous foamous old Dublin oldublin ale olde Dubbelin ayle.

grandpapa - grandfather + grampus - Orca gladiator (whale) + song London Bridge Is Falling Down.

granny - grandmother

sweep the board - to win all the prizes (esp. in roulette) + spritz (ger) - spray.

whase - whose; who is, what is (arch.)

feefawfum - the first line of doggerel spoken by the giant in the nursery tale of 'Jack the giant killer' upon discovering the presence of Jack; an exclamation indicating a murderous intention; nonsense, fitted only to terrify children + William Shakespeare: King Lear III.4.174: 'Fie, foh, and fum'.

be = by

baken - baked, as bread or meat + baken meat - pastry + baken (Dutch) - beacon + bake (Slang) - head.

tail - the part opposite to what is regarded as the head + top and tail - from head to foot.

Kennedy - Dublin baker 

hitch - to fasten by something that catches

Daniel O'Connell - first of the great 19th-century Irish leaders in the British House of Commons.


Dublin + dobbelen (Dutch) - to gamble, gambling.

ale - an intoxicating liquor made from an infusion of malt by fermentation; beer + song Dobbin's Flow'ry Vale.

lo - used to direct attention to the presence or approach of something, Look! See! Behold! FDV: But Holystone Holeystone, what do I see? In his reins is planted a 1/2d gaff. Not one but legion. The king of the castle is k.o. The almost rubicund salmon of all knowledge is one with the yesterworld of But, lo, as you would quaffoff of his fraudstuff and sink teeth through the that pyth of an earthenborn pan of his flowerwhite body behold of him nowheremore. Finnish.

quaff off - to drain (a cup, etc.) in a copious draught or draughts, to drink (liquor) copiously.

fraud - deceit

pyth = pith (inner part or core of something) + to the pith - thoroughly, to the very core.

bodey (obs) - body

behemoth - great and monstruous beast

no more - no longer existent; departed, dead, gone

photograph + REFERENCE + FDV: The Only a fadograph of yesterworld's a yesterworld.

yestern - rel. to yesterday

rubicund - ruddy + FDV: Almost rubicund salmon, he ancient of the ages of the Agapemonites, he pales to kay oh, loaf, life & goodredherring schlook, slice & goodridherring

Salmanasar - king of Assyria + Salmanazar - a large size of wine-bottle + Salmo salar - the Linnaean name for the Atlantic salmon (both words being related to the Latin salire, "to leap") + REFERENCE

agapemone - a free love institution + agapemon (g) - loved one + agapemonides (g) - sons of a loved one.

smolt - a young salmon; to make off, go, escape

woebegonne - exhibiting great woe or sorrow + canned - put up or preserved in a can, tinned + wohlbekannt (ger) - well known.

dead off (Military Slang) - Of meat or food: spoiled

summen (ger) - to sing + Neither fish, flesh nor good red herring: (phrase) - neither one thing nor another; suitable to no class of people; not fish (food for the monk), nor flesh (food for lay people), nor red herring (food for the poor).

schluck (ger) - gulp, swallow

Schluss (ger) - the end

phrase neither fish, flesh, nor good red herring

bronto - - thunder + ichtyal - of, pertaining to, or characteristic of fishes + (notebook 1924): 'brontosauros' + FDV: We may see the brontoichthyan form outlined, aslumbered, even in our nighttime by the side of the troutlet stream that bronto loved and loves. What though she be in flags & or flitters, she rowdyrags or sundayclosies, with a mint of money or never a hapenny haypenny hapenny, yerra, we all love all of little Annie Ruiny, or I we mean to say lobble Nanny Anny Rainy, when under her brella, through piddle & poddle, she ninnygoes nannygoes nancing by. There Yaw!

outline - to define

nighttime - night

sedge - a name for various coarse grassy, rush-like or flag-like plants growing in wet places.

trattling - that 'trattles'; chattering, tattling, gossiping

Bronté family

Hic cubat aedilis apud libertinam parvulam (l) - Here sleeps the magistrate with [chez] the little freedgirl + hic (l) - here + cubo (l) - to lie, to sleep + aedilis (l) - temple, building + apud (l) - near + parvulus (l) - very little.

what if - what is or would be the case if?

flag - an apron; one of various endogenous plants, with a bladed or ensiform leaf, mostly growing in moist places + rags

flitter - fragment, shred

choses (fr) - things

mint - coin, money, a vast sum (as of money)

pennyweight - a measure of weight, equal to 24 grains, 120 of an ounce Troy, or 1240 of a pound Troy.

arrah - an expletive expressing emotion or excitement

anny - fenny, marshy (from Anglo-Irish: eanaigh)

Little Annie Rooney (song): REFERENCE  

under + unda (l) - wave.


piddle - urine, an act of urinating; a trifle, nonsense

med (Danish) - with

puddle - a small body of standing water

ninny - a simpleton; a fool. + nanny = nannygoat - a she-goat ['on Ben Howth rhododendrons a nannygoat' (Ulysses.8.911)].


brontolone (it) - grumbler

slaap - sleep + slaap (Dutch) - sleep + FDV: Brontolone sleeps & snores in Benn Eder & in Seepeall of Iseut too. The cranial head of him, castle of his reason, look yonder. Howth?

snoore - snore

Ben Edar - anciently Howth, said to be named for Edar, a Dedanaan chief, buried on the hill. 

cranic - of or belonging to a skull, cephalic

caster - one who casts, in various senses of the verb

peer - to look narrowly, esp. in order to discern something indistinct or difficult to make out.

yond = yonder + yondermost - farthest, most distant.

whoot - a loud inarticulate exclamation, hoot

feet of clay - a surprising weakness or fault in character esp. in someone or something that is highly approved of + FDV: His lay clay feet, swarded with verdure, stick up where he last fell on em, by the hump of the magazine wall, where our Maggy Maggies seen all couldn't help keep it at all with her sister-in-shawl.

sward - to cover with sward

verdigris - a green or greenish blue substance (basic acetate of copper) + verde (it) - green.

stick up - to stand out from a surface; to project

starck = stark (obs.) - hard, unyielding, rigid, stiff, incapable of movement.

fall on one's feet - to be fortunate or successful after being in an uncertain or risky situation.

mund - protection; mound

MAGAZINE FORT, PHOENIX PARK - At the SE corner of the "Fifteen Acres," on St Thomas's Hill in the Park. built on the site of the old Phoenix on Fionn Uisge House in 1801. The buildings of the Magazine are surrounded by a ditch and wall. Even in his madness, Swift quipped: "Behold a proof of Irish sense,/Here Irish wit is seen;/When nothing's left that's worth defence,/They build a magazine."  

over against - opposite to + FDV: Wile over against this belle alliance beyind the Ill Sixty, bagsides of the fort, bom, tarabom, tarrarabom, are the ambushes the scene of the lying- lyffing-in-wait of the threetimesthree upjack & hackums.  

LA BELLE ALLIANCE - Village on the battlefield of Waterloo, South of Mont St Jean. The battle and battlefield of Waterloo are most commonly called on the continent "La Belle Alliance." Wellington and Blucher met there as the battle drew to a close + alliance - union, coalition + Bell, Currer, Ellis, Acton - pen names of the Brontës, who dominate this paragraph.

Hill 60 - In WW I, an important feature of the Ypres salient, SE of Ypres. Changed hands many times in 1st (Oct-Nov' 14) and 2nd (Apr' 15) Battles of Ypres (not 3rd). 

back side - the back, the back premises, back yard + bagside (Danish) - back, rear.

bom - the sound caused by the discharge of a gun, less deep and sonorous than a 'boom'. Also, the sound of a heavy object falling.

lurk - prowl + look - to guard oneself, beware.


"Up guards and at 'em!" - Wellington's order in the last charge at Waterloo + song As I Went Up the Brandy Hill: 'Up Jock'.

hokum - a device found to elicit display of mirth, something worthless or untrue.

Wait Till the Clouds Roll By, Jenny (song): a broadside ballad published in 1884; (Jenny, my own true loved one, / I'm going far from thee, / Out on the bounding billows, / Out on the dark blue sea. / How I will miss you, my darling, / There when the storm is raging high, / Jenny, my own true loved one, / Wait till the clouds roll by.)

bird's-eye view - a view of a landscape from above, such as is presented to the eye of a bird + FDV: From here when the clouds roll by, jamey, a clear view is enjoyable of the mound's mounding's mass, now Williamstown national museum, with in a greenish distance the charmful waterloose country and they two quitewhite villagettes who here show herselves so gigglesome mixxt minxt the follyages, the pretties!

mounding - heaping, piling + mound - to heap up in a mound or hillock.

WELLINGTON MUSEUM - At Hyde Park Corner, London, the residence of the Duke of Wellington, purchased as a gift to him in 1820.


quite - completely, totally, realy

villagette - a little village

gigglesome - prone to giggling

twixt - betwixt (between) + minxit (l) - she urinated.


prettiness - beauty of a slight, diminutive, dainty, or childish kind, without stateliness.

penetrator - one who penetrates + FDV: Penetrators are admitted in this museumound free, welshe and the militaries one shellink. For her key supply to the janitrix, the Mistresse Kate. Tip.

Paddy - Irishman + Patkins, Paddy - an Irish Tommy Atkins.


dismember - to deprive of limbs, to cut off the limbs

pousse - to push + poussepousse (fr) - rickshaw (from French pousser: to push).

pram - perambulator

sate - to saturate + sate (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - seat.

butt - buttocks

passkey - master key, skeleton key, latch key

supply - supplicate (to petition humbly)

janitrix = janitress - a female janitor

kate (Slang) - picklock, skeleton key

tip - an item of expert or authoritative information imparted or sought for one's guidance, hint.

FDV: This way to the mewseyroom. Mind your boot hat going in. Now yez yiz are in the Willingdone mewseyroom. This is a Prooshian Prooshious gun gunz. This is a ffrinch. Tip. This is the flag-o'-the-prushian prooshan prooshious. This is a bullet that bing the flag-o'-th prooshian prooshan. This is the ffrinch that fire the bull that bang the flag-o'-the-prooshian. Tip. This the hat of lipoleum. Tip. Lipoleum hat. This is the Willingdone on his white harse. This the big Willingdone, grand & magentic, with his gold tim goltin spurs, [& quarterbrass shoos shoes], this his big wide harse. Tip.

museum + The Battle of Waterloo took place at nearby La Belle Alliance, 18 June 1815, where the British under Wellington and Prussians under Bhucher decisively defeated Napoleon and ended his power. The Waterloo Museum, at Mont St Jean, was established by Sgt Major Cotton of the 7th Hussars, who served under Wellington. Cotton published a guide to the battlefield, A Voice from Waterloo. The museum was no longer in existence when James Joyce visited the battlefield in 1926, but may have been known to him through the description in Hugo's Les Miserables

yiz - you (pl.)

Willingdone, Marquess of - appointed Indian viceroy, 1931, when India was in revolutionary turmoil. He arrested Gandhi, suppressed a "No Rent" campaign, etc., and in my Second Census I confidently stated that he doubles with Wellington, FW 8-10, who also supressed an Indian revolt. But now I have noticed that "Willingdone" occurs in transition I, 1927. Therefore, unless he suppressed an earlier revolt, the marquess is yet another of Joyce's fine coincidences on prophecies or historical insights. (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake). 

Prooshian = Prussian + PRUSSIA - Former German state, North-East Germany. Created as a kingdom in 1701 from the duchy of Brandenberg, Prussia became the dominant power in the formation of the German Empire in 1871. General Blucher's Prussian army was crucially engaged against the French at the Battle of Waterloo 


flag - banner; an opprobrious (abusive) term applied to a woman

bang - to strike violently with a resounding blow; sexual intercourse + Byng, General - with Wellington at Waterloo. 

SALO - Town, Lombardy, North Italy, 40 miles North-West of Mantua; site of French defeat by Austnians in Napoleon's siege of Mantua during the French Revolutionary War, 29 Jul 1796 + salus (l) - good health.  

up with - denoting the rising of a weapon, the hand etc. esp. so as to strike

pike - a weapon consisting of a long wooden shaft with a pointed head of iron or steel + to put down one's knife and fork (Slang) - to die.

fork - an implement consisting of a long straight handle, furnished at the end with two or more prongs or tines (used as a weapon).

Napoleon + linoleum - a kind of floor-cloth made by coating canvas with a preparation of oxidized linseed-oil + oleum (l) - oil.

Wellington's favorite horse, Copenhagen, was a chestnut, but Napoleon's (at Waterloo), Marengo, was white.

Copenhagen - the name of the Wellington's horse

slaughter - the killing of large numbers of persons in war, battle, etc.; massacre, carnage.

magnetic - very attractive or seductive

QUATRE BRAS - Village South of the battlefield of Waterloo, where Wellington repelled the French under Ney on 16 June 1815, 2 days before the main battle, but then withdrew toward Waterloo.  

magnate - nobleman, peer, a person of rank

garter - a badge of a highest order of English knighthood

Bangkok - a kind of woven straw for hats

best - best clothes

goliard (fr) - minstrel, jester + (notebook 1924): 'Goliath'.

golosh - an overshoe designed to protect the shoe in wet weather

The Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) between Athens and Sparta and their allies ended in the surrender of Athens and the brief transfer of leadership of Greece to Sparta.  

trews - trousers in general (tartan or otherwise)

boyne - a flat shallow tub or bowl + boys + FDV: This is the first boyne hiena (placement of "hiena" doubtful) grouching in the living ditch. This is three lipoleums lipoleum boyne hiena grouching in the living ditch.

grouch - to grumble, complain + crouch - to stoop or bend low with general compression of the body, as in stooping for shelter, in fear, or in submission + Grouchy, Marshal (1766-1847) - marshal of Napoleon's, fought at Waterloo.  

enemy + inimicus (l) - enemy + FDV: This is an inglis, this a scotcher, this a welsh walshe [one]. [This is the peg beg lipoleum murdering the lipoleum beg. This is the Delian alps sheltershocking the three lipoleums behind a crim crimmealine.] This is the gay first lipoleum boy that spy the Willingdone Williamstown on his white harse. Tip. The Willingdone is an old many mantrment mantrument montrument mantrumon mantrumoney montrumeny lipoleum is nice old young bustellen.

Inglis - English

scotcher - one that scotches + the Scotch - (pl.): The inhabitants of Scotland or their immediate descendants in other countries + scotcher grey, scotch grey (Slang) - louse.

morder = murder + Mordred on Modred - King Arthur's nephew/son, who brought down the Round Table and was killed by Arthur. 

galgar (golugur) (gael) - noisy argument

ARGAUM - Village in North India. Wellington defeated a Mahratta army there 29 Nov 1803, shortly before the attack on Gawilghur fortress + argument

petty - small

naythir - neither

asseyez (fr) - sit down + assez, assez (fr) - enough, enough! + assaye (Middle English) - try + ASSAYE - Village, South India. Wellington defeated far superior Mahratta forces there, 23 Sept 1803. 

tuachail (tukhil) (gael) - astute, prudent + Tuathal (tuhel) (gael) - People-mighty; anglic. Toole + touch-hole (Slang) - vulva.

Tomais (tumash) (gael) - Thomas + Muschi (German Slang) - vulva.

dyke (Slang) - water-closet

hairy ring (Slang) - vulva

Arminius (18 B.C - A.D. 21) - German chief who defeated Varus at Teutonberger Forest + Varus, Publius Quintilius (d. 9 AD.) - Roman general.

Delian - rel. to island of Delos, birthplace of Apollo and Artemis

mont - mountain

mons (l) - mountain + mons pubis - fatty tissue present in women above the pubic bone.

Injun - Colloq. and U.S. dial. form of Indian + MONT ST JEAN - Village just North of the battlefield of Waterloo.

streamline - a smooth flowing outline, a contour of a body

Alp - proper name of the mountain range which separates France and Italy + Anna Livia Plurabelle

hoop - hope; to encircle, embrace

jinny - demon or spirit; a female proper name, pet form of Jane + FDV: This is the jinnies with the legahorns legohorns making their war oversides undersides undisides the Willingdone. This is jinnies cooin her hands. This is jinnies ravin her hair. This is the big Willingdone tallowscoop upsides obscides on the jinnies. Tip.

(notebook 1922-23): ' leghorn'

feint - to pretense, trick

handmade - made by hand

strategy + strale (it) - arrow.

undies (Colloquial) - women's underwear

cooing - uttering coos

ravin - to obtain or seize by violence + raven - of the colour of a raven, glossy black.

to get the wind up - to get into a state of alarm or funk + git = get + to get wind of - to receive information or a hint of, to come to know + to get it up (Slang) - to have an erection + bander (fr) - to have an erection.

WELLINGTON MONUMENT - The 205-ft granite obelisk erected in 1817 in Phoenix Park. Visible from many parts of Dublin, it has been popularly called the "overgrown milestone." The sides display the names of the Iron Duke's victorious battles, and there are bronze bas-reliefs at the base.  

memorial - of which the memory is preserved + mormor - murmur + marmor (l) = Marmor (ger) - marble.


wonderworker - one who performs wonders or marvellous things; esp. a worker of miracles.

abseits (ger) - aside

flank - the extreme left or right side of an army or body of men in military formation; the fleshy or muscular part of the side of an animal or a man between the ribs and the hip.

Excalibur - King Arthur's sword

horsepower + hross (Old Icelandic) - horse + Ross (ger) - steed.

me - my + FDV: This is the Belchiam taking a phillipy out of his bottle of Tiltsiter. This is the jinnies hasting dispatch fontannoy fortannoy the Willingdone. Dear Liffer Leaveher Awthur, Owthur field gates gaze your the tiny frow? They The jinnies think to they cotch the Willingdone.

Waterloo is of course in Belgium, and for some reason Napoleon appears in the Museyroom passage as "me Belchum." (Mink, Louis O. - A Finnegans wake gazetteer)

sneak - to move, go, walk, etc., in a stealthy or slinking manner + taking

philippy - love for or kindness to a horse or horses + Philip II of Macedon (reigned 359-336 B.C.) - father of Alexander the Great. For him the city of Philippi was named. When Philip was drunk, he condemned a woman unjustly. She said she would appeal from Philip Drunk to Philip Sober. 

"This is me Belchum sneaking his phillippy out of his most / toocisive bottle of Tilsiter. This is the libel on the battle / Awful Grimmest Sun'shat Cromwelly, Looted." (The whole line was accidentally skipped by the FW-galley typesetter. It was there in transition (JJA 44:258) and already complete in Joyce's fair copy). Robbert-Jan Henkes, 16 May 2002 

grimmest - supperl. of grim

loot - to lurk, lie concealed; to make obeisance, to bow + routed - put to rout, compelled to flee in disorder.

hastings - early fruit of vegetables, early peas + casting - the assigning of parts to suitable actors and actresses + hasting - that hastes, speeding.

dispatch - to start promptly for a place, get away quickly; a written message sent off promptly or speedily.

irrigate - to supply with moisture; to drink, to take a drink + irritate

shirt front - that part of man's shirt which covers the chest and is more or less displayed, a dicky.

yaw - yawn + you


wir siegen (ger) - we conquer

fieldglass + Wie geht's deiner Frau? (ger) - How's your wife?

frow - woman, wife

hug - to clasp or squeeze tightly in the arms: usually with affection = embrace + hoogachtend (Dutch) - yours faithfully, yours truly.

stop + Napoleon + nap (Slang) - catch veneral disease.


FONTENOY - Village, SW Belgium; scene of battle 11 May 1745, in which Marshal Saxe's French army including the Irish Brigade defeated an Anglo-Allied army under the Duke of Cumberland in the War of the Austrian Succession.

shee - she + he he - a representation of laughter, usually affected or derisive + shee (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - see.

agin - again + AGINCOURT - Village, North France, where the English under Henry V defeated the French, 25 Oct 1415.  

gonn - to begin

boycrazy - (of a girl) eager to associate with boys

git - get + to get it up (Slang) = bander (French Slang) - to have an erection.

bode - messenger, herald + bod (bud) (gael) - penis + FDV: This is the Belchiam [, bonnet & busby,] breaking the word to the Willingdone. This the Willingdone hurled dispatch dispatchback. Cherry jinny, damn fairy ann, voutre, Willingdone. Pip Tip.

bonnet - a cap of mail, a kind of helmet

busby - a tall fur cap, with or without a plume, having a bag hanging out of the top, on the right side.

to break words with - to exchange words with

secre = secret

ball up - to make a mess of, to confuse, muddle

herald - a messenger

dispatch - to send off post-haste or with expedition or promptitude (a messenger, message, etc. having an express destination)

display - to exhibit ostentatiously; to show off, make a show of

rare - the back part of something, rear

salamander - a woman who (ostensibly) lives chastely in the midst of temptations (obs.), a soldier who exposes himself to fire in battle + SALAMANCA - Spanish province and city; site of Wellington's victory oven France in the Penin War, 22 Jul 1812.

cherry - cherry-coloured, red; a virgin + chère (fr) - dear (e.g. at the beginning of a letter).

victory! + fichtre! (French) (euphemism for 'foutre') - the deuce!; fuck you! + Christ cursed the fig tree with barrenness (Matthew 21:19).

Ça ne fait rien (French) - that doesn't matter + George Bernard Shaw, Mrs Warren’s Profession: "The old Iron Duke didnt throw away fifty pounds: not he. He just wrote: ‘Dear Jenny: publish and be damned! Yours affectionately, Wellington.’" + Harriette (or Henriette) Wilson (1786-1846) was one of the most sought after courtesans in London. She settled down for a time with the Duke of Argyle, but when he went to Scotland she became the mistress of the Duke of Wellington until she turned 35 (1821). She then retired from the business, moved to Paris, married a Monsieur Dubochet, and settled down to a literary career. Her first work was her Memoirs (1825), in which she named names and provided details of her liaisons. In 1824, before publication, her publisher, Stockdale, sent letters to her former beaux, demanding £200 in exchange for their exclusion from the memoirs; Wellington is alleged to have returned the letter with the words "Write, and be damned!" scrawled on it. In her memoirs, Harriette says that Wellington looked like a ratcatcher! After her memoirs, she wrote and published novels (very bad ones, say her critics). She eventually returned to London, and died in 1846.

vôtre (French) - yours → yours faithfully → the Willingdone's closing compliment at the end of his dispatch to the Jinnies + foutre (French) - to fuck → vous + foutre = fuck you! + outré (French) - enraged.

tit for tat - an equivalent given in return + tic - obsession, fixation.

hee - he

weet - to know; wet + FDV: This is the Belchiam [in his cowashoes] footing the camp to for the jinnies. Tip. This is Prooshing rooshing balls. This the ffrinch! Tip. Guns Gunz, harses, this is jinnies in their ____ yalla bawn blootchers blooches, this is the frinches lipoleums in the redditches rody rowdy hoses. Tip!

tweet - a chirping note, chirp

STAMFORD BRIDGE - Village, East Riding, Yorks, England; site of battle in 1066 in which Harold II defeated his brother and Harold Haardraade of Norway just before the Battle of Hastings.  

foot - to go on foot, walk, run + "Put your best foot foremost" + foutre le camp (French, Slang) - to go, leave + fous le camp! - fuck off! clear off! bugger off! fucking the cunt.

camp - martial contest, combat, battle; the place where an army or body of troops is lodged in tents or other temporary means of shelter.


stale - of beer: to become stale or old + sell + stale (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - steal.

store - to dose with (drugs or medicines) (obs.) + store stale stout.

Rooshian - Russian

ball - a missile (from canon, musket, pistol, etc.)

trinch - trench + French

missile - a missile object or weapon + troop - a body of soldiers + James Joyce: Ulysses.15.4606: 'Irish missile troops... Royal Dublin Fusiliers'.

Futter (ger) - fodder + futter (Slang) - to fuck.

poppy - characterized by popping or exploding (rare.) + James Joyce: A Portrait I: 'There's a tasty bit here we call the pope's nose... He held a piece of fowl up on the prong of the carving fork'.

indulgence - the practice or habit of indulging or giving way to one's inclinations.

blessés (fr) - wounded

TORRES VEDRAS - Town, West Portugal, noted for 28-mile stretch of fortifications begun in 1809 and extending to the Tagus River, from which Wellington hindered the French march against Lisbon in 1810 + terra (l) - earth.  

bonny - having a pleasing appearence

bawn = boon - advantageous, fortunate, favourable, prosperous + bawn (Anglo-Irish) - white, fair, pretty (from Anglo-Irish: bán).

Blücher (1742-1819) - Prussian marshal who came to Wellington's aid at Waterloo. Bluchers are shoes.  

rowdy - marked by disorderly roughness or noise

howse - house

splinter - fragment + FDV: This is the Willingdone order, fire! Tonerre! This is the smokings & bannockburns froodenfihls & panicburns. This is the Willingdone, he cry, Brom Bromme Bromme, Cambromme! This is rinny jinny jinnies her away runaway [down dowan a bunkershill bunkersheels] cry: Dunderwetter Underwetter. Goat strap strip Finnland Finnlambs!

TONNERRE - Town, in North Burgundy, France. Not associated with any historic battle + ton (Dutch) - privy, barrel.

bullsear (Anglo-Irish) - a clown (from Anglo-Irish: ballséir)

plee (Dutch) - privy (Pronunciation 'play')

camelry - troops mounted on camels + cavalry

footer - one who goes on foot.

sulfairin (sulfirin) (gael) - sulphur + dim. suffx + -een (Anglo-Irish) - (diminutive).

Thermopilae - Scene of battle between the Greeks and the Persians in 480 BC.   

BANNOCKBURN - Town, central Scotland, 2½ miles South-East of Stirling; site of battle 23 June 1314 in which Robert Bruce routed the English under Edward II and took Stirling Castle.   

ALMEIDA - Town, North-East Portugal, formerly fortress guarding North approach from Spain. Wellington captured it from the French, 10 May 1811. 

ORTHEZ - Town, South-West France, where in 1814 Wellington defeated the French under Soult. 

brum - to murmur, hum + (onomat.) + Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais II.205: 'Brum, à brum! to recover from a mistake'.

Donnerwetter (ger) - thunderweather + Unwetter (ger) - storm + under the weather - ill, drunk.

Gott strafe England! (ger) - "May God punish England!"            

rin - run

AUSTERLITZ - Town, Czech, scene of battle 12 Dec 1805, in which Napoleon defeated Russians and Austrians.  

BUNKER HILL - Hill, Charlestown area, Boston, Mass, US. American Revolutionary battle, 17 June 1775, known as "Bunker Hill," was actually on the adjacent Breed's Hill. The Royal Irish Regiment was part of British force. No one, including FW, is sure whether Israel Putnam actually said, "Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes."  

nip - to move rapidly or nimbly

nippy - marked by tendency to nip; brisk, quick

trip - the action of moving lightly and quickly

airy - light in movement or manner + song Tipperary: 'It's a long long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there' (World War I marching song).

silver plate - used as a jocular representation of Fr. s'il vous plaît (please)

crape - a thin transparent gauze-like fabric + drops + cool crape (Slang) - a shroud.

canister - a small case or box, usually of metal, for holding tea, coffee, shot, etc.

pour le pays (fr) - for the country

Otto von Bismarck - (1815 – 1898) European statesman of the 19th century. As Minister-President of Prussia from 1862 to 1890, he engineered the Unification of Germany. From 1867 on, he was Chancellor of the North German Confederation. When the German Empire was declared in 1871, he served as its first Chancellor. 

marathon - applied to long-distance races or competitions calling for endurance.

song The Girl I Left Behind Me

brandish - to flourish, wave about (a sword, spear, dart, club, or other manual weapon) by way of threat or display, or in preparation for action + branlish (fr) - masturbate + se branler (French Slang) - to masturbate + FDV: This is the Willingdone he branlish his tallowscoop on the rinning jinnies rinnyaway.

Marmor (ger) - marble

sophy - a wise man, sage + sauve-qui-peut (fr) - save himself who can (probably the cry of the fleeing French at Waterloo).

key (Slang) - penis

divorsion - divorce + division

gamba (it) - leg + bariste (it) - barmaids + arista (it) - chine (backbone and adjoining flesh) of pork.

Della Porta, Giovanni Battista (1538 - 1615) - Italian natural philosopher and playwright. His works include I'Due Fratelli rivali + pòrca (it) - sow, she-pig.

TALAVERA DE LA REINA - Town, cenral Spain, 65 miles South-West of Madrid. Site of one of Wellington's great victories against the French, commanded by King Joseph Bonaparte, 27-28 July 1809 + da vere femmine (it) - just like women.

VIMEIRO - Village, Western Portugal, 32 miles North-West of Lisbon; site of victory of Wellington over the French, 21 Aug 1808 + fur immer (ger) - for ever.

petty - small, of small importance, minor, inferior

tofee - a sweet-meat made from sugar or treacle, butter, and sometimes a little flour, boiled together + nursery rhyme 'Taffy was a Welshman, Taffy was a Thief'.

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE - SW coast of Cape Province, Republic of South Africa; originally named Cabo Tormentoso (Cape of Storms) by Bartholomeu Diaz, 1488. The ship of the Flying Dutchman was usually sighted in the latitudes of the Cabo Tormentoso. 

stonewall - Used as an epithet for one who seeks to confound by dogged resistance. Chiefly applied to Thomas Jonathan ('Stonewall') Jackson (1824-63), Confederate general during the American Civil War.

maxie (Slang) - big mistake

matrimony - a husband

hung (Slang) - (of a male) having large genitals + young

busheller - one who repairs garments for tailors + bachelors

American humorist Finley Peter Dunne is creator of Irish-American bartender Mr Dooley and Mr Hennessy; among his works are Mr Dooley in Peace and War.

alout - to stoop, to bow down + aloud + FDV: This is lipoleum lipeleum hennessy hinnessy that spy the Willingdone on his big white harse. This is the three little lopoleums. Tip. This is the hinnessy that spy laughing spying the Willingdone, this is the lipsyg dooley that get the funk from the hinnessy. This is the hindoo Shim Shin with his tubabine between the dooleyboy hiena & the hinnessy. Tip.

Leipzig (ger) - (city) + syg (Danish) - sick + William Jerome and Jean Schwartz: song Mister Dooley (1902): 'Napoleon had an army of a hundred thousand men... And though Napoleon marched them up who was it called them down 'Twas Mister Dooley' (mentioned in Ellmann: James Joyce 341, 423-425).

Krieg (ger) - war

Funk (ger) - spark, radio + funk (Middle English) - spark.

Hindoo - an Aryan of Northern India (Hindustan) + an fhionndubh siomar sin (un hindu shimer shin) (gael) - that fair-dark trefoil (or, shamrock).

Samar Singh (Hindustani) - typical name for a soldier (literally 'lion in battle')

waxy (Slang) - angry

threefold - having three parts + FDV: This is the Willingdone, he laugh that his & pick up from the field bluttlefield bluttlefilth bluddlefilth a flag hat-o'-the-ffrinch lipoleums.

FDV: bluttlefield

Ranji ("Jam Sahib") - Rajput cricketer, played for England, made over 3,000 runs + FDV: This the hindoo getting mad ranjymad for a bombshell bombshoot. This is the Willingdone hang the half of a flag hat o' the lipoleum on at the tail at on the backend of his big white wide white harse.

pumpship (Slang) - urinate

hank - to fasten with a hank

culpa (l) - fault

waggle - to move (anything held or fixed at one end) to and fro with short quick motions, or with a rapid undulation; esp. to shake (any movable part of the body) + FDV: This the harse of the Willingdone wangling his tailiscrupp tailoscrupp [& the half o'hat] to the hindoo seeboy. This is the hindoo hattermad madrashattaras, upjump & pumpt pumpim [, like as [he cry to the Willingdone. [Ap] Bukkarru Pukkarru! [Pukka] Yurep!]]

tail (Slang) - buttocks; penis

insult + insulto (l) - I jump + Soult, Nicolas Jean de Dieu, Duke of Dalmatia (1769-1851) - French marshal who fought Wellington in the peninsula and at Waterloo. 

sepoy - a native of India serving in the british army

Ney, Marshal - one of Napoleon's marshals, fought at Waterloo + (onomat.) + hnúj (Czech ) = hnii (Ruthenian - Ukrainian) - dung.

MAHRATTA WAR - The Mahratta Confederation, which replaced the Mogul Empire, was the main force opposing Britain colonialization in India throughout the 18th cent. In the decisive Mahratta War of 1803-1805, Wellington won victories at Assaye and elsewhere + mad as a hatter - completely mad.  


Up guards and at 'em!" - Wellington's order in the last charge at Waterloo.

ABOUKIR (ABUKIR) - Bay and village, 13 miles North-East of Alexandria, Egypt. In A Bay was fought the "Battle of the Nile" (1798) in which Nelson defeated the French fleet. Later, Napoleon defeated Turks (1799) and Sir Ralph Abercromby defeated French (1801) there.  

BARNSTAPLE - Market town and seaport, South-West England; one of the most ancient royal boroughs. The allusion is also to Thackeray, Lectures on the English Humorists, "If Swift was Irish, then a man born in a stable is a horse." Wellington (whose birthplace in Ireland is still a matter of dispute) is also supposed to have denied his Irishness on the grounds that "a man is not a horse because he was born in a stable."  

tinder - to become inflamed, glow, burn + tender


shimmer - a shimmering light or glow; a subdued tremulous light


BUSACO - Sierra de Busaco, Portugal, site of battle, 27 Sept 1810, in which Wellington repulsed a French attack.  

usted (sp) - you (formal)

do for - to ruin, damage or injure fatally; to act for or in behalf of + FDV: This the hindoo he shaking [warm] hands with hinself shoot the hat of lipoleums off the tail & the whole of the half hat of lipoleum off the end of the tale of the back of the big wide harse. Tip. This way the mewseyroom. Mind your boots going out. This the hindoo he shaking [warm] hands with hinself blow the whole of the half hat o' lipoleum off the end of the tale of the backend back of the big wide harse. Tip. This way the mewseyruin. Mind your boots going out.

bullseye - the center of a target, a shot that hits a bull's eye

phew - a vocal gesture expressing impatience, disgust, discomfort, or weariness + FDV: Phew! / How warming 'twas to have been in there! But how keling is the airabouts here! Such reasonable weather too.


windy - window; a tall story; a piece of boasting or exaggeration

song The Three Ravens: ' Down in yonder green field / Down a down hey down hey down / There lies a knight slain 'neath his shield'.

Nummer (ger) = nummer (Dutch) - number

quaint - of things: Skilfully made, so as to have a good appearance, ingeniously or cunningly designed or contrived + 29

vagrant - one who wanders or roams about; wandering, straying, roving + WAGRAM - Village, Austria, 12 miles North-East of Vienna. Napoleon defeated the Austrian army there on 5-6 July 1809 + FDV: The wind is so westerly sowesterly around the downs & on every blasted knolly-oak - rock stuck high there's a the same gnarlybird gathering up one little true little free little poor little fine little slick little civil little late little nice little swell little a runlittle dolittle preelittle porelittle wipelittle pickalittle kickalittle eatlittle waitlittle dinelittle pinelittle kenlittle livealittle aleavenalittleleavenalittle pilfalittle gnarlybird.

piltdown - the name of a village in Sussex, England (piltdown man) [(notebook 1924): 'Piltdown man (Sussex)'; (notebook 1924): '150,000 Piltdown (Sussex)'].

knolly - full or abounding in knolls or hillocks

spy - to catch sight of, to discover + Spy, Man of - prehistoric fossils were found in the Belgian cave of Spy. 

gnarly - covered with protuberances; distorted, twisted + barley bird - name given locally to various birds appearing about the time of barley-sowing, as the wryneck, siskin, greenfinch, and sometimes the nightingale.

pree - to try what (a thing) is like esp. by tasting

helf- (ger) - help

pelf - to spoil, rob


bleak - barren, dismal + blackbird - a well-known European song-bird, a species of thrush.

Rothschild - one who resembles a member of the Rothschild family in being exceptionally rich; a millionaire + wroth - angry, filled with wrath.

uproar - an insurrection or rising of the populace; a serious tumult, commotion, or outbreak of disorder among the people or a body of persons; loud outcry or vociferation, noise of shouting or tumult + L'empereur (fr) - The emperor.

glav, glave, glaive (gael, archaic) - sword + glava (Serbian) - head.


skud (Danish) - a gun-shot

flap - to beat the wings, of a bird: To make way by flapping the wings

kraai (Dutch) - crow + kraak (Dutch) - crash, crack.

debacle - a sudden breaking up or downfall; a confused rush or rout

quarter - boundary or limit towards one of the cardinal points + kvarter (Danish) - district.


niver - never + FDV: She never comes out when Thon's there or on show shower or when Thon's a on flash with Thon's the tindergiris or when Thon's blowing thonders on Thon's gaelaboys gaelieboys down the gaels of Thon.  

thon - the one yonder, that + Thonar or Thon - god worshipped in England and on the Continent, maybe a form of Thor because his name is that of the Teutonic word for "thunder".

nixie - a female water elf

Nebo - Babybonian god whose name means "proclaimer," son of Merodach, introduced writing and general wisdom to the people +    nebo (Serbian) - sky +    nubo (l) - to cover, to veil, to marry + nubes (l) - cloud. 

not on your life - by no means, not on any account + nebula (l) - mist, vapor, fog + nebla (Rhaeto-Romanic) fog + liv (Danish) - life.

mooch - to pretend poverty, sneak, steal + muchly - much, exceedingly + FDV: [Her is be too moochy afeerd [I do veer. [Now she comes, a peacefugle, picking here, pecking there - - -] Pussypussy plunderbussy plunderpussy, it all goes into her nabsack & she borrowed burrowed the coach coacher's lamp to see. Cartridges & ratlin buttins & nappy boots & flags flasks of all nations & clavicurds & scampulars & piles of pennies & [moonlit] brooches with [bloodstaned] breeks in em & maps & keys & the last sigh that came from the heart & the first sin the sun saw. She brings us her We know all men by these her presents from the goneaway past how there'll be eggs for the brekkers come to mourning. For where there's a gale find [the] gall & wherethen a hind seek the hun. For there's wherever the gale seek guess find [the] gall & whenthere's a hind hunt seek the hun.]]

afreet - demon + afraid + freet (Anglo-Irish) - superstition.

Fee Fi Fo Fum - in the English folktale Jack and the Beanstalk, when the giant smells Jack, he declares: "Fee-fi-fo-fum, I smell the blood of an Englishman. Be he alive or be he dead, I'll grind his bones to make my bread." The giant then tells his wife, "I smell an English man. I am sure I am right this time. Cook him for my supper" + fè (Rhaeto-Romanic) - faith + fö (Rhaeto-Romanic) - fire + fom (Rhaeto-Romanic) - hunger + William Shakespeare: King Lear III.4.174: 'Fie, foh, and fum'.

jist - just

hope - to expect with desire, or to desire with expectation; to look forward to.

boys will be boys - an expression of resignation towards childish ways + phrase let bygones be bygones.

peaceful + fugle - leader + fugl (Danish) - bird.

paradise bird = bird-of-paradise + Most versions of the myth of Osiris relate that Isis took the form of a bird when she sought Osiris, and that she was accompanied by their shadowy sister, also a bird + Thomas Moore: Lalla Rookh: Paradise and the Peri.

peri - in Persian Mythology, one of a race of superhuman beings, originally represented as of evil or malevolent character, but subsequently as good genii, fairies, or angels, endowed with grace and beauty + very - possessing the true character of the person or thing named + perí (Czech) - feather + peri (Hebrew) - fruit.

godmother - a female sponsor considered in relation to her god-child + peri potmon (gr) - concerning fate, about death. 

Pringle, Sin John (1707-82) - according to Mr Knuth, a Scottish doctor, author of Observations on the Diseases of the Army in Camp and Garrison. His biographer was Andrew Kippis + pinglopiki (Esperanto) - pinprick + pik (Dutch) - penis; peck.

i land (Danish) - on land + i skip (Danish) - on board ship + kip (Dutch) - hen + landscape

peewee - a lapwing, the thin wailing cry of this bird; applied to a small child; spec. A small marble.

powwow - the working of cures; 'medicine'

flick - any sudden movement, a jerk

flask - a bottle, usually of glass, of spheroidal or bulbous shape, with a long narrow neck.

fleck - particle, to flutter about, to jerk, to move with quick vibrations + fling - to throw, cast, toss, hurl

pixilated - mentally somewhat unbalanced, confused, inchanted, bewitched; drunk.

pact + pack - a package, parcel, esp. one of considerable size or weight.

euhemerema (gr) - success, good luck 

peck - Of birds: To take (food) with the beak

plunder - robbery, pillage

armistice - a cessation from arms; a short truce + (notebook 1922-23): 'armitise'.


milito (l) - to be a soldier + milito (Esperanto) - war + paco (Esperanto) - peace + paucus (l) - few, a little + puknos (gr) - close, compact.


merry Christmas

minutia - very small in size, extent, amount, or degree + (notebook 1922-23): 'minutiae'.


truce - a suspension of hostilities for a specified period between armies at war, peace.

childer - children

neben (ger) - next to + nebo (Serbian) - sky.


burrow - to construct by burrowing, to excavate + borrowed

coacher - the driver of a coach

headlights - two powerful lamps carried on the front of a motor vehicle

pry - to look esp. to look closely or curiously

Siul, siul, siul a run, Siul go socair Agus siul go ciuin (shul shul shul/arun/shul go sukir/ogus shul gu kyun) (gael) - Go, go, go my dear, Go securely And go calmly (a song) + aroon (Anglo-Irish) - beloved (from Anglo-Irish: a rún).

knapsack - a bag or case of stout canvas or leather, worn by soldiers, strapped to the back and used for carrying necessaries; any similar receptacle used by travellers for carrying light articles.

cartridge - the case in which the exact charge of powder for fire-arms is made up.

rattling buttons +   (notebook 1923): 'ratlins' + FDV: ratlin buttins & nappy boots & flags flasks of all nations & clavicurds & scapu scampulars & piles of pennies & [moonlit] brooches with [bloodstaned] breeks in em & maps & keys & the last sigh that came from the heart & the first sin the sun saw.

nappy - having a nap, shaggy, fuzzy + nap - a special surface given to cloth of various kinds by artificial raising of the short fibres, with subsequent cutting and smoothing.

spattee - formerly, an outer stocking or legging worn by women for protection against wet and cold.

flask - a bottle, usually of glass, of spheroidal or bulbous shape, with a long narrow neck, applied esp. to the bottles of this form, protected by a covering of wicker-work or plaited grass, etc. in which wines and olive oil are exported from Italy

clavichord - a musical instrument with strings and keys + claviculer - a key keeper, turnkey + clavicula (l) - small key.

scapular - a short cloak covering the shoulders; prescribed by the Rule of St. Benedict to be worn by monks when engaged in manual labour.

woodpile - a pile of wood (as firewood)

hapenny - half penny

moonlet - a little moon

brooch - an ornamental fastening, consisting of a safety pin, with the clasping part fashioned into a ring, boss, shield, or other device of precious metal or other material, artistically wrought, set with jewels, etc.

bloodstone - a name applied to certain precious stones spotted or streaked with red, supposed in former times to have the power of staunching bleeding, when worn as amulets + stane - stone.

breeks - breeches + break - something abruptly breaking the line, or level; an irregularity, roughness, knot, etc.

boaston = boston - a card game + BOSTON - Seaport city, capital of Mass, US, home of the former Boston Evening Transcript.

chaussettes (fr) - socks

nickel - a hard silvery-white lustrous mineral + knick knack - a light dainty article of furniture, dress or food; a trinket.

nack - an acquired faculty of doing something cleverly or successfully

cate - an article of food, choice food; cat

howitzer - a short piece of ordnance, usually of light weight, specially designed for the horizontal firing of shells with small charges, and adapted for use in a mountainous country.

midge - a popular name loosely applied to many small gnat-like insects; an artificial fly for fishing.; a diminutive person.

magget = maggot

eel + il (fr) - he.

ell - a measuring rod = ell-wand + elle (fr) - she.

loff - laugh; loaf; love; luff

toff - a person of superior social status and often fashionable [Werner: Barnum 87: (Barnum) 'believed that when in London he must do as the toffs did'].

pleura (gr) - rib + pleur (fr) - tear. 

boek (Dutch) - book + lied (Dutch) - song.

Sin - Babylonian moon-god + Bédier: Le Roman de Tristan et Iseut 3: (Tristan's mother immediately after giving birth to him, while mourning for her recently-slain husband): '"Son, she said to him, I have long wished to see you; and I see the fairest thing that ever a woman bore... And as you came into the world through sadness, your name shall be Tristan." When she had said these words, she kissed him, and, as soon as she had kissed him, she died'.

cearc (kark) (gael) - hen + ceart (kart) (gael) - correct

slain - p. p. od slay; smut in grain + slainte (slant'i) (gael) - Health!

beautiful + (notebook 1924): 'booty & beauty' + Gwynn: The History of Ireland 9: 'The rulers of Ireland, whose wars with one another for land and for booty are described in the romances, were Gaelic by blood'.

true to - consistent with, exactly agreeing with

strongly + streng verboden (Dutch) - strictly forbidden.

historic present (tense) - grammarians' term for Latin historians' use of present tense to vivify narrative of past actions.

post prophesy - to prophesy after the event

lordy - exp. of surprise or astonishment + heir - inheritor.

lady's maid - a woman servant whose special duty it is to attend to the toilet of a lady.

a nice or pretty kettle of fish - an awkward state of things, a 'muddle'.

In the midst of life we are in death (from the 'Order for the Burial of the Dead').

laff - laugh

plore - to weep, wail

naperon - apron

sabots (fr) - wooden shoes

aria - a connected succession of musical sounds in expressive rhythmical arrangement + airs

sair - sore + sa sær (Danish) - so odd.

solly - solely; strange, marvellous, wonderful + sorry

Grick - Greek

Trojan - an inhabitant or native of Troy


byway - a secondary or little known aspect or field

improvidence - unforeseeing

lifework - the entire or principal work of one's lifetime + worth

cell - a small apartment, room, or dwelling

cit - townsman, an inhabitant of a city + sit

wimman - woman + old woman's story - a foolish story.

run away with - to carry off (something)

min - mind, memory, intention + min (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - men + min (Dutch) - love; wet nurse.

smooth - using specious or attractive language; plausible, bland, insinuating, flattering, (usually with implication of insincerity or selfish designs).

behind (one's) back - after one has left (a company), in one's absence

butteler - butler (a servant who has charge of the wine-cellar and dispenses the liquor). 

song 'While London Sleeps'

ye - you

tin - money, cash

mercenary - working merely for the sake of monetary or other reward, actuated by considerations of self-interest.

the fat of the land - the richest or most nourishing part of the land, the choicest produce (of the earth) + the lie of the land - the state of affairs.

liquidation - the action or process of ascertaining and apportioning the amounts of a debt, the clearing off or settling (of a debt).

flood + Flut (ger) - flood + flute! (fr) - expletive.

nare - were not; never



glabrous - free from hair, down, or the like; having a smooth skin or surface + glaub- (ger) - believe.

place + face.

Herr (ger) - mister, gentleman + Schuft (ger) - rogue, scoundrel + Herrschaft (ger) - mastery + Whatarwelter, Herrschuft - plays about with German Der Herr schuf die Welt ("The Lord created the world"), with Schuft, "rascal"; Weltherrschaft is "domination of the world." See Letters, I, 248. (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake) 

welter - the rolling, tossing, or tumbling (of the sea or waves)

loan - to grant the loan of, to lend + children's game: Push the Business On: 'I hired a horse and borrowed a gig, And all the world shall have a jig; And I'll do all 'at ever I can To push the business on.

vesta - a kind of wax match

hire - to procure the temporary use of (any thing) for stipulated payment.

sarch - search

to warm the cockles of one's heart - to rejoice, delight + cockle - a kind of stove for heating apartments.

turfman - a devotee of horse racings, one who study fine grasses, their care and uses + turf - a slab or block of peat dug for use as fuel.

piff - an imitation of various sounds = piff paff + piffer (fr) - to smell.

puff - to blow short blasts (with mouth or bellows) upon (a fire) to make it burn up (obs.)

poff - puff (obs.)

humpty - hunch backed + Humpty Dumpty

frump - a mocking speech or action; a flout, jeer. Obs. + plenty

awkward - lacking dexterity or skill in performing their part; clumsy in action, bungling.

remonstrancer - one who makes reproof, complaint (to some authority), raise an objection, urges strong reasons against a course of action.

eggs + (notebook 1924): 'eggs with sunny side up'.

brekker - breakfast (slang)

sunny side up - egg fried on one side only + Freeman's Journal 8 Feb 1924, 8/4: 'By the Way': 'poached eggs, or, as we say, 'eggs with the sunny side up''.

turnover - the action of turning over, in various senses (to agitate or revolve in the mind, go through and examine mentally); English penny + turnover (Anglo-Irish) - loaf of bread shaped somewhat like a boot.

tay - tea + the tea is wet (Anglo-Irish phrase) - the tea is ready (also euphemism for sexual intercourse).

hind - a servant, a married and skilled farm workman; situated behind.

hin - him + hin (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - hen.

behaviourism - a theory and method of psychological investigation based on the study of behaviour + favourite + FDV: The best cheapest plan is to tour round east & north & to the review the of two mounds. Pardon. Behold this sound of Irish sense. Really? Here English might be seen. Royally? _____ A sovereign punned to paltry pence. Regally? A silence makes a scene. Behold! / Hush! Caution! Echoland!

bandy - a game, also called bandy-ball, in which a small ball is driven to and fro over the ground, with bent club sticks, by two sides of players.

frute - frog, toad

firstling - the first of its kind to be produced, come into being, or appear, the first product or result of anything.

tithe - the tenth part of the annual produce of agriculture, etc., being a due or payment (orig. in kind) for the support of the priesthood, religious establishments, etc.

review - the act of looking over something (again), with a view to correction or improvement + REVUE DES DEUX MONDES (literally French 'Review of the Two Worlds') - A journal of literature, history, art, and science, published in Paris since 1831.  

Himmel (ger) - sky, heaven

at six and seven - in disorder, confused

hills + Hugel (ger) - hill.

colline - a small hill + colleen (Anglo-Irish) = cailin (kolin) (gael) - girl.

sitting around + aroon (Anglo-Irish) - my dear, beloved.

breech - to cover or clothe with, or as with, breeches

swish - a hissing sound

satin - a woman's satin dress

taffeta - a crisp plainwoven fabric

tights - a tight fitting breeches

STARFORT - Begun but never completed as an extensive fortified enclosure North-East of site of the later Magazine Fort in Phoenix Park, on the initiative of the Duke of Wharton; intended as a refuge in the event of a rebellion in Dublin. It was known to Dubliners as "Wharton's Folly" (a name often mistakenly ascribed to the Magazine Fort, which was built years after Wharton's death) + Wharton, Thomas, Marquis of (1648-1715) - author of "Lilliburlero." When he was viceroy, Dublin Castle, O'Mahony says, became "a glorified tavern and brothel," and in the Phoenix Park was built the Star Fort, locally known as "Wharton's Folly." It is my impression that in I,i, Joyce assumes "Wharton's Folly" to be the Magazine, which erection caused Swift to say: "Where nothing's left that's worth defense..." (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake). 

planco (Esperanto) - ground

Micky and Minny Mouse - in Disney's cartoons + micky (Dublin Slang) - penis.

strake - strike; a strip of land, a beam of light

by order - without delay, immediately

Berg (ger) - hill + Alf Bergan - law clerk to the subsheriff in City Hall on Cork Hill, Dublin (character in 'Ulysses').

ARBOUR HILL - Dublin station, runs North of Marlborough (now Collins) Barracks to Stoneybatter.  

gambol - to leap or spring, in dancing or sporting

SUMMERHILL - Street, and the adjoining district, North-East Dublin, which continues Parnell Street to Ballybough Road at the Royal Canal. 

Olaf the White - became first Norse king of Dublin, ca 852. According to Giraldus Cambrensis, three brothers, Olaf, Ivor, Sitric, built the cities of Dublin, Limerick, Waterford.

to scrape along - to manage or 'get along' with difficulty

to squeeze out - to reduce to, or bring into, a specified condition by pressure, to drain or exhaust in this way.

salve - to heal, remedy, mend, make good, make up, smooth over

rabulous - using such language as only the licence of a buffoon can warrant; characterized by coarseness or indecency of language, esp. in jesting and invective; coarsely opprobrious or jocular + Romulus and Remus - twins, suckled by a she-wolf, who began to found Rome together. Romulus killed Remus, founded Rome by himself, and became its first king. 

kipper - a name given to the male salmon (or sea trout) during the spawning season + "Phil the Fluther's Ball" (song): "Hopping in the middle, like a herrin' on the griddle-O!"

griddle = gridiron (obs.) - a cooking utensil formed of parallel bars of iron or other metal in a frame, usually supported on short legs, and used for broiling flesh or fish over a fire.

dormant - sleeping, lying asleep or as asleep + mont (fr) = Berg (ger) - mountain.

Pie Poudre - a court formerly held at a fair for quick treatment of hawkers, etc. + pied de poudre (French) - foot of dust → clay feet + poudre (French) - gunpowder → the Magazine Fort in the Phoenix Park.

behove - to have use for or need to, to require + Magazine Wall in Phoenix Park on Thomas Hill, "the finest site in all the district, commanding an unrivalled view of Dublin city, the Liffey valley, and the mountains and country to the southward." This splendid natural stage saw the drama of human futility that caused Swift to write: "Behold a proof of Irish sense,/Here Irish wit is seen,/Where nothing's left that's worth defense,/They build a magazine."  

punned - p. of pun (to beat, to pound, to make puns) + pound

Peter's penny - an annual tax or tribute of a penny from each householder having land of a certain value, paid before the Reformation to the papal see at Rome.

fake - an act of 'faking'; a contrivance, 'dodge', trick, invention


outwash - material carried out from the glacier by melt water + to wash out - to obliterate + FDV: How charmingly exquisite! It reminds you of the fading engraving engravure that used to be blurring on the blotchwall of his innkempt house. Used they? (I am sure that [tiring] tramp [with the chocolate box [, Miny Mitchel,]] was listening.) I say, the remains of the famous gravemures where used to be blurried the Tollmens of the Incabus. Used he we? (He is only pretending to be sounding his tugging at the box harp from a second tired listener. Fiery Phil Fergus Farrelly) It is well known. Look for himself. See? By the mausoleme mausolime wall. Finnfinn Fimfim Fannfann fimfim. With with a grand funferall. Fumfum fumfum!

engravure - an egraving 

blur - to make blurs in writing; to obscure or sully (what has been fair) by smearing with ink or other colouring liquid.

back wall + blotch - a large irregular spot or blot of ink, colour, etc.

unkempt - neglected, not cared for

chapel + shoveller - one who walks lazily; one who intrudes + FDV: I am sure that [tiring] tramp [with the chocolate box [, Miny Mitchell,]] was listening.

mujik - a Russian peasant + music box - a mechanical musical instrument consisting of a revolving toothed cylinder working upon a resonant comb-like metal plate, a barrlel organ + magic box - applied colloq. to various, esp. electronic, devices + magical = magic.

miry - resembling a mire, boggy, stained with mire + merry

outworn - obliterated by the action of time

mure - a wall; mire (a mass of dirt); moor (uncultivated ground covered with heather).


dolmen - a structure of prehistoric age consisting of a large flat or flattish unhewn stone resting horizontally on three or more stones set upright + Ptolemy - 2d-century Alexandrian mathematician, astronomer, geographer. In Geographike syntaxis, he gives an inaccurate description of Ireland, calls Dublin "Eblana," and Howth an island. 

incubus - a feigned evil spirit or demon (originating in personified representations of the nightmare) supposed to descend upon persons in their sleep, and especially to seek carnal intercourse with women.

pretendent - pretender, claimant, one who lays a claim at something, one who simulates.

stug - to stab, pierce + FDV: (He is only pretending to be sounding his tugging at the box harp from a second tired listener. Fiery Phil Fergus Farrelly) It is well known. Look for himself. See? By the mausoleme mausolime wall. Finnfinn. Fimfim. Fannfann fimfim. With with a grand funferall. Fumfum fumfum!

Jubal and Tubal Cain - Jubal was "father of all such as handle the harp and organ"; Tubal was "instructor of every artificer in brass and iron" (Genesis, 4.) Their brother Jabal was father of those who live in tents and have cattle.

fiery - burning, blazing, red, full of spirit, emotion, etc.

lokk - to lock + look

butte - an isolated hill with steep sides

mausoleum - the magnificent tomb of Mausolus

funeral + funfair - a fair which is devoted to amusements.

fumfum - expressing the sound of a stringed instrument; a thumping or beating.

optophone - an instrument by which light variations are converted into sound variations so that blind person is enabled to locate and estimate varying degrees of light.

list - listen

Wheatstone - English scientist

magic eye - a miniature cathode-ray tube used as a tuning indicator on a radio receiver, or to indicate the correct adjustment of other electrical equipment.

lyer - liar

tuggle - to struggle, labour, to drag about + FDV: They will be tuggling forever. They will be listling forever. They will be pretumbling forever. The Their harpsichord harpsdischord will be theirs forever.

foriver (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - forever

lichen - to cover with or as if with lichens + listening

forover (Danish) - forwards

discord - disagreement or want of harmony between two or more musical notes sounded together; dissonance.

ollave - a learned man in ancient Ireland + always

Herodotus - Greek historian of the fifth century b.c. + hereditary + FDV: And four Four things therefore these four, saith Mamalu Mamalujius in his Grand Old Historiorum writ by Boriorum, sall ne'er fail in to Dyfflinarsky till [the] heathersmoke & the cloudweed Eire's isle Sall hide. [And here now they are the four of them four Erins.]  

mammon - wealth, money + Mark, Mathew, Luke, John

best + blue - depressing, unpromising, boring.

baile - dance, a social gathering for dancing

annals - historical records generally

f.t. (Norwegian) - at present (short for 'for tiden')

Dyfflinarsky - the area around Dublin 

sall - shall

til - till + heather - native species of the genus Erica (bot.)

Eire - Ireland isle

ile - isle

pall - to cover with a pall (a rich cloth spread upon or over something; a coverlet); something, such as a cloud, that extends over a thing or region and produces an effect of gloom.

adar - the 6th month of civil and 12th month of ecclestiastical year in Jewish calendar + Adar = Eadair (Irish) - Howth.

toties (l) - so many times, as many times

unum (l) - one

boss - spec. A hump or hunch on the back (obs.) + FDV: A swellhead swelledhead bulbenhead on surmounting surmounted an alderman. Ay, ay! A shoe on a poor old woman. Ah, ho! An auburn maid, a bridabride, to be deserted. Adear, adear! A pen no weightier than a polepost. And so. And all.

surmount - to mount, rise, or ascend above (also fig.), also, to reach or extend above, surpass in height, be higher than, overtop, to mount upon, get on the top of.

alderman - a senior, signor, superior, ruler; a noble or person of high rank.

duum (l) - of two

nizam (arab) - order + nisan - 7th month of c. year and 1. of ecc. year (jew.)

puir - poor + Poor Old Woman or Shan Van Vocht - Ireland (poetically). 


trium (l) - of three

tamuz - 10th and 4th month + Tammuz - Babybonian slain god, called Adonis by Phoenicians. Tammuz is the 6th month in the Babylonian calendar. The Annals, 13-14, are zodiacal (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake).

auburn - of a golden-brown or ruddy-brown colour



brine - the water of the sea; the sea

desart = desert - to abandon, forsake

quodlibet (l) - as many as one pleases, what you please + quodlibet - 1) a philosophical argument or debate, especially as an exercise; 2) a humorous medley of tunes. 

marcheshvan - 2th and 8th month

penn - pen (obs.)

succoth = sukkoth - Jewish Harvest Festival, sometimes called the Jewish Thanksgiving, or the Feast of Tabernacles. It begins on the 15th day of the Hebrew month of Tishri (roughly late September), on the fifth day after Yom Kippur. The celebration lasts for 7 days, during which the Jews commemorate the wandering in the wilderness + (notebook 1923): 'Succoth (Patrick)'.

idler - one who is idle + FDV: The Annals tell bring how / 1132 AC AB Men like gnats to ants wondern all over on a groot Wide Wallfisch that lay in a Runnel. Bloaty Blubber Blubby wares in upat Eblanium. / 566 A.C. B.A. On Bell Baalfirenacht Ballfireeve of this year a crone that hadde a wickered kish for to hale dead turves from the bog lookit under the blay of her kish as she ran & found herself full rich sackvulle of swalle swart goody shoon quickenshoon & smalle illigant brogues. Bluchy works on at Hurdlesford. / [Silent]

innocent + innocens (l) - harmless + Innocent - thirteen popes, one antipope; Innocent II, who opposed Anacletus, the antipope, in 1132.

The Heathen Priests and Philosophers hailed him [Julian the Apostate] the divine Anaclete (the Recalled), the re-ascending Apollo.

popeye - a staring bulging eye + Popeye - of "Thimble Theatre", American comic strip.

antipope - one claiming to be pope in opposition to the pope chosen

boke - vomit, belch + Book of the Dead

(notebook 1924): 'timed his cycle'

fossil - fosil

emmet - A synonym of ant (chiefly dial., but often used poet. or arch.)

wandern (ger) - wander

groot - mud, soil, earth + groot (Dutch) - great, large.    

hwide - hide + hvid (Danish) - white + white

whalefish - a whale + whall - wall + fisk (Danish) - fish + Walfisch (ger) - whale +  Annals of Dublin record: 'A great famine relieved by a prodigious shoal of fish, called Turlehydes, being cast on shore at the mouth of the Dodder. They were from 30 to 40 feet long, and so thick that men standing on each side of one of them, could not see those on the other. Upwards of 200 of them were killed by the people'.

runnel - a small watercourse or channel, a gutter; a small stream of water, rivulet.

bloody + blub - swollen, puffed.

ware - seaweed; esp. large drift seaweed used as manure; A collective term for: Articles of merchandise or manufacture; vessels, etc., made of baked clay.

Eblana - the Latin name appears on Ptolemy's map of Ireland around the North part of what appears to be Dublin Bay. There is no evidence that it refers to an ancient settlement on the site of Dublin, but it has been so often cited as the Latin name of Dublin + Dublinium (Latin) - Dublin.

Baal - The chief male deity of the Phoenician and Canaanitish nations; hence, transf. false god + [Baalfire's] = half trans. Bealtaine (gael) - May Festival, May Day (lit. Beal's [a god] fire) + baal (Danish) - bonfire.

crone - a withered old woman

wickered - made of wicker (a pliant twig or small rod, usually of willow, esp. as used for making baskets).

kish - a large square wicker basket used in Ireland for carrying peat.

hale - to draw or pull along, or from one place to another

turves - pl. of turf

lookit - look at (only in imperative) + looked

blay - the name of a small fish, the bleak; dark, gray, black + Baile Atha Cis (blaakish) (gael) - Town of the Ford of Wickerwork (Dublin) + Joyce's note: 'blay' Irish Independent 23 Jan 1924, 1/6: 'McGuires Great Sale Offers': 'Unbleached Twill Sheets. 1,500 pairs of Good Blay Sheets for Single Beds. Sale Price Each... 2/3'.

satisfy + Sothis - Egyptian goddess, personified as star Sirius (the "dog star"). In the pyramid text, Sothis is described as having united with the king/Osiris to give birth to the morning star, Venus, and through her association with that netherworld god, she was naturally identified with Isis, who she was eventually synchronized with as Isis-Sothis. The earliest known depictions of Sothis, known from a 1st Dynasty ivory tablet belonging to Djer and unearthed at Abydos, represent the goddess as a reclining cow with a plant-like emblem (perhaps representing the "year") between her horns + Feige (ger) - fig; vagina + feige (ger) - cowardly.


sawl - soul

sackful - the quantity that fills a sack + vull - full + Sackvllle, Lionel Cranfield, 1st duke of Dorset - Irish viceroy (1750-54). Sackville (now O'Connell) Street bore his name. 

swart - dark in colour, black or blackish + smart + svært gode (Norwegian) - mighty good.

goody - affectedly or unctuously good + (notebook 1923): 'Goodytwoshoes'.

quicken - arouse, excite, revive, hasten, to shine brightly + shoon - dial. pl. of shoe + FDV: found herself full rich sackvulle of swalle swart goody shoon quickenshoon and & smalle illigant brogues. Bluchy works on at Hurdlesford.

illigant - elegant

brogue - a rude kind of shoe, generally made of untanned hide, worn by the inhabitants of the wilder parts of Ireland and the Scotch Highlands + "Finnegan's Wake" (song): “He'd a beautiful brogue so rich and sweet” + Anglo-Irish phrase ignorant as a kish of brogues (literally 'ignorant as a basket of shoes').

blurry - blurred

Town of the Ford of the Hurdle - Dublin

fall out - to happen, come to pass + FDV: 566 A.D. O.D. At that time it came to pass that many 2 fair bronzelocked maidens grieved to because their minions minion were was ravished of them by an ogre Europeus Pius. Bloody wars in Dublin Ballyaughacleeaghbally.

brazen - resembling brass in colour + lock - one of the portions into which a head of hair, a beard, etc., naturally divides itself; a tress. In pl. often = the hair of the head collectively.

damsel - a young unmarried woman

grieve - to feel grief, to be mentally pained or distressed, to sorrow deeply.

sobre las olas (sp) - over (on) the waves

puppet - darling, pet + Pepette, (French argot for "money"), Pipette (Fr. argot, "pipe"), Popote (Fr. argot, "cooking," "mess hall"), these are associated with "Ppt," which is what Swift called Stella in Journal to Stella. 

minion - darling, favourite, a lover

ravished - carried away by force; violated; ravaged

ogre - a man-eating monster, usually represented as a hideous giant, a man likened to such a monster in appearance or character.

purpose  + pia e pura bella - Vico's Latin catch-phrase for holy wars: 'pious and pure wars' + Vico's pura et pia bella (see New Science, 958, 1049) -  In FW the phrase is sometimes used for a girl's name - say, Issy or Stella - and ought, I'm sure, to connect with Plurabelle. It must be remembered that a girl, Biddy O'Brien, caused the war at Finnegan's wake. (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake) + Purpeus (l) - Fire-eye + Purpeous Pius (l) - Fire-eye the Dutiful.

pious - faithful to religious duties and observances; devout; dutiful, duteous; epithet used of Aeneas by Vergil; title affected by the emperors from Antoninus (a.d. 86-161) onward; name of 12 popes the first appearing in the year of the Lord (a.d.).


until (Archaic) - unto

goodman - husband, innkeeper, landlord + FDV: 1132 A.D. D.O. Two sons at one time hour were born to a goodman & his wife hag. There were name Caddy & Primas. Primo Primas was a gentleman & came of sentryman & drilled by decent dacent people. Caddy went to Winehouse & wrote a piece peace of fun farce. Blooty worse words in Ballyaughacleeagh in Ballyaughacleeaghbally.         Blooty words for Dublin.

hag - an ugly, repulsive old woman: often with implication of viciousness or maliciousness; an evil spirit, dæmon, or infernal being, in female form; woman supposed to have dealings with Satan and the infernal world; a witch; sometimes, an infernally wicked woman.

caddy - lad, a military cadet, one who takes odd jobs

primus (l) - the first + prima (ger) - first grade + Primas (ger) - archbishop.

sentry - an armed soldier posted at a specified point to keep guard and to prevent the passing of an unauthorized person + country man - one who lives in the country or rural parts and follows a rural occupation + nursery rhyme 'Saint Patrick was a gentleman and came of decent people'.

winehouse - wineshop; tavern (Archaic)

farce - a dramatic work (usually short) which has for its sole object to excite laughter + nursery rhyme 'Taffy came to my house and stole a piece of beef'.

blotty - dauby + Rocky Road to Dublin - the road of the well-known ballad may preserve a memory of the ancient Slighe Cualan, which reached the ford of the hurdles from Tara by something like the route of Stoneybatter. The road of the ballad is from Tuam to Dublin via Mullingar. 

parent - apparent

ginn - gin + GINNUNGA GAP - In Norse myth, the eternal region of chaos between Niflheim, North region of mist and cold, and Muspelheim, South region of heat. Localized as the North Atlantic between Greenland and Labrador + Sullivan: The Book of Kells 11: 'the larger figure was a later addition in order to fill a space left vacant when the original artist had touched the Manuscript for the last time... we can almost see from the illumination itself the very place where he was hurried from his work'

(notebook 1924): 'gap - copyist hurries away'

antediluvian - concerning or referring to the period before the Flood

Anno Domini - in the year of the Christian era

copyist - one who copies or imitates; esp. one whose occupation is to transcribe documents.

scroll - a roll of paper or parchment, usually one with writing upon it + Sullivan: The Book of Kells 4: 'The last few leaves of the Manuscript... have been missing for many years').

billy - fellow; companion; a bludgeon; also (U.S.), a policeman's truncheon.

elk - the largest existing animal of the deer kind

satrap - a subordinate ruler; often suggesting an imputation of tyranny or ostentatious splendour.

wright - a constructive workman + (notebook 1924): 'Worldwright' Jespersen: The Growth and Structure of the English Language 164 (sec. 162): 'Old English had various methods of forming nouns to denote agents... from... wyrhta 'wright' (in wheelwright, etc.)'

excelsus (l) - high + excelsissimus (l) - very highest.

empyrean - heaven, the highest heaven, the ultimate heavenly paradise + (notebook 1924): 'empyrean = ciel tout court'.

bolt - thunderbolt, a lightning stroke


Dannyman - sinister hunchback, informer in The Colleen Bawn; (hence, 'informer') + Dana or Danu - Irish goddess of death and fertility, great mother of all the gods of the Tuatha Dé Danaan (i.e., "People of Dana"). 

gallous = gallows + gallus (l) - cock.

pan - face, cranium + upon

døren (Danish) - the door + Biddy Doran + duren (Ruthenian - Ukrainian) - fool, idiot.

suicide + scribe - a scrap of writing.

lead off - to begin, make a beginning in; to open (a conversation or discussion).

fine - end, close; a sum paid for exemption from punishment; a sum of money paid for any benefit or favor + Joyce's note: 'I. Scand in moyenage killing = fine 4/6 / Eng 19th Cent steal 4/6 = death' Gwynn: The History of Ireland 25: 'the law which laid down that killing should be atoned for by a fine, legally fixed - as was the usage in Ireland so long as the native law lasted... It was followed through all Scandinavia throughout the Middle Ages, and although it has been described as barbarous, it is less so than the excessive use of capital punishment characteristic of English law, under which even in the nineteenth century pocket-picking or sheep-stealing was punishable with death'.

mark - 160 pence (value of mark weight in pure silver) + mark weight - 8 ounces.

ninepins - a game in which nine 'pins' are set up to be knocked down by a ball or bowl thrown at them, the pins with which this game is played + nine pennies

metalman - a worker who melts metal, a man made of metal + (notebook 1924): 'metal men'.

dross - impurity, rubbish, refuse + (notebook 1923): 'dross'.

now and again - from time to time, occasionally

upshoot - outcome, final result

cynosure - something that attracts attention by its brilliancy or beauty + gyne - the fertile female in a colony of social insects + sinecure (derived from Latin sine cura (l) - without care).

scaffold - an elevated platform on which a criminal is executed + to bring or send to the scaffold  - 'to be executed'.

covertly - in a concealed manner; secretly, privately

meddlement - meddling, interference

drawers - an undergarment for the lower part of the body

wife + (notebook 1924): 'Liam O'Flaherty Thy Neighbour's Wife' + Exodus 20:17: 'thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife' (9th Commandment, according to Roman Catholic tradition).

farfetched - improbable, not natural, from remote time or place + Annals of the Four Masters was compiled in the Franciscan monastery of Donegal by four or five masters whose names vary from list to list. Mr O Hehir gives the names used in FW as Michael O'Clery, Farfassa O'Mulcnory, Peregrine O'Duignam, and Conry, who may be Conry O'Clery

peregrine - roving, alien (adj.)

clere - clear

Crawford: Thinking Black 251: 'For the hundreds of night sounds - rustlings, twitterings, raspings, tinglings, and roarings - are all known to even Africa's tot, the ears being called his "eyes of darkness"' [(notebook 1924): 'ear = eye of dark'].

(notebook 1924): 'liberflavus' + lividus (l) - bluish + Liber Lividus (l) - Blue Book → Ulysses, which was first published with a blue dustjacket (the colour of the Greek flag) and was regarded as a "blue book" (i.e. an obscene or pornographic book) → FW 013.21 bluest book on the previous page. 

paisible - peaceable + FDV: Yet how Peaceably eirinical in grayquiet all dimmering downs dunes & gloamering glades, selfstretches afore us this freedland's plain. Since the high old times of Hebear and Hairyman the tulipair tulips twolips amass themselves at Rush the cornflowers have been staying at Ballymun, the dogrose duskrose has chosen choosed out Goatstown crossroads, twolips have pressed togatherthem by sweet Rush, the place for townland of twilights twinlights, and the whitethorn and redthorn have fairygayed the valleys mayvalleys of Knockmaroon and though, for rings round them during a hundred thousand yeargangs, the Formoreans have brittled the Tooath of the Danes and the Oxmen Oxman have has been pestered by the Firebugs & the Joynts have given thrown up wallmaking & Little on the Green is childsfather of the city, their these paxsealing buttonholes have quadruled across the centuries and here now whiff to us fresh & made-of-all-smiles as on the day of combat Killallwhoo.  

toh! (it) - look!

eirenical - peaceful, harmonical

dimmer - to appear dimly, faintly, or indistinctly

dune - an ancient hill fortress in Ireland; a mound of drifted sand

gloam - to darken, to become dark + glimmering

glade - a clear open space or passage in a wood or forest

frede - to be sensible of, feel + Fried- (ger) - peace + fred (Norwegian) - peace + faedreland (Danish) - Fatherland → Ireland, whose five fifths (the five provinces of the early Christian period) are enumerated in the following five phrases + Friedland - Commune in East Prussia. Napoleon defeated Russians under General Bennigsem, 14 June 1807.

lean - not plump or fat, thin

neath - beneath

stone pine - a pine with wide-spreading glat topped head + pine (French Slang) - penis.

pastor - a herdsman or shepherd (now unusual) + pastor (l) - a herdsman + St Patrick → buried in Ulster, hence this phrase refers to the province of Ulster.

crook - a shepard's staff (with a curve)

pricket - a buck in his second year + prick (Slang) - penis.

nibble - to bite away little by little

viridity - a quality or state of being green, greenness (i.e. green vegetation) + viridis (l) - green.

herbtrinity - plant with violet flowers

sham - to be or to produce a deceptive imitation of, to feign

lowliness - meekness, humility + loveliness - the quality of being lovely, exquisite beauty.

donkey's years - a very long time [(notebook 1924): 'donkeys years since'].

bout - a round at fighting; a contest, match, trial of strength + bout (French Slang) - penis.

Genesis 27:11: 'Esau my brother is a hairy man'

cornflower - plant with blue, pink or white rays

BALLYMUN - Village, North Dublin suburb on road to Naul

muskrose - (so called from its musky odour) a rambling rose (Rosa moschata), having large fragrant white flowers, in panicled clusters.


sweetrush - a marsh herb with long leaves + RUSH - Village and seaside resort, County Dublin, 18 miles North of Dublin.  

townland - in Ireland, A division of land of varying extent; also, a territorial division, a township.

twined - that has been twined, in various senses of the verb; twisted, plaited, curled, coiled, wreathed, etc.

witethorn - a hawthorn

figure - to adorn or mark with figures, to embellish or ornament with a design or pattern.

maroon - a large kind of sweet chestnut native to Southern Europe

chiliad - 1000 years

perihelion - that point in the orbit of a planet at which it is nearest to the sun + perihelios (gr) - around-the-sun. 

Fomhor (fower) (gael) - legendary pirates harassing pre-Milesian colonists; anglic. Fomorians.

brittle - to cut to pieces

teeth +  oath + tuath (tue) (gael) - region, territory; folk + Tuatha De Danann (tue de donun) (gael) - Folk of the Goddess Dana, fourth legendary colonists of Ireland.

oxman - a man who tends or drives oxen

firebug - arsonist, the fire-fly + Fir Bolga (fir bulgu) (gael) - Bags Men, third legendary colonists, related to Tuatha De Danann, subjugated by Milesians; anglic. Firbolgs.

throw up - to erect or construct hastily; to cease definitely to do, quit, give up + FDV: Joynts have given thrown up wallmaking

jerrybuild - to build flimsily of materials of poor quality

pax (l) - peace

button hole - the hole or slit through which a button passes, an opening like a buttonhole; button-hole flower (Colloquial).

quadrille - to dance quadrilles (a square dance, of French origin, usually performed by four couples, and containing five sections or figures, each of which is a complete dance in itself).

whiff - a slight puff or gust of wind, a breath

waft - to blow softly, to send through the air

Cill Dha Lua (kilgalu) (gael) - Church of [St.] Dalua, Co. Clare, site of Brian Boru's palace; anglic. Killaloe [(notebook 1924): 'Killaloe'] + FDV: combat Killallwho

FDV: The babbling babblers of with their tongues have been & have gone, they were & went, thigging thugs were and houhynam songtoms were & gumly comely norgers norgels were & pollyfool francees fiancees; men have thawed, clerks have surssurummed surssurhummed, the blond has sought of the brune: Else kiss thou may mean [kerry] piggy?: and the duncle duncledames have countered to the hellish fellows: Who ails tongue coddo, aspace dumbbeksally dumbbillselly? & they fell upon one another & themselves they fell have fallen: yet still [nowanights as all in nights of yore] do all the bold Floras floras of the field to their fauns shyfaun lovers say only: Cull me I am ere I wilt to thee, and but a little later: Pluck me ere whilst I blush. Well, may they wilt, marry! And profusedly blush, be troth! For that saying is as old as the howths, wherever you have lay a whale in a whillbarrow (isn't it the truath I'm tallen ye?) you'll have fins & flippers to shimmy & shake. / Excuse us, Lictor. Can you direct one to the (Sic. Joyce ended his primitive draft here. Revision preceded the writing of the pseudohistoric dialogue between Mutt and Jute and perhaps also the Annals passage cited above.)

Babel - the city and tower, of which the attempted construction is described in Genesis xi, where the confusion of languages is said to have taken place; a confused assemblage.

teanga (Irish) - tongue, language

thigging - begging + tuigeann tú (Irish) - you understand.

thug - gangster

Houyhnhnm - The name given by Swift in Gulliver's Travels to one of a race of beings described as horses endowed with reason and bearing rule over a degraded brutish race of men, called the Yahoos.

Sodom - an extremely wicked or corrupt place. Freq. coupled with Gomorrah, the name of the other of the two wicked cities of the plain in Gen. xviii-xix.

comely - having a pleasing appearence

norgeln (ger) - to grumble, complain + Norge (Norwegian) - Norway.

Parlez-vous Français? (French) - do you speak French?

thaw - to abandon aloofness, reserve or hostility, to become softened in feelings.

Sursum corda - ( (l) sursum upwards + corda, pl. of cor hear) in Latin Eucharistic liturgies, the words addressed by the celebrant to the congregation at the beginning of the Eucharistic Prayer; in English rites, the corresponding versicle, 'Lift up your hearts' + susurro (l) - to hum, buzz, murmur + sussurrare (Italian) - to whisper.

sought - p. od seek

brune - dark, brown, black + The blond invaders (comely norgels or Norse) desire the brunette women of Ireland.

elsker du mig, min kaere pige? (Danish) - do you love me, my dear?

piggy - a little pig, having attributes of pig + FDV: Else kiss thou may mean [kerry] piggy?

counter - to meet; to encounter or engage in combat

hellish - infernal, diabolical, devilish + hail fellow - an intimate or familiar associate, the state or footing of intimate friends.

où est ton cadeau, espèce d’imbecile? (French) - where is your gift, you imbecile?

fall upon - to rush upon, assault

nowanights - on present nights

flora - the plants; in Latin mythology, the goddess of flowers; hence, in modern poetical language, the personification of nature's power in producing flowers + Matthew 6:28: 'lilies of the field'.

faun - one of a class of rural deities; at first represented like men with horns and the tail of a goat, afterwards with goats' legs like the Satyrs, to whom they were assimilated in lustful character + fauna - a collective term applied to the animals + FDV: to their fauns shyfaun lovers say only:

cull - to gather, pluck

wilt - Of plants or their parts: To become limp or flaccid, through heat or drought.

whilst - while

marry - an exclamation of asseveration, surprise, etc.

in troth - truly, verily, really, indeed

old as the hills - very old + howitz - cannon + FDV: For that saying is as old as the howths

lave - leave + laver (fr) - to wash.

a while - for a (short or moderate) time

wheel barrow - a barrow or shallow open box mounted between two shafts that receive the axle of a wheel at the front ends, the rear ends being shaped into handles and having legs on which it rests.

flipper - the fin of a fish [(notebook 1923): 'flippers (whale)'].

shimmy - to oscilate abnormally + Finnegan's Wake (song), chorus: 'Whack fol the dah, dance to your partner, Welt the flure, yer trotters shake, Wasn't it the truth I told you Lots of fun at Finnegan's Wake' (originally, Poole: Tim Finigan's Wake: 'Whack, hurrah! blood and 'ounds, ye sowl ye! Welt the flure, yer trotters shake; Isn't it the truth I've tould ye Lots of fun at Finigan's wake!')

in the name of - exp. of surprise

ainm (Irish) - name

carl - a man of the common people, countryman, a base fellow

kopje - a small hill (in south Africa) + Joyce's note: 'hophare bacontree kopje' Jespersen: The Growth and Structure of the English Language 156 (sec. 154): 'the Dutch... in South Africa... applied... kopje 'a little head or cup' to the hills' (from Afrikaans to English).

pelt - to strip or pluck off (the pelt or skin) from, to skin, fleece

thong - a narrow strip of hide or leather, for use as a lace, cord, band, strap, or the like.

Parthalon (parhalon) (gael) - leader of second legendary colonists

Biggar, Joseph - trusted parliamentary aide of Parnell's, a "character" of whom many stories were told. Biggar was hunchbacked and misshapen. 

forshapen - transformed, misshapen + forshape - to metamorphose, transform.

pygmy - very small, diminutive, tiny

hogshead - a large cask or barrel; Applied to a person with allusion to the animal.


plod - a heavy tiring walk

hath - have

shin - the front part of the human leg between the knee and the ankle

pectoral - something worn on the breast

pectoral muscles - the muscles of the chest + mamma - mother.

mousterian - rel. to late Paleolith period (70.000 - 30.000 B.C.)

slake - to lick with the tongue

nuncheon = luncheon - a slight repast taken between two of the ordinary meal-times.

brain pan - the skull

clear + keep - care, attention, heed, notice; usually in phrases to take, give keep, to take or give heed, take notice + on the qui vive - on the look-out

fief - a feudal estate + view

comestible - eatable, edible + stipple - to paint, engrave, or otherwise design in dots.

Saxon - one of a Germanic people which in the early centuries of the Christian era dwelt in a region near the mouth of the Elbe, and of which one portion, distinguished as Anglo-Saxons conquered and occupied certain parts of South Britain in the 5th and 6th centuries, while the other, the Old Saxons remained in Germany;               Sackerson - Elizabethan bear.

junipery - abounding in junipers + January

ramping - violent, unrestrained

runriot - to get out of control

pluviôse (fr) - fifth (mid-winter, January 20 to February 18/19) month of French Revolutionary calendar (French pluvieux: rainy). 

frimaire (fr) - third (late-autumn, November 21 to December 20) month of French Revolutionary calendar (French frimas: hoar-frost, rime).

quare (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - queer

soort - sort + soort (Dutch) - sort.

man + mahan (Anglo-Irish) - bear [S]

miching (dial.) - playing truant, skulking, shrinking from view (Obsolete: pilfering, cheating)

overstep - to step over

kraal - an enclosure for cattle or sheep + kraal (Afrikaans) - stockade, pen, enclosure, native village in South Africa.

slit - a straight and narrow cut or incision

marrowbone - a bone containing edible marrow + merg (Dutch) - marrow.

cave (l) - beware!

p'raps - perahaps

pillory - a contrivance for the punishment of offenders, consisting usually of a wooden framework erected on a post or pillar, and formed, like the stocks, of two movable boards which, when brought together at their edges, leave holes through which the head and hands of an offender were thrust, in which state he was exposed to public ridicule, insult, and molestation + glory

Hercules' pillars - the rocks Calpé (now Gibraltar) and Abyla (Ceuta), on either side of the Strait of Gibraltar, thought by the ancients to be the supports of the western boundary of the world, and to have been set up by Hercules + hirculus (l) - a little goat.

Comment vous portez-vous aujourd'hui, mon blond monsieur? (French) - How are you today, my fair sir?

hosiery - hose collectively; extended to other frame-knitted articles of apparel, and hence to the whole class of goods in which a hosier deals.

blown - swollen, distended; spoiled, tainted; tired, exhausted

sewer - one who sews + mon bon monsieur (French phrase) - my kind man.

scuse - excuse + FDV: Scuse me, guy. Who is this This kerl on the kopje [who the joebiggar be he?] Forshapen like a pigmayde hoagshead. You tollerday donsk domk? N. You talkatiff Scowegian? Nn. You spigotty angliss? Nnn. You Phonio Saxo? Nnnn. 'Tis clear all so. Tis a Jute. Let us swop hats & exchange a few verbs with each either [& have a tolk about the blooty creep kneeks].

charley - a fool, simpleton

taler de Dansk (Danish) - do you speak Danish?

talkative + tolke (Danish) - to interpret.

Norwegian - the language of Norway + Scowegian (nautical slang) - Scandinavian.

spiggoty - Spanish-American, a foreign language + speak

English + Anglais (French) - English + Jesperson, Language 20.4: “Panamanians, when addressed, used to reply ‘No spiggoty (speak) Inglis’”.

Saxo = Saxon - the language of the Saxons

Jute - one of the three Low German tribes which, according to the account preserved by Bæda, invaded and settled in Britain in the fifth and sixth centuries + (notebook 1924): 'I am a Jute'.

swop = swap - to exchange, make an exchange + shake hands

exchange + échecs (French) - chess.

strong language - expressions indicative of violent or excited feeling

haphazard - dependent upon chance or accident; random + yap - a chat; to chat + (notebook 1924): 'yap'.

bloot (Dutch) - naked

creek - an inlet or short arm of a river

mutt - a stupid or commonplace person; a mongrel dog, cur + me + REFERENCE

my pleasure - a colloq. dismissal of thanks + muc (muk) - pig + FDV: Much Mutts pleasure

jeff - a derogatory term for a man + deaf

somehow - someway, in some manner

deafmute - deaf and dumb [(notebook 1924): 'deafmute']

nohow - not at all

utterer - one that utters + stutterer - one who stutters.

whoa - a word of command to a horse or other draught-animal to stop or stand still + how

matter + Mutter (ger) - mother.

stun - the condition of being stunned

stummer - to stumble + stammer - to stutter + Stummer (ger) - mute person.

apud, aput (l) - with, at, near, by, amid, among 

buttle - to serve as a butler + battle

surd - irrational; voiceless; stupid (Archaic) + sir + surdus (l) = sourd (fr) - deaf.

poddle - to walk with short or uncertain steps, to toddle

wherein - in what, where


inedible - not edible + inaudible

a' bisschen (ger) - a little

Brian Boru

usurp - to seize and hold by force or without right

trample - to tread heavily and (esp.) injuriously upon; to crush + tremble

rath - circular earthwork stronghold of an ancient irish chief + wrath

rim - edge + remember + 'remember him' (Thomas Moore: Irish Melodies: War Song: ''Remember the Glories of Brien the Brave'' (about Brian Boru)).

Augenblick (ger) - moment + Ein Augenblick (ger) - "one moment".

business is business + bison (Slang) - nickel (United States coin).

fore - before

hesitancy - the quality or condition of hesitating, indecision, vacillation.

cross someone's palm with silver - to give money to someone (esp. for some information) + qualm - a spasm of fear + Qualm (ger) - thick smoke.

trinket - a small drinking vessel; a cup + trinken (ger) - to drink + Trinkgeld (ger) - tip (literally "drink-money").

gilt - gilt plate, the thin layer of gold with which anything is gilt; gold, money + FDV: Let me cross your qualm with gilt trinkgilt.

sylvan - rel. to wood or woods + silver

coyne - an Irish chieftain's exaction of food and drink from his tenants for his soldiers + cone - the more or less conical fruit of pines and firs + coin

Guinness - the proprietary name of a stout manufactured by the firm of Guinness + "Guinness is Good for You" (advertising slogan) - Guinness's advertising agency (S. H. Benson) did some market research during the 1920's to find our what people liked about Guinness. People responded that they felt good when they had their pint and the slogan was born. The slogan is still used in some countries (notably in Africa) that do not regulate advertising claims as zealously as the U.K. and North America. Some have even posted that the advertising features athletes and imply that there athleticism can be attributed to Guinness.

louis - a gold French coin + l’ouie (French) - the sense of hearing + lui, lui (Italian) - it’s him!

Celtic + Sitric Silkenbeard led the Danes to an ignominous defeat at the battle of Clontarf in 1014.

shag - a mass of matted hair + FDV: How I know it the livery greytecloke of Cedric Silkyshag [with his hairyside out]! It He is him. Tormentor Thormentor. He was poached on that eggtentical spot by the. Here where the liveries. There where the missers mooney: Minnikin Passe.

mealy - resembling meal, having the qualities of meal, powdery + Cead mile failte romhat (ked mili falt'i rot) (gael) - A hundred thousand welcomes to you.

faulty - defective, imperfect, unsound

dabble - to wet by splashing, to play about in shallow water + Dublin

bar (Slang) - one pound sterling

grilse - the name given to a young salmon on its first return to the river from the sea.

poach - to cook (fish, fruit, etc.) by simmering in water or another liquid.


livery - a servant's uniform, clothes, distinctive clothes or badge; the lodging provided for a person, the quarters of a portion of an army; = livery stable (a stable where horses are kept at livery ((of a horse) kept for the owner, and fed and groomed at a fixed charge)).

monomark - combination of letters as an identification mark + monomachus (l) - fighter in single combat, gladiator + monomachos (Greek) - gladiator.

misser - a mass priest + missies (Colloquial) - girls.

moony - stupidly dreamy; rel. to moon; many + MOONEY'S - Mooney and Co has operated a chain of pubs in central Dublin since the 19th century + Mooney, Mrs - landlady in the Dubliners story, "The Boarding House," whose daughter waits upstairs while argument rages. 

minikin - tiny + manikin - a model of the human body used for exhibiting the anatomical structure or for demonstrating surgical operations + Mannequin Pisse - a famous statue of a small boy taking a leak, often seen as a symbol of Brussels.

passe - no longer young, faded, no longer fashionable + pass + passe (fr) - a fuck.

taciturn - silent + Tacitus, Cornelius (55-120) - Roman historian. 


to make a long story short - to relate in few words

emptied + dumpty - short and stout + dump - to throw down in a lump or mass, as in tilting anything out of a cart; to shoot or deposit (rubbish, etc.) + Humpty Dumpty.


rubbage = rubbish

puddingstone - a conglomerate rock consisting of naturally-cemented pebbles; conglomerate + (notebook 1924): 'poudingue pudding stone'.

brook - rivulet +  Bruck- (dial. ger) - bridge + BRUSSELS - City, and capital of Belgium, on Senne River; Fr Bruxelles. The Willibroek Canal makes Brussels a seaport + cell - a small apartment, room, or dwelling.

Lord-a-mercy - An interjection expressing astonishment

with what - at which time, when + wid - colloq. and dial. pronunc. of with + wad (Cornish) - forefather + FDV: With what Wid wad for a noise like?


BULLS, NORTH AND SOUTH - The "Bulls" were the great sandbanks North and South of the channel in inner Dublin Bay, so-called "from the roaring of the surf against them when uncovered at low water" (Haliday, 234). Since the building of the South and Bull Walls, the South Bull is under water at all tides and the North Bull is an island, connected with the mainland by a bridge (no longer wooden as in A Portrait), and paralleling the shore from Clontarf almost to Howth. Clontarf, "meadow of the bull," may have been named from the North Bull. 

clomp - to tread clumsily and noisily, a thud + Clontarf

res, rei, rei, rem (l) - a thing, of a thing, to a thing, thing + rex, regis, regi, regem (l) - king, of a king, to a king, king + ros, roris, rori, rorem (l) - dew, of dew, do dew, dew + rex rorum, rex Romae (Latin) - The King of the dews is the King of Rome → FW 003.13-14 → King of the Jews + rex rerum (l) - king of wealth + rex Romae (l) - king of Rome.

snore - to make harsh or noisy sounds in sleep, to declare + schnore (swiss) - talk, chatter + FDV: I could snore to him [woolseley side in], with my owth by the neck I am sutton on old Brian O'Flynn O'Flinn.

spumy - covered with spume (foam, froth)

woolsey = linsey-woolsey - textile of wool and linen

neck - a narrow stretch of land (isthmus, cape, mountain pass), a brick wall.

SUTTON - The narrow isthmus joining Howth to the mainland + sitting

Brian O'Linn (song) - (made breeches) “With the skinny side out and the woolly side in” → from the Irish song about a character who always makes the best of the bad situations in which he finds himself

boiled oil + BALDOYLE - Village, North of Sutton and Howth; site of race course. 

raw - uncooked, not prepared for use as food by the action of fire or heat + Raheny - N.E. Dublin suburb + rawhide

barely + beurre (fr) - butter.

forstand - understand + verstand (ger) - understood, reason + forstand (Dutch) - understanding.

sturk - a young bullock or heifer; a foolish person + Turk; start + Sturk - occupant of LeFanu's House by the Churchyard, he is attacked in Butcherswood in the Phoenix Park. Sturk is "resurrected" by Black Dillon.

Finnic - Finnish, the finnic languages + finish

patois (French) - an illiterate or provincial dialect, jargon

Rotterdam + rotter - slang. In vaguely depreciative use: One who is objectionable on moral or other grounds + Gotterdammerung (ger) - twilight of the gods + FDV: You tell of rutterdamrot unheardof & unscene

unheard - not heard, new, strange + on- (Dutch prefix) - un-

obscene + umsehen (ger) - to look around + unseen

good afternoon - salutation used at meeting or parting + gut (ger) - good + FDV: Good aftermeal!

doom - to pronounce judgement or sentence against; esp. to condemn to some fate + to see (someone) hanged or damned first  - to refuse absolutely to do what one has been asked.  

sec - second

take + to take a walk - to take a short journey on foot (for exercise or pleasure) + FDV: Mutt - Rest a while. Half Walk a look onward roundward you will see [how old the plain] From in the Bigning Bygning to Finnisthere. Punct.

dun - down; dark, dusky + blink - glance.

roundward - in a circular direction

all but - very nearly + peninsula from pæne (l) - almost, and insula (l) - island.


olde - old

ye - the, you

Elders - two ancient judges in the apocryphal book of Susanna. They first proposition the young matron and, when repulsed, accuse her of unchastity with a young man. Daniel unmaskes the Elders' lies + Eltern (ger) - parents + Magh nEalta (Irish) - Plain of Flocks → variously rendered into English as Moynalty, Moynelta, Moyelta etc; the plain north of the Dublin Mountains, where the legendary Irish colonizer Parthalón settled until he and his people were wiped out by a plague.

wone = won - dwell, abide; one; past of win

whimbrel - a small curlew

peewee - dwarf, a lapwig; the thin wailing cry of this bird

salting - land flooded regularly by tides, the place where a stream joins the sea [Joyce's note: 'Saltings'].

will be + by (Danish) - town.

droit - right, law, justice

signory - lordship, a power of feudal lord

icefloe - a large sheet of floating ice

beginning + bygning (Danish) - building + Genesis 1:1, John 1:1: 'In the beginning'.

Finistére - French department where, some say, Tristan died + Finisterre (l) - an indication on ancient maps for the end of the known world (from finis terræ (l) - end of the earth).

punct - point + punctum (l) - punctation mark; period; point + Punkt (ger) - period, full stop.

everyone + Let Erin Remember the Days of Old (song) - a lyric by Thomas Moore (sung to the tune of The Red Fox)


mear - to mark out (land) by means of meres (landmarks) or boundaries + (notebook 1924): 'limit of 2 races child's grave'.

swete = sweet + white + sweet and brackish - the fresh water of the River Liffey and the salt water of Dublin Bay, which merge in the river's estuary.

brack - somewhat salt, briny + black

morthering - to become foul, fetid, etc. + morther - murther; mother; a young girl + Moddereen Rue: (song) “The Red Fox” → Thomas Moore's Let Erin Remember the Days of Old is sung to this traditional air + maidrín rua (Irish) - fox (literally: “little red dog”).

rue - sorrow, distress; pity, compassion; a perennial evergreen shrub of the genus Ruta, esp. Ruta graveolens, having bitter, strong-scented leaves which were formerly much used for medicinal purposes.

Krach (ger) - crash + cracher (fr) - to spit.


surgent - rising or swelling in waves + insurgence - uprising, an act of rising up physically.

ebb - the reflux of the tide; the return of tide-water towards the sea.

requiesce - to rest, repose + (notebook 1924): 'here flux unites *T* & *L* reflux divides' Schuré: Les Grandes Légendes de France 215: (of the tides of the Baie de Tréspassés) 'A touching folk legend has it that here meet the souls of those who had killed themselves for love and had been lost in death. One a year, they are allowed to see each other. The flux unites them, the reflux separates them, and they tear away from each other amid prolonged lamentations').

nether - situated down or below + niederfallen (ger) - to fall down + FDV: Thousand & one livestories have netherfallen here.

plage - the beach; plague; pledge; a net, snare, toil + Plage (ger) - plague.

flick - a light blow

snow flakes

litter - odds and ends, fragments and leavings lying about, rubbish.

waast = waste + vast + waas (Dutch) - haze, blur.

wizzard = wizard

all of (P) - completely, quite (used to emphasize)

whirl - the action, or an act, of whirling; rotation + whirlwind - a whirling or rotating wind + Heimskringla (Old Norse) - Snorri Sturluson's sagas of the Norse kings; the name means “world’s whirl”

tomb - to lay in the grave, bury, entomb

mound - a tumulus; esp. the earth heaped up upon a grave

ashes to ashes + isge (Old English) - ice + gēs (Greek) - Earth + ice ages → icefloe seven lines above.

erde - do dwell, live, to inhabit + Erde (ger) = erde (Old English) - earth.

stench - a foul, disgusting, or noisome smell, a disagreeable or offensive odour, a stink.

fiat (l) - let there be; let it be, so be it + fuit (l) - it was. 

herein - in this place

lye = lie

estrange - a stranger, foreigner + l'étrange (French) - the strange + l'étranger (French) - the foreigner.

Babylon + Arnold Bennett wrote The Grand Babylon Hotel, 1902 + Revelation 17:5: 'BABYLON THE GREAT'.

hotel - to lodge at an hotel

tit - dear, loved; a girl or young woman: often qualified as little; titmouse.

tittle - the smallest or a very small part of something + titmouse - a bird of the genus Parus, comprising small active birds; a small, petty, or insignificant person or thing +     nursery rhyme 'Tit-tit-tittlemouse Lived in a little house'.

alp - a bullfinch (bird); a high rugged mountain, a mountain pasture.

earwig - an insect, Forficula auricularia, so called from the notion that it penetrates into the head through the ear.

drukne (Danish) - to drown + drunk (on ale)

ild - pple. of ill + ild (Norwegian) - fire.

like as - as, in the way or manner that

ist Liebes (ger) - is love's + Liebes (ger) - love.

luv - love

smrt (Serbian) - death + Mord (ger) - murder + 'Zmorde - God’s Death! (after the archaic Shakespearean oaths, ’Sdeath! ("God's Death!"), ’Sblood! ("God's Blood!"), ’Zounds ("God's Wounds!) etc.) + merde (fr) - shit + morte (fr) - death.

Mild und leise (German) - softly and gently (the opening word's from Isolde’s Liebestod in Wagner's opera Tristan und Isolde).


behauptet (ger) - asserted + hough - trans. To disable by cutting the sinew or tendons of the hough, to hamstring.

despond - depression or dejection of spirits through loss of resolution or hope + Thomas Moore: Desmond's Song: 'By the Feal's wave benighted' (Thomas, the heir of the Desmond family, had accidentally been so engaged in the chase, that he was benighted near Tralee, and obliged to take shelter at the Abbey of Feal, in the house of one of his dependents, called Mac Cormac. Catherine, a beautiful daughter of his host, instantly inspired the Earl with a violent passion, which he could not subdue. He married her, and by this inferior alliance alienated his followers, whose brutal pride regarded this indulgence of his love as an unpardonable degradation of his family.)


ancestress - a female ancestor + thanasimos (gr) - deadly, fatal + thanatephoros (gr) - death-bringing. 


save = safe - affording security or immunity, not exposing to danger.

brickdust - powdered brick + Genesis 3:19: 'for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return'.

humus - the dark-brown or black substance which forms the soil in which plants grow.

rune - to compose or perform poetry or songs; to lament + Habakuk 2.2: Then the LORD answered me and said, "Record the vision And inscribe it on tablets, That the one who reads it may run ('he may run that readeth it').

rede - interpret, explain, guess, surmise, predict

on all fours - on hands and knees + to run on all fours - fairly, evenly, not to limp like a lame dog.

OLDCASTLE - Town, County Meath, 64 miles from Dublin 

crumble - to break down into small crumbs; to reduce to crumbs or small fragments + The 4 Royal Manors of County Dublin, established under Henry II, were Esker, Newcastle, Saggart, and Crumlin.  

sell (obs) - to give

sooth - truth

Dublin + humble - submissive.

sift - to pass (something) through a sieve, in order to separate the coarse from the fine particles; intr. To use a sieve, to do sifting. Chiefly fig., esp. to pry into, make inquiry.

moulder - a worker who makes molds, one that exerts a determining influence on course of development.

whisht - hush, silence + wish + bí i do thost (Irish) - be quiet! → bí in bhur dtost to more than one person + whist (whisht)! (Anglo-Irish) quiet! listen!

whysht - wish + what

gyand - giant

forficula - a genus of earwigs

amnis (l) - river

fay - fairy

waist - the portion of the trunk of the human body that is between the ribs and the hip-bones; waste + west

howe - hollow, depression, valley; how + THING MOTE - The assembly place, usually on a mound, established by the Vikings whenever they settled. In Dublin, the Thing Mote was on a low hill South of the present Dame Street. The hill of the Thing Mote was called the Howe, Haugh, or "Howe over the Stein" (Steyne), from haugr, Old Danish "hill, sepulchral mound." 

viceking - viceroy + Viking + Henrik Ibsen: "The Viking's Barrow".

grab - seize, snatch + Grab (ger) - grave.

hvad (Danish) - what

are + øre: (Norwegian) - ear.

astonished + stone age.

oye - grandchild + øye: (Norwegian) - eye + I

terrorstruck + Ragnarøkr (Old Norse) - destruction of the Norse gods + Thonar or Thon - god worshipped in England and on the Continent, maybe a form of Thor because his name is that of the Teutonic word for "thunder." 

stoop - to bow down, to descend.; a post, pillar; an act of stooping + FDV: Stoop, if you are abcedminded, [to this claybook,] what curios of signs, (please stoop) in this allaphbed, a hatch, a celt, an earshare for to the pourquose of which was to cassay the earthcrust at all [of] hours [furroward & bagowards bogowards like an ox yoxen at the turnpath]!

absentminded -  paying no attention to, and receiving no impression from, present objects or events + abecede (Old English) - alphabet + Joyce's note: 'abced' ABCDE-minded = literate.

daybook - a book in which the occurrences or transactions of the day are entered; a diary + Joyce's note: 'claybook' Clodd: The Story of the Alphabet 89: (of cuneiform writing) 'the abundant clay of the alluvial country afforded material whose convenience and permanence brought it into general use. Upon this the characters were impressed by a reed or square-shaped stylus, the clay-books being afterwards baked or sun-dried'.


alphabet + Joyce's note: 'alaphbet' Clodd: The Story of the Alphabet 122: (quoting Canon Taylor) 'the very word ALPHABET... is obviously derived from the names of the two letters alpha and beta... which are plainly identical with the names aleph and beth borne by the corresponding Semitic characters'.

Lane-Poole: The Speeches & Table-Talk of the Prophet Mohammad xl: 'the "we" (God), and "thou" (Mohammad), and "ye" (the audience), of the Koran'.

have it out - to settle or clear up the matter by free discussion or a fight.

miscegenation - a mixture of races 

lived und laughed ant loved end left → cf. FW 628.15-16, the closing line of the novel, and FW 418.10 in the fable The Ondt and the Gracehoper.

forsin - ruined by sin, burdened with sin + forsan (l) - perhaps + Daniel 6:25-28: 'MENE, MENE TEKEL UPHARSIN... Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians' (writing on the wall at Belshazzar's feast). 


MEDIA - Ancient country in area now North-West part of Iran; became part of Persian empire under Cyrus, 6th century BC. Dan 5:25: "Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians."  

Porson, Richard (1759-1808) - English classical scholar

meander - to wander deviously or aimlessly + Neanderthal - middle Paleolithic fossil hominid Homo neanderthalensis.

Heidelberg man - an early pleistocene man closely rel. to Neanderthal.

imply - uplesti, ume¹ati, nagovestiti

knit - weave, to conjoin as by knotting or binding together; to bind, join, or connect firmly.

whet - hone, sharpen

convey - to transport, to transmit, be the medium of

sweeten - to add sugar, refine, purify

sensation - feeling, emotion

adhere - to stick fast, to become or remain firmly attached to

attachment - liking, affection, love, devotion

dog - to follow insidiously, to act as a dog, to guard as a dog

bitch - to spoil, botch; the female of the dog; Applied opprobriously to a woman; strictly, a lewd or sensual woman.

entail - to bring on by way of necessary consequence

ensuance - the fact of ensuing + ensue - to follow, to result from.

reredos - a wall drapery back of an altar; brazier; the back or rear

Rama or Raman - several avatars of Vishnu 

terricolous - (zoology) living in or on the ground + terricola (l) - earth-dweller.

vively - in a lively or energetic manner; clearly, vividly + vivlion viou - modern greek for biblion biou (book of life). 

quaky - inclined to quake; of the nature of quaking

hatch - hatchet

celt - an implement with chisel-shaped edge, of bronze or stone (but sometimes of iron), found among the remains of prehistoric man. It appears to have served for a variety of purposes, as a hoe, chisel, or axe, and perhaps as a weapon of war.

ear (obs) - a ploughing; to plough ploughshare

purpose + pourquoi (French) - the reason why

casser (fr) - to break → cassay the earthcrust = to break bread → The Last Supper → mastication of the host.

crust - the upper or surface layer of the ground (obs.)

boustrophedon (gr) - turning like oxen in ploughing (of writing from left to right and right to left in alternate lines) + FDV: furroward & bagowards bogowards like an ox yoxen at the turnpath 

say - see + FDV: Here are say figurines billicoose arming and mounting. Mounting & arming bellicose figurines are see there here. And  uthor, this little effingee stands (not completed) is for fire a fing called in flintgun flintforfall. ace at the eased. O I fay!!  ace at the waist. Ho you fie! Upwards & down them! ace to ace!

figurine - a small carved or molded figure

bellicose - inclined to war or fighting; warlike + to bill and coo - to interchange caresses (said of doves; also of demonstrative lovers).

arm - to embrace; to equip with weapons, to prepare for struggle

mount - to organize and equip (an attacking force); to get upon the back of a horse or other animal for the purpose of riding.

futhorc - runic alphabet + further + Joyce's note: 'futhorc' Clodd: The Story of the Alphabet 201: 'The primitive Gothic alphabet is named, on the acrologic principle, "futhorc", after the first six letters, f, u, t, h, o, r, c'.

effinge - to fashion, shape + effigy

flint - a kind of hard stone + Vorfall (ger) - incident + FDV: this little effingee stands is for fire a fing called in flintgun flintforfall.  

Children’s game: 'Face to the east, Face to the west Face to the one you love the best'.

fay - to fit closely together, to agree, succeed; to clean + see

fie - exp. of disgust or the affectation of being shocked; to trust + see

wap - to fold up, bind, wrap, to beat, strike + "Up guards and at 'em!" - Wellington's order in the last charge at Waterloo.

dump - to fall abruptly, to knock down [Joyce's note: 'dump']

san (gr) - old letter SS; numerical symbol 900

petit (fr) - small + petits pois cuits (fr) - cooked peas.

holos (Greek) - whole

alphabet + FDV: When a piece does duty for the whole we soon get used to an allforabit allphorabit. Here are selveram cued little petty petteet peas of quite a pecuniar interest inaslittle as they are the pellets that make the tomtums tomtummy's payroll. Right are rocks and with these rocks rogues orangotangoes rangled rough & rightgoring rightgorong.

several + silver.

cue - to twist, braid; to make an indicatory mark on + petits pois cuits (French) - cooked peas.

peteet - small; of little importance or value

pea - the round seed of Pisum sativum, a well-known article of food; something small and round like the seed.

pecuniar = pecuniary - of, belonging to, or having relation to money.

inasmuch as - in so far as, in that, in view of the fact that, seeing that.

pellet - any globe, ball, or spherical body, usually one of small size.

tom tommy - a double breasted plough + tom (Danish) - empty + tummy - belly, stomach +  FDV: that make the tomtums tomtummy's payroll.

payroll - a employer's list of those entitled to receive compenstion at a given time and of the amounts due to each + parole (French) - word.

roll - a quantity of bills or notes rolled together; hence, the money a person possesses.

rank - to form a rank or ranks, to stand in rank + FDV: Right are rocks and with these rocks rogues orangotangoes rangled rough & rightgoring rightgorong.

ragnarok - in Scandinavian mythology, the destruction of the gods or the twilight of the gods; spec. the last battle of this world, in which gods and men will be defeated by monsters and the sun will grow dark → often mistranslated as twilight of the gods + Ragnar Lodbrok - a 9th century Danish warlord, said by some to have fathered Ivar the Boneless, who was a prominent Norse king of Dublin.

rox - to decay + rocks

orangutan - an anthropoid ape

rangle - to rove, wander; to argue noisily or vehemently

wisha - Used as an intensive or exp. of surprise: indeed, well + FDV: Wisha, wisha, whydidthe whydidtha? This Thik is for thorn that's tuck in its toil like tom tomfool's anger traitor thrust for vengeance. What a [mnice old mness it mnakes,] middenhide's mniddenhide's hoard of abjects! olives, bats, kimmels, dollies, alfrids, ____, pethers gormons daltons [&] Oiolets' eegs creakish with ____ the hoopoocough age [& now] quite epsilene [waweldy's oldwoldy & wobblewers] not hand worth a wipe of a grass. Sss! See the snake worms wurrums everywhere our durst durl bin is sworming with sneaks! Subdivide and sumdolot and but the tale comes out the same balifuson 

tha (Þa) (Old English) - then, when

thik - that same, this, that + FDV: This Thik is for thorn that's tuck in its toil like tom tomfool's anger traitor thrust for vengeance.

thorn (Old EnglishOld Norse) - the letter Þ, pronounced th ([θ] or [ð])

thrust - a forcible push or pushing + thirst

hoard - an accumulation or collection of anything valuable hidden away or laid by for preservation or future use, a stock, store, esp. of money.

Alef, bet, gimel, dalet - the first four letters of the Hebrew alphabet → the Old Testament was written in Hebrew.

beet - a plant or genus of plants (N.O. Chenopodiacea), having, in cultivation, a succulent root much used for food, and also for yielding sugar.

kimmel - a tub used for brewing, kneading, salting meat, and other household purposes.

dolly - a pet name for a child's doll


owlet - an owl; a young owl or little owl


bleakish - rather pale (obs.)

fromage (fr) - cheese

quite - rather, to a moderate degree


wobble - an unsteady rocking motion or movement + w

haud (l) - not

keep of the grass - do not take liberites + FDV: not hand worth a wipe of a grass. Sss!

worm - to move or progress sinuously like a worm + wurm (obs) - snake, worm.

to swarm in - to be crowded with

sneak - a sneaking person + snakes

(notebook 1923): 'triangular Spain'

prairie - a tract of level or undulating grass-land, without trees, and usually of great extent.

rare = rear - to erect by building, construct, elevate, raise

caldron - a large kettle, a natural formation suggesting a cauldron + cargo - a ship-load + (notebook 1924): 'S came in a cargo of fruit' (it is unclear whether the initial S is an *S* siglum or simply an abbreviation for 'snakes') + Genesis 3:3: 'the tree which is in the midst of the garden' +  Freeman's Journal 22 Feb 1924, 8/4: 'By the Way': 'The ss. Reventazon was landing a cargo of bananas from Jamaica when a strange little creature was discovered hiding among the fruit... its precise genus seems to have baffled everyone... Now, what is it?'

prohibitive - that forbids or restrains from some course of action + forbidden fruit → Genesis 3, the forbidden fruit in the garden of Eden.

pome - a fruit of the apple kind or resembling an apple + pomme (fr) - apple + pome fruit - a plant that bears pomes + fruct = fruit.

paddy - rice; Irishman; policeman, cop

Wippingham, Paddy - (1) St Patrick; (2) Dick Whittingtom; (3) The Wippingham Papers by Swinburne.

cotch - catch + William Shakespeare: Macbeth III.2.13: 'We have scotch'd the snake, not kill'd it'.

prick - erect and pointed + quicker + prick (Slang) - penis.

Genesis 2:23: 'she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man'.

pick up

tally - any tangible means of recording a payment or amount + FDV: Subdivide and sumdolot and but the tale comes out the same balifusion.

Clodd: The Story of the Alphabet 203: (of the Ogam alphabet) 'The alphabet is divided into four aicmes or groups, each containing five letters: the first aicme, B, L, F, S, N... the fourth aicme, comprising the vowels A, O, U, E, I' [Joyce's note: 'balofuseni balifusion'].

racketeer - one who extorts money

bootlegger - one who carries liquor in his boot-legs; hence, an illicit trader in liquor

axe - the axle of a wheel + ace + FDV: Axe plays on axe thwacks on axe acks thracks axewise. One by one please place one be three and one before. Two nursus one make free tree free and idem behind. What a tale to unfurl & with what an end in view of squattor autosquattor auntisquattor & postprone . . . .squattor postproneauntisquattor! And to say that we us to be are all every tim mick & larry of us, sons of the sod, sons littlesons, yea & weelittlesons leastlittlesons when we are usses not to be every sue, ciss & sally of us, dugters of Jor Nan. Accusative ahnsire! Dam to infinities!

thwack - bang, whack, to strike with something heavy + two

thrack - to pack full, fill, to load + three;  tracks

one by one - one after another, one at a time


ditto - the aforesaid, the same; Used, in accounts and lists to avoid repetition of a word or phrase appearing above.


plausible - worthy of being applauded, agreeable, popular

idem (l) - the same

start off - to set out, to begin a journey; to begin to move, to leave the point of departure in any kind of progression.

boa - a genus of serpents native to the tropical parts of S. America

threelegged - having three legs + Crow: Master Kung: The Story of Confucius p. 49: “Three-legged calves, big snakes, the discovery of rocks of strange appearance” [examples of omens] + three-legged - the siglum Joyce uses in his notes and drafts for the combined Shem-Shaun character has three legs  

calver - a pregnant cow

Igraine - mother of King Arthur 

jade - a contemptuous name for a horse; a horse of inferior breed, e.g. a cart- or draught-horse as opposed to a riding horse + Crow: The Story of Confucius, Master Kung 45: (before Confucius's birth) 'a fabulous animal known as a chi lin appeared before the prospective mother, bearing in its mouth a jade tablet inscribed with a message prophesying future greatness for the son then about to be born. The young girl tied a silken scarf around the single horn of the animal and it disappeared the same night, only (according to the story) to reappear more than seventy years later, just after the death of Master Kung'.

Crow: The Story of Confucius, Master Kung 43: (in ancient China) 'Most of the writing done was laboriously inscribed with a stylus on slips of bamboo... a book the size of the volume now in the reader's hands would fill a small truck. It was said of one industrious scholar that he read 'a hundredweight daily''.

liberorumque (Latin) - and of children + librorumque (Latin) - and of books + liber (l) - book + queue (fr) - penis.

con - to get to know; to study or learn, esp. by repetition + con (fr) - vulva.

All Hallows Day - All Saints' Day; the first of November + All Hallows' Eve (Archaic) - Halloween.

unfurl - to open or spread out

Tom, Dick and Harry - any man taken at random

larry - confusion, excitement, noise; a long handled hoe

the (old) sod - one's native district or country; spec., Ireland

little son - a grandson

lea - land 'laid down' for pasture, pasture-land, grass-land

siss - hiss

sally - the european house wren

accusative - marking direct object (gram.); accusing

answer + Ahn (ger) - ancestor.

nullus - no one, nobody + in illis diebus (l) - 'in those days', Latin formula used in the Mass to introduce Lesson + in nullis diebus (l) - in no days + Nile - Egyptian river, associated with papyrus reeds, from which Egyptian "paper" was made and from which the word paper is derived.

as yet - up to this time, hitherto + FDV: True there was no lumpend paper papeer as yet in the waste and the mountain pen still groaned for the micies to deliver him. You gave me a boot (signs on it!) and I ate the wind. I tipped quizzed you a quid (with for what?) and you went to quod. But the world, mind, is, was & will
be writing its own
runes wrunes for ever, man, on all matters that fall under the ban of our senses. A bone, a pebble, a ramskin: chip them, chop chap them, cut them allways: leave them to terracook in the slow slowth of their oven mutthering pot: and the day gutenmorg of a magnum charter we must one way dawn else there is is there no virtue more in alcohoran. For that is what paper is made of, made of, hides and hints and misses in prints. Till we finally (though not yet for all) meet with the acquaintance of Mr Typ, Mrs Top and all the little typtoppies — Fillstop Fillstap. So you need hardly tell spell me that every word will be bound to carry 3 score & ten tomtypsical readings through the book of life Ballyliving duble ends out till Daleth, who opened it, closes thereof the door. In the lower margin Joyce wrote:


Lumpenpapier (German) - rag paper

penn = pen (obs.) + parturiunt montes, nascetur ridiculus mus (l) - the mountains are in labor, a laughable little mouse is born (when much is promised, little performed). 

groan - to breathe with a deep-toned murmur; to utter a low deep sound expressive of grief or pain; to yearn or long, as if with groans.

ancientry - ancient times, antiquity

give (I) the boot - to dismiss (someone from his job) or end a relationship with (someone), kick out, dismiss.

signs on it (Anglo-Irish) - consequently, therefore, as a result (from Anglo-Irish: tá a shliocht air or Anglo-Irish: tá a rian air).

to eat the air - to have vain hopes + wind - Applied to something empty, trifling, or unsubstantial.

quiz - to question, interrogate; to find out (a thing) by questioning + quis (l) - who + quid (l) - what.

quid - a sovereign; one pound sterling; a piece of something (usu. of tobacco), suitable to be held in the mouth and chewed.

quid pro quo (Latin) - an exchange (literally: "what for what")

quod - prison + go to the bad - to develop a bad character + quod (l) - 1) because; 2) that (conjunction).

anima mundi (Latin) - the World Soul, believed by ancient philosophers to be the soul of the Universe.

ban - anathematization, curse + pan - the action of panning a camera, a panoramic sequence + ban (Cornish) = ban (Welsh) - mountain, height.

infrarational - below what is rational

fore = for prep. in various uses; on account of, because of (obs.)

milch - of domestic mammals: Giving milk, kept for milking + Michael + Lane-Poole: The Speeches & Table-Talk of the Prophet Mohammad xiv: 'The hospitality of the Arab is a proverb... it is strictly true. The last milch-camel must be killed rather than the duties of the host neglected'.

Lane-Poole: The Speeches & Table-Talk of the Prophet Mohammad xxvii: (of Mohammad) 'Fine long arched eyebrows were divided by a vein, which throbbed visibly in moments of passion'.

moor - to secure one's ship (etc.) in a particular place; to anchor; to secure (a ship, boat, or other floating object) in a particular place by means of chains or ropes.

Charmian and Iras - attendants on the queen in Antony and Cleopatra + Lane-Poole: The Speeches & Table-Talk of the Prophet Mohammad xxvi: (of Mohammad) 'his rich cousin, Khadija, whom he presently married at the age of twenty-five'.

Lane-Poole: The Speeches & Table-Talk of the Prophet Mohammad xxx: (of Mohammad) 'his ordinary food was dates and water'.

tether - to make fast or confine with a tether + Lane-Poole: The Speeches & Table-Talk of the Prophet Mohammad xxiii: (of ancient Arab superstition) 'a few tied camels to the graves of the dead that the corpse might ride mounted to the judgement-seat'.

dread - extreme fear; deep awe or reverence; apprehension or anxiety as to future events + Lane-Poole: The Speeches & Table-Talk of the Prophet Mohammad xxxix: 'The day of judgement is a stern reality to Mohammad... he calls it the Hour... the Smiting... the Day of Decision'.

chip - to hew or cut with an axe or adze, or with strokes from any other cutting tool.

chap - to break into small pieces, chop, strike

terracotta - a hard unglazed pottery of a fine quality, of which decorative tiles and bricks, architectural decorations, statuary, vases, and the like are made + FDV: leave them to terracook in the slow slowth of their oven mutthering pot.

melting pot - a vessel for melting + Mutter (ger) - mother + Hering (ger) - herring.

guten Morgen (ger) - good morning + Johann Gutenberg (1398 – 1468) was a German inventor who achieved fame for his contributions to the technology of printing during 1448. His inventions allowed for the rapid printing of written materials, and an information explosion in Renaissance Europe + FDV: and the day gutenmorg of a magnum charter we must one way dawn else there is is there no virtue more in alcohoran.

CroMagnon - used, chiefly attrib., to designate a group of mankind characterized by a long low skull, a wide face, and wide orbits (Mesolithic and Neolithic times) [(notebook 1924): 'Cro-Magnon'].

charter - lit. A leaf of paper (in OE. called bóc, book); a legal document or 'deed' written (usually) upon a single sheet of paper, parchment, or other material, by which grants, cessions, contracts, and other transactions are confirmed and ratified.

tinting - the action of tint, the result of this, colouring + tint - a colour, usu. slight or delicate + Tintenfass (ger) - inkwell (an ink-cup adapted to occupy a hole in a desk).

primer - one who lays the first color, coating or preparation upon; an elementary school-book for teaching children to read, a small introductory book on any subject.

once for always - once as a final act, once and done with + omnibus (l) - for everybody.

rubric - a heading of a chapter, section, or other division of a book, written or printed in red; red ochre +  rubricked - marked by red letters, written or printed in red + redd - cleared for a new occupant.

virtue - occult efficacy or power

alcohol + Alcoran - the sacred book of Muslims, the Koran.

rapt - entranced, ravished, enraptured + Lane-Poole: The Speeches & Table-Talk of the Prophet Mohammad xxxi: (of Mohammad's second revelation) '"O thou who art wrapped, rise up, and warn!..." - Koran, ch. lxxiv'.

papyr - papyrus + nursery rhyme 'What Are Little Girls Made Of, Made Of'.

meed - to reward. In bad sense, to bribe

hide - a hiding place, the action or an act of hiding, concealment

misprint - a mistake in printing

typus (l) - figure, form, image + typos (gr) - print, impression; image, model.

tope - to drink heavily; an exclamation used in drinking; app. = I pledge you + topos (gr) - place, passage in a book.

tiptop - the very top, the highest point or part, the extreme summit + (notebook 1923): 'Mrs Doesbe & all the little Dobes'.

to bind over - to oblige (a person) to undertake to do a particular act.

three score and ten - the span of a life, seventy years, as given in the Bible; according to Joseph Charles Mardrus; Introduction to the Koran, Muslim exegetes believe that every word of the Koran has seventy different meanings, one for each year of a man's life.

reading - material designed to be read, a particular selection of such material designed to be read at one time or as a unit.

thorouhout - through the whole of (a space, region, etc.), in or to every part of, everywhere in + FDV: through the book of life Ballyliving duble ends out till Daleth, who opened it, closes thereof the door.

Lane-Poole: The Speeches & Table-Talk of the Prophet Mohammad xxix: (of Mohammad) 'The worst expression he ever made use of in conversation was, 'What has come to him? may his forehead be darkened with mud!''

sunder - to become separated or severed from something; to be torn, break, or split in pieces.

daleth - 4. letter of Jewish alphabet, meaning "door."

ope (Archaic) - to open

thereof - of that, of it, from that cause

dor - trick, deception, mockery +  dor (Portuguese) - pain, ache + dor (Cornish) - earth, ground, land + dor (Hebrew) - generation; dwelling + The. Dor. -  the is the last word in Finnegans Wake. In FW 'the' is a door (exit/entrance). Also, 'the' (French: 'tea'), is end of the letter, part which is obliterated by Belinda (Biddy) Dorans.

Thomas Moore, Irish Melodies: song: Fly Not Yet [Air -- Planxty Kelly] + (notebook 1923): 'Fly not yet'.

nondum (l) - not yet; not now + nursery rhyme 'How many miles to Babylon? Three score and ten, sir. Will we be there by candlelight?' (James Joyce, Ulysses. 9.415). 

city + sytti (Norwegian) - 70 → three score and ten in line 15 above.  

candlelight - the light given by a candle or by candles. Often, artificial light in general.

movables - personal property, property that is capable of being moved, any species of property not fixed, as distinguished from real or fixed property; nine concentric revolving spheres of the heavens (in the Ptolemaic astronomy) + FDV: The movables movibles are scrawling in motion march marching, all of them again ago in pitpat & zingzang to for every little busy earywig eeriewhig tells 's a little bit of a torytale to tell.  

scrawl - to move with a scrambling and shuffling motion, to scribble, to write carelessly or awkwardly.

pitpat - a pattering sound

eerie - fearful, timid; fear-inspiring; gloomy, strange, weird

Whig - an adherent of one of the two great parliamentary and political parties in England, and (at length) in Great Britain. (Opposed to Tory).

thyme - a plant comprising shrubby herbs with fragrant aromatic leaves + once upon a time

lettice = lettuce; lattice

strubly - untidy, unkempt + STRAWBERRY BEDS - The area, actually known for its strawberries, along the North bank of the Liffey between Chapehizod and Woodlands + strubbeling (Dutch) - difficulty. 

chick - chicken; a young woman + Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.216: (common modern folktale opening formula) 'A long time ago, When the hens had teeth') +    Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.215: (common 16th century folktale opening formula) 'At the time when the beasts spoke'.

cuddy - ass, donkey; lout, blockhead + cuidiú liom (Irish) - help me + cuddle

wallop - gallop; a powerful blow  + walls have ears

barnet - the hair, the head + barnet (Danish) - the child.

hoop (Dutch) - hope

to run high -  lit. said of the sea when there is a strong current with a high tide, or with high waves; hence fig. of feelings or conditions, manifesting themselves forcibly.

pomme - a potato + pomme (fr) - apple + homme (fr) - man + pomus gravide (l) - a heavy laden fruit tree ---- fama levitatis (l) - a reputation of lightness; pseudo aphorism modeled on: gravida ventris, famae levis (l) - laden of belly, light of repute + FDV: Of a man noarch and of a wife chopwife and or of a pomme so fall grave and a famme fammy of levity or of the golden youths that wanted gilding or of the maid that what the misschievmiss made maide a man do.

fammy (cant) - waistcoat-pocket + femme (French) - woman.

levity - lightness in movement; frivolity, freedom of conduct (said esp. of women).

gilded youth - young people of wealth and fashion, esp. if given to prodigal living (in the French Revolution, applied to young men of the upper classes who aided in suppressing the Jacobins after the Reign of Terror).

mischief - harm or evil considered as the work of an agent or due to a particular cause.

Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.207: 'Mal maridade, the poorly-married, a dance of Provence'.

revergasse (fr) - an ancient dance in which the young girls tucked their skirts up to the thighs (from reverga, to tuck up) (Lazare Sainéan, La Langue de Rabelais, Paris 1922).

frisque = frisk - a brisk and lively movement in horsemanship or dancing, a caper + la Frisque (fr) - a dance (Lazare Sainéan, La Langue de Rabelais Paris 1922).

frasques (fr) - tricks, pranks

pyrrhic - the war dance of the ancient Greeks + peruke + la pyrrichie (French) - a dance (Lazare Sainéan, La Langue de Rabelais Paris 1922) + Pyrrha - Deucalion’s wife in Greek mythology → corresponds to Coba, Noah’s wife, in the Greek myth of the Flood → see chopwife (Coba) three lines above.

Morgana le Fay - sorceress in the King Arthur stories + ma foi! (French) - an interjection expressing surprise or shock.

Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.207: 'appellations de danses... la Gaye' (French 'names of dances... la Gaye').

snaky - snakelike, wavy, wriggly + Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.220: 'la fameuse Mélusine... fée sous forme de femme-serpent' (French 'the famous Melusine... a fairy in the form of a snake-woman').      

Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.207: 'appellations de danses... la Trippiere' (French 'names of dances... la Trippiere')


Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.207: 'Expect un pauc, attends un peu... danse gasconne' (French 'Expect un pauc, wait a bit... a dance of Gascony')

veil - an article of attire consisting of a piece of thin cloth, silk, or other light fabric, worn, especially by women, over the head or face either as a part of the ordinary head-dress, or in order to conceal or protect the face.

volante - moving with light rapidity

valentine - one's beloved, sweetheart chosen on st. Valentines's day + valent - power, capacity + Sainéan: La Langue de Rabelais I.207: 'appellations de danses... La Valentinoise' (French 'names of dances... La Valentinoise').

It's an ill wind that blows nobody good (proverb) + besch (French) - the south-west wind (Lazare Sainéan, La Langue de Rabelais, Paris 1922)

flouin (French) - 'a type of sea-vessel, resembling the rauberge, a little smaller' (Lazare Sainéan, La Langue de Rabelais, Paris 1922).

hore (ger) - listen + Ho! ho! + whore (ALP as whore)

rearing - the action of erecting, building up, etc., the action (practice or occupation) of bringing up to or towards maturity.

weeny - exceptionally small

teeny - tiny

comme ceci (French) - like this

het - hot, heat, 8. letter of Jewish alphabet + wis - know + wiss- (ger) - know + It was of a night → anticipates line 5 below + het was of ie wist (Dutch) - it was as if he knew it.

newt - a small tailed amphibian (Triton), allied to the salamander

lissom - supple, limber + listen + REFERENCE + FDV: It was of a night. Lissom! lissom! I am doing it. Hark, the corne entreats! And the larpnotes prittle.

corne - a musical instrument, a horn; a corner + corne (fr) - horn.

entreat - to ask earnestly for (a thing), to beseech, implore

prittle prattle = prattle - to talk or chatter in a childish or artless fashion.

lang - long + FDV: It was one night at a long time ago when Adam was delvin & his madami madamene spunning watersilts Sir Howther had his burnt head up in his brain hive lamphouse with laying [cold] hand on himself. And his two little jimminies were not yet kicking on the oil cloth of van [homerigh] the cashel homecashel
earthshouse earthenhouse, Tristopher & Hilary. With their dummy. And who come to the keep of his inn but the niece of his a prankwench. And the prankwench picked a rosy one & made her wit foerenenst the dour. And spoke she to the dour in petty perusienne: Why do I want like a cup poss of porter porterpease. But the dour handworded her grace [in dootch nossow]: Shut. So she her grace o'malice snapped up Tristopher and she ran, ran, ran rain, rain, rain. And Sir Howther warlissed after her in his Finngallese: Stop deef stop. Come back to my Earin Stop. But she sware swareded at to him: Unlikely Unlikelyhood. And there was a brandnewwail [that same sabbaoth] somewhere in Erio. Then the prankwench went for a hundred forty years walk and she washed the scabs blessings off the jiminy and she had her four [owlers] monitors for to taught him his tickles and brought him she was back (came raining back through the westerness) again in a brace of samers back to Sir Howther another night at another time. And where did she come but to the bar of his bristolry. And Sir Howther had his heels down drowned in his cellarmalt shaking [warm] hands with himself and his little jiminy, Hilary and his dummy were on the watercloth, kissing & spitting tearsheet of the cashel, wringing & coughing in their first infancy. And the prankwench said to the wicked picked a paly one & made witter before the wicked. I want Why do I liking 2 cupsa poss of porterpeace. But the wicked handworded her grace. Shut. Then the prankweneh her grace o'malice put down Tristopher & picked up with Hilary and she ran, ran, ran rain, rain, rain. And Sir Howther bleethered atter her: Stop Deef Damd stop Come back with my Earing. Stop. But she swareadid to him: Am liking it. And there was a [fineold] grandnewwail [that altarsame sobbaoth] somewhere in Erio. Then the prankwench went for a hundred years war walk with Hilary and she punched holes in curses in him & she had her four [larksical] monitrix to taught him his tears & then she went with her Larryat Larryhill for another hundred years walk & brought in a pair of changes she was back to Sir Howther. And why did she halt at all but by the ward of his mansionhouse [another a third time for the third charm]. Sir Howther had his hurricane hand hips up to his pantrybox and his little jiminy Tristopher Toughertrees & the dummy were belord on the tarssheet watercloth, kissing & spitting [& roguing & poghing] in their second infancy. And the prankswench she picked a plank and said to the gate made ____ (her wittest) in front of the Archway (Arkway) of Triumph & asked: Why am do I like 3 cupss poss porterpease. And Sir Howther came hip hip handicap out of through the gate as far as he could his arkway of his 3 cashels [yellow green blue red orange violet hair all in his [broadginger his civic chollar &] allbufishirt like a redwary redyellan orangeman in his violet indigonation [by to the whole length longth of the strength strongth of his bowman's bill.]] And he put his rude hand to his hackneyseat E C Haitch. And he ordered And his thick speech spuck for her to shut up shop, dummy. And the dummy shot the shutter down and they all drank free. And this that was the first peace of porter of illiterative porthery in the whole flooding. The prankwench was to get hold the her dummy dummyship & the jimmies was to keep their peace peacewave & the Sir Howther was to get the wind up.

old stone age + auld - old +  stane - stone.

eld - age, old age, antiquity

delve - to labour with a spade in husbandry, excavating, etc.: to dig.; to work hard, slave, drudge + "When Adam delved and Eve span, who was then a gentleman?" - a line taken from a sermon by the 14th century priest John Bal.

-een (Anglo-Irish) - (diminutive, often pejorative) + song 'Madamina' from Don Giovanni.

spin - to revolve or gyrate, to whirl round

to spin one's wheels - to do nothing productive + silt - fine sand, clay, or other soil, carried by moving or running water and deposited as a sediment on the bottom or beach.

MONTENOTTE - Village, East of Genoa, Italy. 1st battle of Napoleon's Italian campaign, 11 April 1796, where he defeated the Austrians. 

leal - loyal, true; lawful (Archaic)

Canon W. Fleming: St Patrick 48: "in those days, when rivers had at all times their own way" [(notebook 1924): 'rivers had their own way'] + ain (Scots) - own + ain (Hebrew) - none, no, void.

billy - lad, fellow + Billy Budd - title hero of Melville's novel. Billy or "Beauty" or "Baby". Budd is foretopman on a British man-of-war, is radiant, beautiful, good, loved by every man who beholds him. Billy's one imperfection is a stutter, and when Claggart, his superior, falsely accuses him of mutiny, Billy cannot speak and, with no evil intent, kills Claggart with a single blow; Billy's captain, Vere, loves Billy, and, as divine justice, acquits him, as human justice, hangs him. 

biddy - woman

jarl - a medieval scandinavian noble ranking immediately below the king + Earl of Howth (Scandinavian/Dutch) + FDV: Sir Howther had his burnt head up in his brain hive lamphouse with laying [cold] hand on himself.

burnt - set on fire; excited; that had suffered injury from fire; affected by veneral disease.

jiminy - used as a mild oath; alt. of gemini (pair, couple) + gemini (l) - twins.

ourn (Middle English) - ours

Tristopher and Hillary - Mr Tindall pointed out that Tristopher and Hillary and their mingling exemplify Bruno's motto: In tristia hilaris hilaritate tristis (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake).

kick one's heels - to have nothing to do esp. while being kept waiting + kick up one's heels - to have a lively time.

dummy - doll

oilcloth - a canvas of various degrees of thickness, painted or coated with a preparation containing a drying oil, used for table-cloths, floor-cloths, etc.

flure - floor

Vanhomrigh, Bartholomew - Vanessa's father, Lord Mayor of Dublin in 1697. According to the Dublin Annals, he "obtained from William III a royal donative, a collar of SS in lieu of that lost in 1688." The SS collar is (was?) the mayor of Dublin's chain of office. 

earth house - a dwelling built into or covered with earth + earthen - made of earth.

keep - central tower of a medieval castle (serving as a last defence), a tower.

inn - a dwelling place, a house

niece in law - the wife of one's nephew + (notebook 1924): 'niece-in-law' Freeman's Journal 16 Feb 1924, 4/4: 'Publican's Story': 'Witness then asked his niece-in-law, Mary Maher, to go for the priest' + FDV: And who come to the keep of his inn but the niece of his a prankwench.

prank - to adorn in a gay or showy manner, to dress ostentatiously + quean (archaic) - a strumpet, harlot, whore; a woman of worthless character; a saucy girl.

rosy - having the crimson or pink colour of a rose; rose-coloured +  the heroine of the song Tam Lin pulls roses at the castle door to announce her presence +  Rose and Lily - the Two girls. Maybe Lily is the pure girl and Rose the impure, because, Havelock Ellis says, the rose is anciently and widely associated with the female labia; ("to pull a rose" is to urinate) (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake)

wit - mental capacity, understanding, intellect + to make one's wise - to do what one can + wit (Dutch) - white.

fornenst - right opposite to, over against; facing

dour - hard to move, stubborn, obstinate, sullen + dour (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - door.

Ireland + (notebook 1923): 'S Patrick's vision 1 All I ablaze'.

ablaze - on the fire, radiant with light

petty - of small importance, inconsiderable, insignificant, trivial; little-minded, 'small' + Le Petit Parisien - a journal of the 1920s; the title is French for The Little Parisian + Parisienne: a Parisian woman.

Parisian - the French spoken in or associated with Paris

wan - one + wans (Dublin Slang) - girls + FDV: Why do I want like a cup poss of porter porterpease.

poss = post (?); an act of 'possing', a thrust or knock + nursery rhyme 'Pease Porridge Hot': 'Pease porridge hot. Pease porridge cold, Pease porridge in the pot, Nine days old. Spell me that without a P, And a clever scholar you will be' + The riddle relationship to the "plot" of the book is that heard by Earwicker in his drunken sleep after his pub had closed: he hears a call for "pots of porter, please". The use of "Porter" is not nearly as universal in the book; it merely delineates Earwicker's function of carrying drinks to his customers, and probably stems as well from the porter who hears the knocking at the gate in Macbeth. This knocking at the door further suggests the invader seeking to gain entrance into Ireland, so that Earwicker as defender is also a customs official or policeman asking to see "passports, please." (Benstock, Bernard / Joyce-again's wake : an analysis of Finnegans wake)

porter - one who has charge of a door or gate, esp. at the entrance of a fortified town or of a castle or other large building; a kind of beer, of a dark brown colour and bitterish taste, brewed from malt partly charred or browned by drying at a high temperature.

skirmish - a petty fight or encounter

antwortet (ger) - answers + antwoordde (Dutch) - answered + i.e. made a sign with the hand.

native - native liquor, native language + NASSAU - German duchy until 1866. William the Silent, founder of the Dutch Republic, inherited the title of Nassau-Dillenburg from his father, of Orange-Chalons from his cousin, was 1st prince of Orange-Nassau. 

malice - the desire to injure another person, active ill-will or hatred + Grace O Malley - 16 c. pirate chieftainess + REFERENCE

kidnap - originally, to steal or carry off (children or others) in order to provide servants or labourers for the American plantations; hence, in general use, to steal (a child), to carry off (a person) by illegal force.

Shandy, Tristram - title, hero of Sterne's novel. "Shandy" is "boisterous mirth," and, therefore, the name exemplifies opposites - hilarity and sorrow (Glasheen, Adaline / Third census of Finnegans wake).

shandy - wild, boisterous; also visionary, empty-headed, half-crazy



wireless - to send a message by wireless

lovecall - a call or note used as a means of amorous communication between the sexes.

deef - deaf + dief (Dutch) - thief + thief; dear

song Come Back to Erin

svarede (Danish) - answered

unlikelihood - something improbable, improbability

brannew - brand new (quite new, perfectly new) + ail - trouble, ailment + branne (Danish) - fire + Grannuaile - one of the numerous transliterations of Grace O’Malley's Irish name, Gráinne Ní Mháille.

sabbath - Saturday + sabaoth (Hebrew) - armies, hosts (Romans 1:1, Hebrews 5:4).

Eria - the old name for the small island outside Dublin Bay now known as Ireland's Eye was Eria's Island. Eria was a woman's name and this became confused with Erin, an Irish name for Ireland. The Vikings substituted the Old Norse word Ey (Island) and so the island became known as Erins Ey and ultimately Ireland's Eye.

TIR NA MBAN - In the 10th-century text of The Voyage of Bran, Bran and his followers stay so long on the enchanted island of Tir na Mban, the Land of Women, where a century is like a year, that when they return to land the 1st man to step on shore collapses into a pile of ashes. If the Prankquean spends "forty years" there between visits to Howth, she is absent from Howth for 21 weeks + Le Tour du Monde en Quatre-Vingts JoursAround the World in 80 Days, a novel by the French author Jules Verne

suddle - a stain, spot + Gulliver's Travels

owler - one engaged in the illegal exportation or 'owling' of wool or sheep from England + old master - a 'master' who lived before the period accounted 'modern'; chiefly applied to painters from the 13th to the 16th  or 17th century.

tickle - an act of tickling

converted + convortare (Latin) - to turn around; to transform + convorto (l) - I turn around.

allgood - sort of plant + Allgood, Sara (1883-1950) - Irish actress who gave a reading of "Anna Livia Plurabelle" (see Letters, III, 261). 

Luder (ger) - carrion, carcass; scoundrel + Lutheran - a member of Lutheran church + ludraman (Irish) - idler + letterman


in a brace of shakes - in a very short time = in two shakes.

pinafore - a covering of washable material worn by children, and by factory girls or others, over the frock or gown, to protect it from being soiled. Also, a low-necked, sleeveless fashion garment worn by women and girls, usu. over a blouse or jumper.

hostelry - an inn, a hostel

tholos (Greek) - dome-shaped roof; vaulted building + bruised heel (Genesis 3.14-15): "And the Lord God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life: And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.

cellar - an underground room or vault + malt - barley or other grain prepared for brewing or distilling by steeping, germinating and kiln-drying.

Key: John McCormack, His Own Life Story 65: (of William Rathborne, a competitor in the Feis Ceol) 'I saw him take his left hand in his right and press it with congratulatory fervor... that act of Rathborne's of shaking hands with himself on his assumed victory struck me as a trifle previous' [(notebook 1924): '*V* shakes hands with self'].

infancy - the condition of being an infant; the earliest period of human life, early childhood.

tearsheet - a sheet torn from a publication (or, later, separately printed and unbound) to be sent to an advertiser whose advertisement appears on it as proof of insertion; also one containing an article.

wring - to twist the body in struggling or striving; to struggle with or strive against something; to contend, labour, or endeavour earnestly + ringen (ger) - to wrestle.

Brodhar or Brodar - Danish sorcerer who killed Brian Boru + Bruder (ger) - brother.

hister - a sort of beetle + sister

nip - to snatch, catch, seize or take smartly + Napoleon

paly - pale, or somewhat pale

red cock - a male of red grouse; a euphemism for fire maliciously raised [(notebook 1924): 'red cock']. 

flacker - flutter, to flap (like wings)

hillock - a little hill + comb - In the south of England, a hollow or valley on the flank of a hill + (notebook 1923): '2 hilltops'.

witter - comp. of witty

wicked - a wicked person + wicket (obs) - female pudendum.

twy - two, twice + FDV: I want Why do I liking 2 cupsa poss of porterpeace.

poss - to dash or toss with a blow, to knock, an act of possing; post + But a most important version of the riddle should not be overlooked: the Prankquean, arriving at the Jarl's castle in quest of sanctuary, asks permission to use the Jan's toilet facilities, to "pass water, please"; when rebuffed, she made her "wit [witter, wittest)" on the doorstep and then she "rain, rain, rain." (Benstock, Bernard / Joyce-again's wake : an analysis of Finnegans wake).

antworten (ger) - answer + antwoordde (Dutch) - answered + i.e. made a sign with the hand. 

her majesty - the Queen

aforethought - premeditated, previously in mind

Lilliput - the name of an imaginary country in Gulliver's Travels (1726), peopled by pygmies six inches high. Used attrib.= diminutive.

woemen = woman

blather - to talk foolishly, talk nonsense, to cry loudly, to blubber + blethered (Anglo-Irish) - blathered, spoke garrulous nonsense.

atter - poison, venom, bitterness + after + atter (Danish) - again, once more.

Fingal - Finn's name in Macpherson's Ossian poems. Fingal is a Scottish hero who comes to Ireland and fights the Danes. The Irish called certain Norse invaders, fingal or fingall, meaning "fair stranger." 

domb = dumb

svarede (Danish) - answered

St. Laurence's day - 10 August

starshooting - Jocularly used with reference to taking the altitude of stars

TIR NA MBAN - In the 10th-century text of The Voyage of Bran, Bran and his followers stay so long on the enchanted island of Tir na Mban, the Land of Women, where a century is like a year, that when they return to land the 1st man to step on shore collapses into a pile of ashes. If the Prankquean spends "forty years" there between visits to Howth, she is absent from Howth for 21 weeks.  

Anglo-Irish phrase the curse of Cromwell on (someone)

lark - a frolicsome adventure, a spree + classical

monitrix - a female monitor (one who admonishes or gives advice or warning to another as to his conduct) + monitrix (l) - instructress.

provorto (l) - I turn forwards


dermot + verdammter (ger) - damned + ter (l) - three times, thrice.


mansion house - a house of the lord of a manor, a large imposing residence.

lace - a cord, line, string, thread, or tie (obs.)

time + third time is charm.

hurricane - a violent rush or commotion bringing with it destruction or confusion; a storm or tempest of words, noise, cheers, etc.

pantry - a room or apartment in a house, etc., in which bread and other provisions are kept.

dare (it) - to give

watercloth - ? a dish cloth + cloth - spec. = table-cloth: a covering for a table, particularly that spread on it when it is 'laid' for a meal.

rogue - to act like a rogue

poghuing (Irish) - kissing

knave - a boy or lad employed as a servant (obs.); rogue, rascal + paltry - rubbishy, trashy, worthless; petty, insignificant, trifling; contemptible, despicable; of worthless nature.

second infancy - the state of childishness incident to extreme old age.

blank - white, colourless

twinkling - sparkling, glittering + (notebook 1923): '3 lights in valley' + Thomas Moore, Irish Melodies: song The Song of O'Ruark, Prince of Breffni: 'The valley lay smiling before me' + Ireland: Its Saints and Scholars 43-4: An ancient Irish manuscript of unknown authorship divides the Saints of Ireland into three great orders. The First Order was in the time of St. Patrick. They were 350 in number [...] The Second Order numbered 300 [...] and flourished during the latter half of the sixth century. The Third Order of Saints lived in Ireland for a period which extended for about seventy years from the end of the sixth century. The writer of the manuscript says that "the First Order was most holy, the Second Order holier, and the Third holy. The First glowed like the sun in the fervour of their charity; the Second cast a pale radiance like the moon; the Third shone like the aurora. These Three Orders the blessed Patrick foreknew, enlightened by heavenly wisdom, when in prophetic vision he saw at first all Ireland ablaze, and afterwards only the mountains on fire; and at last saw lamps lit in the valleys."

archway - the arched entrance to a castle, etc.

Mark of Cornwall - king, uncle of Tristan, husband of Isolde of Ireland. Mark is best known from Wagner's opera, but Bédier's Tristan et Iseult is the great source. Bédier's Mark is, as it were, two men: one loves wife and nephew and believes what they tell him-lies; the other listens to four wicked barons, spies with them, sets traps for the lovers. 

tris (Greek) - thrice

acoming - coming to, reaching

fork - a flash (of forked lightning) + first

lance - a weapon, consisting of a long wooden shaft and an iron or steel head.

Boanerges or Sons of Thunder - the name Jesus gave to the apostles James and John (Mark, 3:17). 

hip hop - with hopping movement, whit successive hops

handicap - any race or competition in which the chances of the competitors are sought to be equalized by giving an advantage to the less efficient or imposing a disadvantage upon the more efficient.

ginger - a light sandy color

civic - of, pertaining, or proper to citizens

collar + choler (Archaic) - bile, anger.

buff - military attire (for which buff (wild ox) was formerly much used); a military coat made of buff + FDV: allbuffshirt

hem - to edge or border (a garment or cloth), to decorate with a border + Hemd (ger) = hemd (Dutch) - shirt, undershirt.

Balbriggan - the name of a town in Ireland, applied attrib. to a knitted cotton fabric manufactured there, used in hose, underwear, etc.

socks and gloves

Ragnar Lodbrok (Ragnar "Hairy-Breeks") - a Norse legendary hero from the Viking Age. To court his second wife, the Swedish princess Thora, Ragnar traveled to Sweden and quelled an infestation of venomous snakes, famously wearing the hairy breeches whereby he gained his nickname. 

breeks - breeches

catgut - a tough cord + CATTEGAT (KATTEGAT) - The strait connecting North and Baltic Seas between Sweden and Denmark. Dan, "cat's throat."  

bandoleer - a broad belt, worn over the shoulder and across the breast used by soldiers; orig. it helped to support the musket, and had also attached twelve little cases, each containing a charge for the musket.

panuncula (l) - thread wound upon a bobbin (a wooden or metal cylinder, perforated so as to revolve on a spindle, having a flange or 'head' at one or both ends (according to the purpose for which it is adapted), used to receive thread or yarn, and give it off by unwinding, in the processes of spinning, warping, weaving, frame-work knitting, etc.)

gumboots + bottes (French) - boots.

red, yellow, green, blue, orange, violet, indigo + rude + rud- (Pan-Slavonic) - red-.

indignation - anger at what is regarded as unworthy or wrongful

whole length - exhibited at full length + FDV: by to the whole length longth of the strength strongth of his bowman's bill

Strongbow, Richard, earl of Pembroke - led the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland in 1170. He married Eve MacMurrough and ruled Leinster till he died in 1176. He was buried in Christ Church Cathedral; his tomb was long a Dublin landmark, a place where debts were paid, business done. 

bowman - a man who shoots with a bow; esp. a fighting man armed with a bow.

bill - a halberd (weapon); a note of charges for goods delivered or services rendered, in which the cost of each item is separately stated.

clop - to clap; a blow; a sharp sound + FDV: And he put his rude hand to his hackneyseat E C Haitch.

hitch - a contrivance for fastening something, a catch

ordered + ord (Norwegian) - word.

shut up shop - to discontinue the work one is doing

dippy - mad, insane, crazy + FDV: dummy

duppy - name among West Indian Negroes for a ghost or spirit + dup (Archaic) - to open + dupe (Serbian) - ass.

put up the shutters - to stop doing business

Perkun - Lithuanian thunder-god. Perun is the Slavic one. 

kurun (Breton) - thunder

barg (Persian) - thunder

griauja (Lithuanian) - it thunders

gök gürliy or (Turkish) - thundering sky

grom grmi (Serbian) - thunder thunders

guntur (Malay) - thunder

thruma (ON) - thunder

thuna (Rumanian) - thunder

radi (Kiswahili) - thunder

dill (Arabic) - thunder

failitily (Samoan) - thunder

bumulloj (Albanian) - thunder

ukkonen (Finnish) - thunder

break free + Stock ending of Irish fairy tales: 'They put on the kettle and they all had tea' + ‘Here the story fell to the sea’ on 204(a) derives from the Senegalese equivalent of the Irish ‘and they all drank tea’, the closing formula of a tale without a proper ending: ‘Here the tale goes for a walk and falls into the sea’ (Robbert-Jan Henkes).

armour (Slang) - pot valiant, courageous through liquor + James Joyce: Ulysses.15.4402: 'Doctor Swift says one man in armour will beat ten men in their shirts' (from Swift: The Drapier's Letters: 'Eleven Men well armed will certainly subdue one Single Man in his Shirt').

shurt - short; to amuse oneself, to pass the time + shirts

illiterate - unfurnished with letters, not written upon, unwritten

portery - citizenship or burghership in a Flemish or Dutch city + pottery - the manufacture of earthen vessels + pother - disturbance, tumult, noise + porthor (Welsh) - doorkeeper, porter + FDV: And this that was the first peace of porter of illiterative porthery in the whole flooding

floody - pertaining to the flood

flatuous - flatulent (full of air or other gas, pretentious without real worth).

Kirsche (ger) - cherry + story: "How Kersse the Tailor Made a Suit of Clothes for the Norwegian Captain"

tiler - one who covers the roofs of buildings with tiles, a tile-layer; Freemasonry: (Usually tyler.) The doorkeeper who keeps the uninitiated from intruding upon the secrecy of the lodge or meeting.

unclose - to make open; to cause to open; to disclose, make known, reveal.

saw - p. od see + so far + Job 38:8-11: 'Or who shut up the sea with doors... And said, Hitherto shalt thou come, but no further: and here shall thy proud waves be stayed?'

between you and me + betune (Anglo-Irish) - between + Genesis 9:12: 'the covenant which I make between me and you'.

to get the wind up - to get into a state of alarm or funk + git - get + to get it up (Slang) = bander (French Slang) - to have an erection + FDV: The prankwench was to get hold the her dummy dummyship & the jiminies was to keep their peace peacewave & the Sir Howther was to get the wind up.

gehorsam (ger) - obedient

Obidientia civium urbis felicitas (l) - The municipal motto of Dublin + Burger (ger) = burger (Dutch) - citizen.

felicitate - to make happy

polis - a Greek city-state; police, policeman

FDV: O phenix culprit! Ex nicklow cometh good. Hill and rill once in company [billeted], we see less be proud of. Breast it high and bestride! but only for that they will not speak breathe the secret secrest of their silentness sourcelessness. Quarry silex, Homfries Homfrie Noanswa? Undy festiknees, Livia Noanswa? Wolkencap is on his head him, frowned; audiurient, he would hear evesdrop were it mice mouse at hand, were it dinned din of bottles [in the far ear]. Murk, his vales are darkling! with lipth she lispeth lithpeth to him ever and ever of thow and thow all the time of thuch and thuch and thow and thow: she he she ho she ha to la: hairfiuke, if he could but twig her!: he is impalpabunt, he abhears. The soundwaves are his buffeteers: They trompe him with their trompes: the wave of roaring and the wave of hooshed and the wave of bawahawrd and the wave of dontmindthesefellowsbutlistentome neverheedthemhorseluggarsandlistletomine. Perpetrified in his offsprung, the moaning pipes piper tells could tell him to his face faceback how only butt for him his old butt there would not be a spier on the town or a vestal in the dock, no, nor a you yew nor an eye wilbud to play catch clash cash cash in old nilbud new by swamplight nor a'toole a'tall a'tall and noddy hint to the convaynience. He sweated his crowd crew in beneath the auspice for the living and he urned his dead and he made louse for us & delivered us to boll weevils amain and begad he did in his windower's house till his with a blush mantle upon him from earsend to earsend.

culprit - prisoner at the bar, the accused [Joyce's note: 'culprit' + O felix culpa! (l) - 'O happy fault' (St Augustine's comment on the fall of man) → Adam and Eve's disobedience (the "happy fault") is contrasted with the obedience of the citizens of Dublin enjoined in the city's motto, which is alluded to in the preceding lines.

nicky (Czech ) - nulls, zeros + ex nihilo nihil fit (l) - out of nothing comes nothing (Persius: Satires 1.84: 'De nihilo nihilum': 'Nothing can come out of nothing').

malum (l) - evil; apple (Eve's) + malo (Pan-Slavonic) - a little, wee + ex nihilo malo venit nihilum bonum (l) - out of nothing evil comes nothing good + ex malo bonum fit (l) - out of evil comes good.

bonum (l) - good

rill - a small stream, a brook, runnel, rivulet

billet - to enter in a list, assign the place to, locate, to lodge

breast high - to the height of the breast; said in hunting of the scent when it is so strong that the hounds go at a racing pace with their heads erect.

bestride - to sit upon with the legs astride, to ride, mount (a horse, etc.)

Norronesen (Old Norse) = warrior (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927 to Harriet Shaw Weaver) + norroenn (Old Norse) - norse.

Irenean = Irish born; peace (eirene): Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927 (to Harriet Shaw Weaver) + eirēnē: (Greek) peace.

secrest - to sequestrate goods + secret + SDV: but only for that they will not speak breathe the secret secrest of their silentness sourcelessness.

quarry - an open-air excavation from which stone for building or other purposes is obtained by cutting, blasting, or the like; a place where the rock has been, or is being, cut away in order to be utilized + The quarry and the silex (flint) suggest HCE silent  Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927 (to Harriet Shaw Weaver) - Joyce uses the siglum for HCE interred in the landscape - see FW 006.32)

silex (l) - rock, flint + quare siles (l) - why are you silent? + SDV: Quarry silex, Homfries Homfrie Noanswa? Undy festiknees, Livia Noanswa?

undy - waving, wavy

gentian - any plant belonging to the genus Gentiana

festiness - confinement, durance + unde gentium festines? (l) - where the dickens are you hurrying from? (Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927, to Harriet Shaw Weaver).

VICTORIA NYANZA - Lake (nyanza) Victoria, in central Africa, the source (through the Albert Nynaza) of the White Nile, long-sought and bitterly disputed by explorers and geographers in the 19th century. John Speke was the 1st European to see Lake Victoria, in 1858, and the 1st to discover its Nile outlet, in 1862. 

Wolken (ger) - clouds, cloud- wolkenkap (Dutch) - cloud cap → the Hill of Howth is often cloud-capped + SDV: Wolkencap is on his head him, frowned; audiurient, he would hear evesdrop were it mice mouse at hand, were it dinned din of bottles [in the far ear].  

frown - to present somber or menacing appearence

audio (l) - to listen + -urient - desiring, characterized by desire + audi urio (l) - I long to hear, I desire to hear + Vulgate Psalms 113:6: 'Aures habent et non audient' (l) - 'They have ears, but they hear not'.

eavesdrop - to listen secretly

mous = pl. of mou - mouth + mouse

at hand - near in time or place

din - a loud noise; particularly a continued confused or resonant sound, which stuns or distresses the ear.


murk - to grow dark, to darken; darkness + mark - to notice or observe + Vulgate Psalms 113:5: 'Oculos habent et non videbunt' (l) - 'They have eyes, but they see not' + SDV: Murk, his vales are darkling! with lipth she lispeth lithpeth to him ever and ever of thow and thow all the time of thuch and thuch and thow and thow: she he she ho she ha to la: hairfiuke, if he could but twig her!

vale - a dale or valley, esp. one which is comparatively wide and flat + eyes

darkle - to grow dark, to lurk in the dark

to (gr) - the + all the time

thow - thaw; thou; though + such on such and so on so.

fluke - a successful stroke made by accident or chance, an unexpected success + verflucht (ger) - accursed, damn (expl.) + He tries to grab her hair which he hopes to catch by a fluke: Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927 (to Harriet Shaw Weaver).

twig - notice, understand; to beat with or as with a twig

impalpable - incapable of being felt by the organs of touch; incapable of being (readily) grasped or apprehended by the mind + Manus habent et non palpabunt [Psalms 115.7 (Vulgate Psalms 113.7)]: Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927 (to Harriet Shaw Weaver) - "They have hands, but they handle not...." + SDV: he is impalpabunt, he abhears. The soundwaves are his buffeteers: They trompe him with their trompes: the wave of roaring and the wave of hooshed and the wave of bawahawrd and the wave of dontmindthesefelowsbutlistentome neverheedthemhorseluggarsandlistletomine. Perpetrified in his offsprung, the moaning pipes piper tells could tell him to his face faceback how only butt for him his old butt there would not be a spier on the town or a vestal in the dock, no, nor a you yew nor an eye wilbud to play catch clash cash cash in old nilbud new by swamplight nor a'toole a'tall a'tall and noddy hint to the convaynience. He sweated his crowd crew in beneath the auspice for the living and he urned his dead and he made louse for us & delivered us to boll weevils amain and begad he did in his windower's house till his with a blush mantle upon him from earsend to earsend.   

abhor - to hate utterly, loathe +  ab - - position away from + abear (Archaic) - to tolerate + ''His ear having failed, he clutches with his hand & misses & turns away hopeless and unhearing (he abhears)'': Joyce, Letters 13-05-1927 (to Harriet Shaw Weaver).

buffet - a blow, stroke +  buffeter - a boxer, one that buffets.

trompe - to deceive, cheat; to blow a trumpet

roary - given to roaring + Rurie, Thoath and Cleaven - Scribbledehobble, 6: "3 waves of I[reland] = Thoth, Ruri, Cleeva." These waves sound round the Irish coast in recognition of a great hero. Irish waves are sometimes four.

hoosh - an exclamation used in driving animals

hawhaw - ha ha

landlocked - shut in or enclosed by land; almost entirely surrounded by land, as a harbour, etc. + Lochlann (Anglo-Irish) - Scandinavian.

per - - thoroughly, completely

offspring - the progeny which springs or is descended from some one, children.

sabe - experness in particular field, knowhow, intelligence + babe - baby + Psalms 8:2: 'babes and sucklings'.

morning papers + piper - one who plays on a pipe (esp. a strolling musician).

loathly - hateful, disgusting, loathsome, repulsive, hideous, horrible. 

loaf - Obs. exc. dial. Bread + Leib (ger) - body, used also in religious sense, as 'der Leib des Herrn', the body of Christ.


s → mastication of the host + devoro (Latin) - I swallow, I devour.

butt = halibut - flatfish + but

pudor - modesty, due sense of shame +   pudor (Latin) - shame + puder (German) - powder + powder puff.

puff - breath, a short impulsive blast of breath or wind, a scornful gesture

life + libas (gr) - stream + Liebe (ger) - love + liber (l) - wine.

biff - whack, blow + but

tiddy - small, very small, tiny

windfall - something blown down by the wind, fruit from the tree; a casual or unexpected acqusition or advantage + (notebook 1922-23): 'windfalls (apples)' Irish Times 30 Oct 1922, 2/5: 'There has been a wonderful crop of apples this year... those that have fallen off in the late storms. "Windfalls," when gathered fresh, may be used in making tarts or puddings'.

bread and water - the type of extreme hard fare, as of a prisoner or a penitent.

holey - full of holes + According to legend, the Holy Lance (also known as the Spear of Destiny, Holy Spear, Lance of Longinus, Spear of Longinus or Spear of Christ) is the name given to the lance that pierced Jesus while he was on the cross.

Spier (ger) - thin stalk + The Holy Lance (also known as the Spear of Destiny, Holy Spear, Lance of Longinus, Spear of Longinus or Spear of Christ)

vestal - a virgin, a chaste woman + vestal (Slang) - prostitute + vessel - any article designed to serve as a receptacle for a liquid or other substance, usually one of circular section and made of some durable material; any structure designed to float upon and traverse the water for the carriage of persons or goods.

flout - to mock, jeer + floating

avowal - an act of avowing; declaration; unconstrained admission or confession + à plein voiles (fr) - in full sail + plein (French Slang) - drunk.

yew - you

cache-cache (fr) - hide and seek

novo (l) - new

Dublin + James Joyce: Letters II.192: letter 13/11/06 to Stanislaus Joyce: (of Joyce's Dubliners 'Clay') 'The meaning of Dublin by Lamplight Laundry? That is the name of the laundry at Ballsbridge, of which the story treats. It is run by a society of Protestant spinsters, widows, and childless women - I expect - as a Magdalen's home. The phrase Dublin by Lamplight means that Dublin by lamplight is a wicked place full of wicked and lost women whom a kindly committee gathers together for the good work of washing my dirty shirts. I like the phrase because 'it is a gentle way of putting it'' (Maria works there).

lamplight - the light afforded by a lamp or lamps + swamp - bog, marsh.

tall - account; shape, fashion, bodily form or appearence + Anglo-Irish phrase at all at all.

toll - a definite payment exacted by a king, ruler, or lord, or by the state or the local authority, by virtue of sovereignty or lordship, or in return for protection.

noddy - foolish, silly; drowsy, sleepy + nod - to make a quick inclination of the head, esp. in salutation, assent, or command; to let the head fall forward with a quick, short, involuntary motion when drowsy or asleep.

convaynience (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - convenience (the quality of being convenient, generally: i.e. of being suitable or well adapted to the performance of some action or to the satisfying of requirements).

dig in - to work hard, to penetrate

dig out -  to take out by excavation, to excavate + day in and day out - every day for an indefinite number of successive days.

by the skin of one's teeth - with a very little time, space, etc. left over + tilth - cultivation of the soil.

the sweat of one's brow - hard work, violent or strenuous exertion; labour, toil + crew - a body or squad of workmen engaged upon a particular piece of work, or under one foreman or overseer.

auspice - any divine or prophetic token; esp. indication of a happy future; prosperous lead, patronage, favouring direction.

urn - to enclose in or as if in an urn, entomb + earned

dread - extreme fear; deep awe or reverence; anxiety as to future events + bread + Genesis 3:19: 'In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread' + FDV: he urned his dead

dragon - a devilish person, a 'fiend' + dragon-volant - the old name for a gun of large calibre used in the French navy.

volant - having the wings extended as if in flight, flying

louse - a parasitic insect, infesting the human hair and skin and causing great irritation by its presence + love + Lucifer.

boll - the pod or a capsule of a plant

weevil - sort of beetle

amain - with all one's might, at full speed, suddenly


begad - a mild oath + Finnegan’s Wake (song): “Bedad he revives, see how he rises”.

worshipful - distinguished, worshipable, entitled to honour

blue mantle - the dress and the title of one of the four pursuivants of the English college of arms + blush - a rosy colour or glow + phrase blushing from ear to ear + FDV: blush mantle

grassie - red backed parrot

fiery - burning, blazing

dismember - to divide into parts or sections

sooth - truth; truthfully, truly

whine - a low somewhat shrill protracted cry, usually expressive of pain or distress + wine

bedding - a supply of bed-clothes for one bed

whoop - a cry of 'whoop!', or a shout or call resembling this; spec. as used in hunting, esp. at the death of the game.

deading - deadening (to become dead, to die) + deading is a = dead in Giza

usquebaugh - whiskey (literally 'water of life') + usque ad mortem (l) - even unto death.

muck - the dung of cattle; contemptuously applied to money (obs.)

dhoul - Irish "devil" + TDV: Anam a dhoul! did Did ye drink me dead? 

thanam o'n dhoul (Ir.) - your souls to the devil! (McH) + Anam muic an diabhail (onum mwik un d'oul) (gael) - Soul of the devil's pig.

doornail - a large headed nail for nailing doors +  dead as a doornail - completely dead + Finnegan's Wake (song): 'Then Micky Maloney raised his head / When a noggin of whiskey flew at him, / It missed and falling on the bed, / The liquor scattered over Tim; / Bedad he revives, see how he rises / And Timothy rising from the bed, / Says "Whirl your liquor round like blazes, / Thanam o'n dhoul, do ye think I'm dead?"' (originally, Poole: Tim Finigan's Wake: 'Mickey Mulvaney raised his head, / When a gallon of whiskey flew at him; / It missed him, and, hopping on the bed, / The liquor scattered over Tim! / Bedad, he revives! see how he raises! / And Timothy, jumping from the bed, / Cries, while he lathered around like blazes, / "Bad luck till yer sowls! d'ye think I'm dead?"').

aisy (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - easy

Fionn Mor (fin mor) (gael) - Great Fionn ("Fair") + TDV: And would again could whispning grassies wake him. Anam a dhoul! did Did ye drink me dead? Now be aisy, good Mr Finnimore, sir! And take your laysure and don't be walking abroad, sir. Sure, you'd only lose yourself the way the roads are [that] winding now and wet your feet, maybe. You're better off, sir, where you have all you want and we'll be bringing you presents, won't we? Honey is the holiest thing ever was [(mind you keep pot!)] or some goat's milk, sir? The menhere's always talking of you. The grand old Gunne, they do be saying, that was a planter for you! He's duddandgunne now but peace to his great limbs with the long rest of him! Everything's going on the same. Coal's short but we've plenty of bog in the yard. And barley's up again. The boys is attending school regular, sir. Hetty Jane's a child of Mary. And Essie Shanahan has let down her skirts. 'Twould delight your heart to see. Aisy now, you decent man, with your knees and lie quiet and repose your honour's lordship! I've an eye on queer Behan and Old old Kate and the milk buttermilk butter, trust me. And we put on your clock again, sir, for you. And it's herself that's fine too, don't be talking, and fond of the concertina of an evening: Her hair's as brown as ever it was. And wivvy and wavy. Repose you now! Finn no more!

laysure (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - leisure (time which one can spend as one pleases, free or unoccupied time) + Herold: La Vie du Bouddha 60: (Buddha describing his horse) 'le cheval est fort et rapide comme un Dieu' (French: 'the horse is strong and fast like a God').

abroad - at large; freely moving about; out of one's house or abode out in the open air, out of the home country; in or into foreign lands.

Heliopolis - anciet city in lower Egypt

Kapilavastu (Sanskrit) - the birthplace of Siddhartha Gautama, later Shakyamuni Buddha; located in what is now Nepal.


alvary or Golgotha - the proper name (the Bible glosses it as "place of the skull") of the place where Christ was crucified.

umbrian - rel. to Ital. province Umbria + umbra (l) - shadow.

PHIBSBOROUGH (PHIBSBORO) - District and Road, North Dublin.

WATLING STREET in Dublin lies on the East side of Guinness's Brewery, between Thomas Street and Barrack Bridge. It is Luke Tarpey's residence. 

BOHERMORE - The name is from Bothar Mor, Ir "Great Road." There were 5 "great roads" built in Ireland in the 2nd century, but none was uniquely called the Bothar Mor. 

foggy - misty; marshy, boggy + song The Foggy Dew.

bankrupt - one hopelessly in debt; one who has lost all his means, and is without resources.

Cotterick = Cothraige - this was the Old Irish form of Patrick, folk-etymologized into mog cethrair or "servant of four masters". 

clakety clank - sharp successive often metalic and ringing noises + Kantaka - Buddha's horse + Katachanka - Mohammed's horse.   

impure - unclean

mean - poor in quality, inferior; to complain, to lament for (a dead person).

Nugent, Gerald (fi. 1588) - as Mr Atherton says, his poem "A Farewell to Fal" contains the words: "To fare from Devlin is hard." 

tanglesome - tangled, confused

lush - soft, tender

enfranchisable - that admits of being enfranchised (to make (lands) freehold under feudal law) + infranchissable (French) - impassable + en franchise (fr) - duty free.

better off - in better circumstances

primesign - to mark (a person) with the sign of the cross before baptism, to make a catechumen + primo signatio (it) - first signing.

(notebook 1930): 'Osiris buried sycomore grove' Budge: The Book of the Dead (pamphlet) 16: 'By some means or other Set did contrive to kill Osiris... Isis, accompanied by her sister Nephthys... rescued the body of her lord... They then laid the body in a tomb, and a sycamore tree grew round it and flourished over the grave'.

keld - spring, fountain + cold

TORY ISLAND - Island, 7 miles off North coast of County Donegal; ancient haunt of pirates, esp. "Balor of the Baleful Eye," who had one eye whose glance could kill. The island was noted for its various clays, used for heat-resistant pottery. There are no rats on Tory Island; they were driven out by St Columcille. Mainlanders still use earth from the island against infestation of rats.

varmint - animals obnoxious to a man (lice, mice, owls, etc.)

pouch - a bag, sack, or receptacle of small or moderate size, used for various purposes, esp. for carrying small articles; a small bag in which money is carried, a purse.

bricket - a smal brick (a brick shaped block of any substance e.g. of tea) + briquet (fr) - lighter; short sword.

kerchief - handkerchief

pyre - a pile of combustible material, esp. wood; a funeral pile for burning a dead body.

Homer + song Groves of Blarney: 'But were I Homer, or Nebuchadnezzar'.

Brian Boru


Nebuchadrezzar - the second and greatest king of the Chaldean dynasty of Babylonia (reigned c. 605-c. 561 BC). He was known for his military might, the splendour of his capital, Babylon, and his important part in Jewish history.

Genghis Khan

ombre - shaded + ombre (it) - shadows, ghosts, shades.

rake - to go over with a rake, so as to make clean, smooth, etc.

Fenian - One of an organization or 'brotherhood' formed among the Irish in the United States of America for promoting and assisting revolutionary movements, and for the overthrow of the English government in Ireland; one of the band of legendary Irish warriors (2.-3. c.).

spittle - saliva, spit

stint - to limit (a supply) unduly, to give in scanty measure + stint of - to limit unduly in supply.

shabty - a figurine of deceased person placed in an Egyptian tomb to act as an substitute for the dead person + (notebook 1930): 'Shabti figures' The Book of the Dead ch. VI: 'The text of Chapter VI was cut on figures made of stone, wood, etc. (ushabtiu), which were placed in the tomb, and when the deceased recited it these figures became alive and did everything he wished. The shabti figure... took the place of the human funerary sacrifice which was common all over Egypt before the general adoption of the cult of Osiris'.

image - a statue, effigy, sculptured figure

pennyworth - the amount of anything which is or may be bought for a penny, esp. a very small, or the least, amount +  penny dreadfuls (Colloquial) - 19th-20th century British serial publications featuring cheap sensational stories (and costing one penny per issue).

dodge my eyes


(notebook 1930): 'Osiris field of reeds - - grasshopp - - offerings of food' Budge: The Book of the Dead (pamphlet) 21: 'Osiris offered... as a reward a life in the Field of Reeds, and the Field of Offerings of Food, and the Field of the Grasshoppers, and everlasting existence in a transmuted and beatified body among the resurrected bodies of father and mother, wife and children, kinsfolk and friends'.

miel (fr) - honey

medicine man - a magician or shaman among American Indians and other peoples; hence colloq., a doctor.

poppy - a plant (or flower) of the genus Papaver, comprising herbs of temperate and subtropical regions, having milky juice with narcotic properties + pap - a soft semi-liquid substance, a mash, paste, pulp; soft or semi-liquid food for infants or invalids, made of bread, meal, etc., moistened with water or milk.

hive - an artificial receptacle for the habitation of a swarm of bees, a beehive.

comb - the flat cake or plate consisting of a double series of hexagonal cells of wax made by bees; a honeycomb.

earwax - a viscid secretion which collects in the external meatus of the ear.

nectar - the drink of the gods; the sweet fluid or honey

basilicon ointment - an ointment of rosin, yellow wax and lard

Fintan MacBochra - the only Irish person to survive the flood. God preserved him to tell early Christian saints the history of Ireland's past. He spent centuries as an eagle, a hawk, and then became an otherworld god of wisdom, incarnate in the salmon from which Finn got his wise thumb. 

Lalor, James Fintan - 19th-century Irish nationalist. The Fintan Lalor Fife Players make records. 

pipe - to play (a tune, music) upon a pipe

Bothnian - rel. to Bothnia (province in Sweden); The Gulf of Bothnia is North part of Baltic Sea, between Sweden and Finland. 

menhir - a single upright monolith of prehistoric origin + menheir - sir, master + meneer, mijnheer (Dutch) - gentleman, Mr, sir.

roof tree - the highest horizontal timber in roof, a horizontal pole at a top of a tent + According to the ancient Egyptian narrative, the tree (erica or heather) was cut down and, still containing the body of Osiris, made into a roof tree.

hollow - a valley, a basin; a hole, cave, den, burrow (obs.)

hallow - a holy personage, a saint

dreng - a free tenant in ancient Northumbria, a low or base fellow + dregs + til drengen (Danish) - to the boy.

The Salmon House - a Chapelizod public house (mentioned in Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu's "The House by the Churchyard", prologue).

shillelagh - an Irish cudgel of blackthorn or oak

manument - management + monument + manus (l) - hand.

chep = chip + phrase chip off the old block.

battery - the act of battering or beating; Mining. A bulkhead of timber; Galvanism. An apparatus consisting of a series of cells, each containing the essentials for producing voltaic electricity, connected together. Also used of any such apparatus for producing voltaic electricity, whether of one cell or more.

to be bought and sold - to be betrayed for a bribe

let down - to lower in position, intensity or strength, to abase, to disappoint.

oner - something unique; to burden (obs) + owner of the land

paddy - soft, mild; Irishman; poor + planter - one who sows seed, one that cultivates plants + Joyce's note: 'paddyplanters walk bowed'.

to pack up - to stop working, to collapse, to die + pick up

lap - the front portion of the body from the waist to the knees of a person seated, considered with its covering garments as the place in or on which a child is nursed or any object held.

goddess - a female deity in polytheistic systems of religion + in the lap of the gods - beyond human control, left to fate.

free and easy - unconstrained, natural

game - having the spirit of a game-cock; full of pluck, showing 'fight'; plucky, spirited.

gunne - gun (a person of distinction or importance) + Michael Gunn, director of the Gaiety Theatre on Dublin's King Street. 

the daddy of them all - the best example of som. pleasant or unpleasant + spicer - a dealer in spices, an apothecary or druggist.

begob, begod - mild oaths

dead and gone - dead


sore - sickness, disease, a bodily injury; a wound + shoresh (Hebrew) - a root.

body + zadek (Czech ) - buttocks, arse +  tsedeq (Hebrew) - justice.

Buddha + badhach (Anglo-Irish) - lout, bumpkin, clow (from Anglo-Irish: bodach) +  hoch (Czech ) - boy.

league long - that extends the length of a league (roughly about 3 miles).

TUSKAR LIGHTHOUSE - On Tuskar Rock, off Carnsore Point, County Wexford. 

SEA OF MOYLE - Poetic name for the North Channel of the Irish Sea, between County Antrim and Scotland. Joyce thought (Letters III, 339) it was St George's Channel, between Wexford and Wales, which is swept by the Tuskar Lighthouse + James Macpherson: The Poems of Ossian: Temora I: 'He turned his eye to Moilena'.

warlord - a supreme military leader

BRETLAND - In the Sagas, the name for Wales; later poetic for "Britain."  

PIKE COUNTY - Missouri county on the Mississippi River, North of St Louis; site of the imaginary town of St Petersburg, home of Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn. In an introductory note to Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain refers to the care he has taken with the "ordinary 'Pike County' dialect" and its variants. 

bung (Slang) - drunk

hoist - elevate

LIA FAIL - The "Stone of Destiny," a monolith at ancient Tara which shrieked at the coronation of rightful high kings, and caused "black spot" on any guilty man seated on it +  James Macpherson: The Poems of Ossian: Temora II: 'When thou, O stone, shalt fail'. 

reise = raise

compass - encompass, encircle, comprehend, grasp

cause - reason for action, motive + compas course - a course steered by compass.

Huckleberry Finn

Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 5: (Huck's pap) 'was most fifty... his eyes shining through like he was behind vines'.

batter - one that bats (to strike with, or as with, a bat; to cudgel, thrash, beat).

Mick - Irishman (offensive)

Macaulay, Thomas Babington (1800-1859) - English poet, historian. 

to take off - to imitate (esp. by mockery), to mimic

Stanford: Complete Collection of Irish Music as Noted by George Petrie no. 393: 'Leather bags Donnel'.

shuffle - movement of the feet along the ground without lifting them

cut - appearence + song Phil the Fluter's Ball: 'the shuffle, and the cut'.

HOPKINS AND HOPKINS - 1 Lower Sackvilie (now O'Connell) Street; goldsmiths, jewellers, and watchmakers. 

eggy - annoyed, irritated + naggy - ill natured, bad tempered.

cis (kish) (gael) - wickerwork, basket

tilly - something added for good measure


buggerlugs (Nautical Slang) - (offensive term of address)

"Jerusalem-farers" were the crusaders. King Sigrid Magnusson (25.36), the most famous of the Northren Crusaders, was known as the "Jerusalem-farer" + be going to Jerusalem (Slang) - be drunk.

Asia Minor

gamier - comp. of gamy - showing an unyielding spirit to the last + game cock - a cock bred and trained for fighting, or of the breed suitable for the sport of cock-fighting.

jake - an uncouth country fellow + Peter, Jack, Martin - in Swift's Tale of a Tub, they are the Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran churches. In FW they are also the Three. 

stubble - to clear (land) of stubble (the stumps or lower parts of the stalks of wheat or other grain left in the ground by the sickle or reaping-machine).

(notebook 1930): 'Kherheb = priest 9 worms' The Book of the Dead ch. I and I.B: 'Chapter I was recited by the priest who accompanied the mummy to the tomb... the priest (kher heb) assumed the character of Thoth... Chapter IB gave the sāhu, or "spirit-body," power to enter the Tuat immediately after the burial of the material body, and delivered it from the Nine Worms that lived on the dead'.

scald - that scalds, scalding hot, boiling, seething + (notebook 1930): 'scalding water' The Book of the Dead ch. LXIII) 'The recital of Chapter LXIII enabled the deceased to avoid drinking boiling water in the Tuat. The water in some of its pools was cool and refreshing to those who were speakers of the truth, but it turned into boiling water and scalded the wicked when they tried to drink of it'.

teaboiler - a vessel used for boiling tea + table + tay (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - tea.

PAPA WESTRAY ISLAND - Northmost of the Orkney Islands. The name "Papa" in several of the Orkneys derives from the Irish missionaries, or papae, sent there by Saint Columba to preach to the Pictish natives (6th cent) + vestry - church room with the westments of the clergy +  vester pater (l) - the pope.

anear - near

whiter + song As Your Hair Grows Whiter I Will Love You More + (notebook 1930): 'wheat = Osiris' Budge: The Book of the Dead (pamphlet) 31: 'Osiris was the Wheat-god... and the beatified lived upon the body of their god and ate him daily'.

(notebook 1930): 'celestial Liffey' Budge: The Book of the Dead (pamphlet) 38: 'cool water from the Celestial Nile and the springs of waters of heaven'.

hep - hip + (notebook 1930): 'Hep = river in heaven'.

thereto - to that + Having forced Finnegan back into his coffin, the mourner-conspirators witness his dismemberment. Mr. Atherton first mentioned this use of the dismemberment (Books, 198), but he did not include the salute, "Seven times thereto", which is important in the Osirian context, expressing as it does "seven times two" or fourteen, the number of pieces into which the body of Osiris was torn (Budge, Gods, II, 127). As Mr. Slomczynski points out this salute may also include the number of conspirators, seventy-two

the whole bag of tricks - things that are needed for particular purpose esp. when almost magically effective + kit - a number of things viewed as a whole; a set, lot, collection; esp. in phr. the whole kit.

jackboot - a heavy military boot


Tropic of Capricorn - the southern Tropic forming a tangent to the ecliptic at the first point of Capricorn (the tenth of the twelve signs of the Zodiac).

cloister - convent + cluster

Virgo - the sixth sign of the Zodiac

alala - a shout used by the ancient Greeks in joining battle, a (Greek) battle-cry.

in the region of - round about, approximately

Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 29: 'sure as you are born'

shuck - shell, husk, an outer covering + Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 20: 'a corn-shuck tick... a shuck tick' (a kind of coarse mattress).

Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 12: 'texas' (an officers' cabin or deck on a steamboat)

tow - the fibre of flax, hemp, or jute prepared for spinning by some process of scutching.

linen - cloth woven from flax, a linen garment + Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 20: 'tow-linen' (material for shirts).

lonesome + loam - clay, clayey earth, mud + Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 12: 'lonesome' (over ten times in 'Huckleberry Finn').

Lafayette - the name of the French general; a city in Louisiana (Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 31: 'the road to Lafayette').

Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 31: 'I most dropped in my tracks I was so scared'.

unrested - thrown out of the rest; not laid to rest, not refreshed by rest.

chapel of ease - a chapel built for the convenience of parishioners who live far from the  parish church + Isis

Tutankahmen - king of Egypt (reigned 1333-23 BC), known chiefly for his intact tomb discovered in 1922. During his reign, powerful advisers restored the traditional religion and art style. A curse was laid on those who moved his bones. 

saith - 3d. sing of say +  Budge: The Book of the Dead ch. XL: 'Osiris Ra, triumphant, saith: "Get thee back, Hai... Thoth hath cut of thy head, and I have performed upon thee all the things which the company of the gods ordered concerning thee in the matter of the work of thy slaughter. Get thee back, thou abomination of Osiris... I know thee, I know thee, I know thee, I know thee... Thou shalt not come to me, O thou that comest without being invoked, and whose [time of coming] is unknown"'.

Methyr - name of Isis in Plutarch + mether, medher (Anglo-Irish) - wooden drinking vessel (from Anglo-Irish: meadar) + jar (Anglo-Irish) - a pint of stout; a drink (in general).

salvation - the action of saving or delivering; the saving of the soul

The words of this Chapter shall be said after [the deceased] is laid to rest in Amentet; by means of them the region Tenn-t shall be contented with her lord. And the Osiris, the royal scribe, Nekhtu-Amen, whose word is truth, shall come forth, and he shall embark in the Boat of Ra, and [his] body upon its bier shall be counted up, and he shall be established in the Tuat. (THE EGYPTIAN BOOK OF THE DEAD).

abomination - an object that excites disgust and hatred; a thing detested or detestable. (Followed by unto, to.) esp. in the Bible, a cause of pollution, an idol + abram (Slang) - naked + Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 31: 'The man that bought him is named Abram Foster -- Abram G. Foster -- and he lives forty mile back here in the country, on the road to Lafayette.'

precentor - in churches or chapels in which there is no instrumental accompaniment, the officer who leads congregational singing.

grammarian - a specialist in grammar or linguistics

tomb - to bury, entomb

howe - depression, valley, promontory, hill, cliff + THING MOTE - The assembly place, usually on a mound, established by the Vikings whenever they settled. In Dublin, the Thing Mote was on a low hill South of the present Dame Street. The hill of the Thing Mote was called the Howe, Haugh, or "Howe over the Stein" (Steyne), from haugr, Old Danish "hill, sepulchral mound."  

shipman - sailor, seaman

steep - precipitous + sleep



holmsted (Danish) - homestead (a home or dwelling; a house with its dependent buildings and offices; esp. a farm-stead).

sanctuary - a holy place; a churchyard, cemetery

screain (skran) (gael) - bad luck! + bad scran to you (Anglo-Irish) - bad luck to you, an evil wish.

Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 35: 'we heard the breakfast-horn blowing'

William I, "The Conqueror" 

keng = king

shop slop - Used contemptuously for shop medicine

Jacob's Biscuits - manufactured in Dublin. It was a Jacob's biscuit tin that the Citizen throws at Bloom. In FW they are the mess of pottage for which Esau sold his birthright to Jacob. 

tipple - an intoxicating beverage; to indulge habitually to some excess in taking strong drink + Ulysses (619): "Dr Tibble's Vi-Cocoa." 

Edwards - brand of "desiccated soup", mentioned in Ulysses (173).  

dissipated - dispersed, scattered; dissolute

seagull - gull + Mother Seigel's Syrup - digestive tonic, sold in the British Isles. 

bog - peat bog, marsh, swamp

barley - a hardy awned cereal, cultivated in all parts of the world; used partly as food, and largely (in Britain and the United States, mainly) in the preparation of malt liquors and spirits.

begrine - to dye in the grain, colour permanently

lessons + Nessans, St - to him, the Book of Howth is attributed. 

business bee's knees (Slang) - acme of perfection.

hesitancy - the quality or condition of hesitating, indecision, vacillation

turn out - to result, to come about in the end

turn the tables - to cause a complete reversal of the state of affairs + tables - the common arithmetical tables, as the multiplication table and those of money, weights, and measures, esp. as learnt at school.


all for - entirely in favor of, on the side of

peg - to pin down, restrict; identify; to aim (a missile) at

smasher - something very large or fine or extraordinary of its kind

toss (Slang) - masturbate

Roman Catholic - a member or adherent of the Roman Church

double jointed - having joints that permit exceptional degrees of freedom + joyed

janitor - a door-keeper, porter, ostiary + Janus geminus - double Janus or two headed Janus; old Italian deity, god of beginnings and passages. 

grandfer - grandfather

someone's right hand does not know what his left hand is doing - one part of organization or group does not know what another part is doing and because of this difficulties arise + William Shakespeare: Venus and Adonis 158: 'Can thy right hand seize love upon thy left?' + Matthew 6:3: 'let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth'.

Caoimhghein (kivgin) (gael) - Comely-birth; anglic. Kevin

doat - imbecile; to be infatuatedly fond of + dote (Anglo-Irish) - a term of endearment (especially for a child; also spelled 'doat').

cherub - an angel of high rank

chalk - to draw with a chalk

ogre - a man-eating monster, usually represented as a hideous giant (in folk-lore and fairy tales).

tricks + knick knacks - a trinket + bag of tricks - stock of resources.

diggings - lodgings, quarters

seep - moisture that drips or oozes out; a sip of liquor

lieve = lief - gladly; dear, beloved + leave + Thomas Moore, song: Lay His Sword by His Side [air: If the Sea Were Ink].

laus (l) - thanks, gratitude + Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 32: 'law sakes' (interjection).

Knirps (ger) - kid

Diairmin (d'irmin) (gael) - little Diarmaid, anglic. Jerry

tartan - a kind of woollen cloth woven in stripes of various colours crossing at right angles so as to form a regular pattern; worn chiefly by the Scottish Highlanders + tar - asphalt +   tan - to make dark or tawny in colour + tarrantach (tarontokh) (gael) - attractive.

playboy + plaid - a woolen fabric with a tartan pattern.

incostive = costive - confined in the bowels, constipated; slow or reluctant in action + encaustum (l) - purple red ink used by later Roman emperors. 

ink + dinkum - work; esp. hard work; dinkum oil (the honest truth, true facts).

laving - washing, bathing

blue streak - something resembling a flash of lightning in speed, vividness, etc.; a constant stream of words.

one's birthday suit - the state of being completely undressed + bourse - the money-market.

torch - a light to be carried in the hand, consisting of a stick of resinous wood, or of twisted hemp or similar material soaked with tallow, resin, or other inflammable substance.

rekindle - to kindle again, arouse again

felix (l) - happy

let down - to lenghten (a garment)

Luna (l) - moon

convent - monastery

ruddy - red, reddish + red berry - any of several N. American plants.

pia (l) - tender + pia e pura bella - Vico's Latin catch-phrase for holy wars: 'pious and pure wars'.

riot - violence, strife, disorder, tumult, esp. on the part of the populace; (orig. Theatr.) som. extremely successful or amusing; spec. an uproariously successful performance or show, a 'smash hit'.

Thomas Moore, song: You Remember Ellen: 'You remember Ellen, our hamlet's pride' [air: Were I a Clerk]

designate - marked out for office or position, appointed or nominated, but not yet installed.

WILLIAMS AND WOODS, LTD - Manufacturing confectioners and preserve makers, 204-206 Great Britain (now Parnell) Street. It advertised its preserves as "Purity Jams." 

poster - to affix poster to

pouter - one who pouts + pout - to thrust out or protrude the lips.

jamb - each of the side posts of a doorway, window, or chimney-piece, upon which rests the lintel.

rep - reputation; repertoar

leannoir (lanor) (gael) - brewer + Katti Lanner - famous 19th century Austrian-British ballet dancer and choreographer (Ulysses.15.4044: 'The Katty Lanner step').

tam tam - tom tom + tom tommer - one who beats tom-tom or drum.

whirligig - a fickle, inconstant, giddy, or flighty person + whirligigs (Slang) - testicles + song Mr Whirligig Magee (or song 'The Ball of Whirligig Magee').

cachucha - a gay Andalusian solo dance done with castanets

flat - absolute, downright, plain

dilate - expand + delight

aisy (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - easy

Zekiel Irons - parish clerk and fisherman in Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu's "The House by the Churchyard"

spoor - to track by a spoor (the trace, track, or trail of a person or animal, esp. of wild animals pursued as game).

McCarthy, Demetrius O'Flanagan - subject of a song. He took the floor at Enniscorthy.  

cork - to stop (a bottle, cask, etc.) with a cork; and so to confine or shut up (the contents of a bottle, etc.)

swamp - to swallow up

float - to flood

fetch - to draw forth + veèni pokoj, veènaja pamjet - Mr Skrabanek says, Russian vechnyi pokoi, na vechnuyu pamyat is "eternal peace, for eternal memory."

nayther (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - neither

angst - anxiety, anguish, guilt, remorse + Angst (ger) = angst (Dutch) - fear.

lumbus (l) - hip, loin

mist - fog + missies

misch- (ger) - mix

lodge - to reside as an inmate in another person's house, paying a sum of money periodically in return for the accommodation afforded.

pour on - to overspread with something poured, to suffuse fully

sleepy - inclined to sleep, somnolent

so be it - formerly used as a rendering of amen

burial - funeral +  memorial - memory, something by which the memory of a person, thing, or event is preserved, as a monumental erection, a custom or an observance + muria (l) - salt liquor, brine, pickle.

tipper - one who tips (to render unsteady, make drunk, intoxicate; to drink off).

put on - to push forward (the hands of a clock, the time) so as to make it appear later; Also in fig. allusion.

up a stump - blocked in one's efforts, nonplussed, perplexed (Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 32: 'up a stump').

shed - to rid oneself of (something not wanted or needed): Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 20: 'The duke shed his coat and said he was all right now.'

remnant - that which remains or is left of a thing or things after the removal of a portion; a remaining trace or survival of some quality, belief, condition, or state of things.

sternwheel - a paddle-wheel placed at the stern of a small river or lake steamer (Mark Twain: Huckleberry Finn 19: 'and maybe see a steamboat coughing along up-stream, so far off towards the other side you couldn't tell nothing about her only whether she was a stern-wheel or side-wheel).

crawl - to move or progress very slowly, to drag along

missus - wife, mistress

Guinevere - Arthur's queen, Lancelot's mistress 

arrah - an expletive expressing emotion or excitement

shirk - to evade (a person, his conversation, acquaintance, etc.) + shake hands

longa (Beche-la-Mar - Melanesian pidgin) - to

dibble - to make holes in the ground + devil a hap'orth (Anglo-Irish) - not a halfpennyworth.

hayfork - a long-handled fork used for turning over hay to dry, or in pitching and loading it.

lex - law + zalig (Dutch) - delicious + salach (slokh) (gael) - dirty, impure + selig (ger) - happy, delighted + The Lex Salica, the Frankish Salic Law, is pertinent in the context (widowhood) because of its pronouncements on male and female rights of descent (the passing of property (in England only of real property) to the heir or heirs without disposition by will). The syntactic echo, however, is 'her leg's selig' (German: 'happy'). That is to say, she is not sufficiently grave, as would become a recent widow. We may also find the Dutch zalig, meaning delicious, or blessed, but the word most clearly fitting the reservation of the earlier part of the sentence is Irish salach, 'dirty'. ø Devil a hayfork's wrong with her only her leg's dirty (McHugh, Roland / The sigla of Finnegans wake)

tib cat - a female cat

does be (Anglo-Irish) - habitual present tense of 'to be'

smirk - to smile; in later use, to smile in an affected, self-satisfied, or silly manner, to simper.

pollock - an highly esteemed marine food fish

woolly - a woollen garment or covering

tabouret - a low seat or stool

stitch - a single movement with the needle; fig. a 'stroke' of work of any kind + to stick to one's last - to keep to that work, field, etc., in which one is competent or skilled.

enchantment - alluring or overpowering charm; enraptured condition

nester - one that nests (as a bird)

flue - chimney, a smoke-duct in a chimney + up the flue - pawned; dead.

It's an ill wind that blows no good

gulden - any of various silver coins + gulden (Dutch) - golden; guilder, florin.

findrinny - white bronze (James Joyce, Letters I.348: letter 16/10/34 to Giorgio and Helen Joyce: 'A 30-year wedding should be called a 'findrinny' one. Findrinny is a kind of white gold mixed with silver').

rein - a long narrow strap or thong of leather, attached to the bridle or bit on each side of the head, by which a horse or other animal is controlled and guided by the rider or driver + reins (Archaic) - kidneys, loins.

ribbons (Colloquial) - reins (for driving)

swoop - to move rapidly

fluttersome - given to or characterised by fluttering

second - to give support to, back up, assist, accompany

concertina - a portable musical instrument invented by Sir Charles Wheatstone in 1829, consisting of a pair of bellows, usually polygonal in form, with a set of keys at each end, which on being pressed admit wind to free metallic reeds.

forty winks - a short nap, esp. after dinner

colcannon (Anglo-Irish) - an Anglo-Irish dish of potatoes, cabbage and scallions mixed with butter and milk (from Anglo-Irish: cál ceannfhionn).


dimpling - making of dimples + dumpling - a kind of pudding consisting of a mass of paste or dough, more or less globular in form, either plain and boiled, or inclosing fruit and boiled or baked.

Merlin chair - an invalid wheel-chair

assotted - infatuated + asit - to sit, settle; remain sitting.

smart - stylish in dress, showing careful attention to details of appearence + short - short clothes.

swagger - fashionable, posh, smart

fellah - a peasant in Arabic-speaking countries; fellow

Fez - town in Morocco

Stormont - suburb of Belfast, the site of the Parliament of Northern Ireland

stilla (it) - drop + stella (it) - star.

going away - designed for wear when leaving on honeymoon

Vanity Fair - a place or scene where all is frivolity and empty show

rosy - healthy, blooming, tending to promote optimism

Ding (ger) - thing

noise - to report, rumour, to spread rumours; to make a noise, to talk loudly.

chuckle - quiet laugh

Gunn, Selskar (1883-1944) - son of Michael Gunn and Bessie Sudlow, friend of Joyce. In Danish, elskere means "lovers."

pervenche (fr) - periwinkle 

viv (Danish) - wife

bluebell - a plant with flowers shaped like bells

salty - containing or impregnated with salt

sepulchre - grave

zee - "z" + the end + zee (Dutch) - sea.

silver ash - sort of tree

switch - a thin flexible shoot cut from a tree

flare - to burn with a spreading, unsteady flame, as when blown by the wind.

anastasis (gr) - resurrection

how are you! (Anglo-Irish phrase) - don't be absurd! (The Letter Motif: how are you)

Worth, Charles (1825-95) - dressmaker, born in Lincolnshire + Worter (ger) - words.

waist - the portion of the trunk of the human body that is between the ribs and the hip-bones.

noblest - superl. of noble + noble - illustrious by rank, title, or birth.

James Adam - auctioneer, had offices at 17 Merrion Row and 19 Stephen's Green. (The only auctioneer on Wood Quay in the early 20th century was John Bentley.)  

John 8:11: 'sin no more'

be = by + TDV: And be the hooky salmon sammon there's a big rody lad now at random on the premises, I am as it's told me, flourishing like a lord mayor  (on for show), the height of a brewer's Brewster's chimpney, humphing his showlders like he's such a grandfallar with a pockedwife in pickle that's a flyfire and three sly little lice nittle clinkers, two twin twilling bugs and one midget pucell pucelle, and either he did what you know or he did not what you know with weep the clouds alone for [weeping smiling] witnesses and that'll do now but however that may be 'tis sure for one thing that he, overseen as we thought him, came to at this place some time or  another in a hull of a wherry and has been repeating himself like fish ever since an as also for all batin the bulkihead, [he bloats about, the that innebbiate,] that he was of humile commune & ensectuous from nature, as his you may guess from after his byname, & that he is he & no other he who is primarily responsible will be ultimendly
for the high hall cost of everything.


hooky - covered with hooks + hook - a fish-hook, an angle + TDV: hooky salmon sammon + holy sermon

rody = ruddy - having a fresh red complexion

ram - a male sheep; a sexually aggressive man, a lecher + ram (Hebrew) - high, tall + 'an old black ram / is tupping your white ewe': Shakespeare, Othello 1.1.88-9

at random - without restraint, at great speed, without consideration, care, or control; at any range other than point-blank (obs.)

premise -  pl. previous circumstances or events; things happening before (obs.); licensed premises.

hundred + Conn of the Hundred Battles - grandfather of Cormac mac Airt.

bordel - a house of prostitution, a brothel

illicit - not authorized or allowed, unlawful, forbidden

lord mayor - the mayor of the large city

Baum (German) = boom (Dutch) - tree

litting - dyeing + to let off -  to discharge with an explosion. Hence fig. To fire off (a joke, speech, etc.); to allow to go or escape.

flop - failure, a place to sleep, a cheap rooming house

dollop - large quantity of any thing; an untidy woman, a slattern, trollop.

aloose - to loosen + alas!

lee - lie

benn - the Horse-radish tree

ARDILAUN - Island at North end of Lough Corrib, County Galway, near the Guinness family estates at Cong. Arthur Guinness was Lord Ardilaun; his brother was Lord Iveagh

evoe - shout of joy (the Bacchanalian exclamation ''Evoe!'')

on the windy side of - so as not to be 'scented' and attacked by, out of the reach of; away from, clear of + breezy - windy.

for show - for the sake of mere appearence or display

brewster - brewer (one that brews)

Barnum, Phineas T. (1810-91) - American circus man

humph - To utter an inarticulate 'h'mf!' + hump - to hoist or carry (a bundle) upon the back.

senken (ger) - submerge, lower

pocket knife - a knife with one or more blades which fold into the handle, for carrying in the pocket. + pock - to mark with pocks (a pustule or spot of eruption in any eruptive disease, esp. in small-pox) + pock (Slang) - syphilis + phrase pig in a poke.

in pickle - in reserve or use on occasion, in readiness + in pickle (Slang) - venereally infected.

firefly - a lampyrid or elaterid insect which has the property of emitting phosphorescent light.

nittle - a string or cord + little

clinker - pl. Fetters (slang); a very hard kind of brick of a pale colour, made in Holland, and used for paving; a nail + children

twill - pattern of diagonal lines, to make a cloth with a twill weave + twilling (Danish) - twin + TDV: two twin twilling bugs and one midget pucell pucelle

bug - schoolboys slang for ''boy''

midget - an extremely small person

pucelle - a girl, a maid + Joan of Arc, St (1411-31) - French saint, Maid of Orleans, title, heroine of Shaw's play, St Joan, character in Shakespeare's 1 Henry VI, where she is called La Pucelle

aither - either + TDV: and either he did what you know or he did not what you know with weep the clouds alone for [weeping smiling] witnesses and that'll do now

fourfooter - a creature having four feet; 1.2 m + footle (Slang) - to talk or act foolishly.

stool pigeon - a police informer

aboon - above

that'll do - that is sufficient

shee (Anglo-Irish) - fairy (from Anglo-Irish: sídhe)

Aesop - the supposed author of a collection of Greek fables + eshet (Hebrew) - wife of (form of Hebrew isha: woman, wife).

fable + fib (Colloquial) - a trivial lie.

sephiroth - any of the 10 emanations, or powers, by which God the Creator was said to become manifest (esoteric Jewish mysticism (Kabbala)) + zephyr - the west wind, esp. as personified, or the god of the west wind.

artsa (Hebrew) - to the earth (form of Hebrew erets: earth, country) + astra (l) - star.

zoom - to travel or move (as if) with a 'zooming' sound; to move at speed, to hurry.

theatrocracy - government by the people assembled in their theater (as in Athenian democracy).

qoheleth (Hebrew) - Ecclesiastes (literally 'preacher')

saraph (Hebrew) - poisonous snake; angel, seraph

torah - law; Pentateuch + Toraigh (tori) (gael) - Towery; island off N.W. Irish coast, Fomorian stronghold; anglic. Tory.

vouch - to cite, quote, to put in evidence, to announce

mappiq (Hebrew) - a dot in the letter 'heh'

put out - to utter, pronounce

hamma (Hebrew) - sun

overseen - mistaken, rash; intoxicated, tipsy; learned, versed + overseen (Slang) - somewhat drunk.

name + nayim (Arabic) - asleep + nayim (Hebrew) - pleasant + mayim (Hebrew) - water.

parochial - of a parish + raqia (Hebrew) - firmament.

firmament - the arch or vault of heaven overhead, in which the clouds and the stars appear, the sky or heavens.

bum's rush - forcible ejection + get the bum's rush (Slang) - be forcibly turned out + bulrush - a name applied in books to Scirpus lacustris, a tall rush growing in or near water; but in modern popular use, more usually, to Typha latifolia, the 'Cat's Tail' or 'Reed-mace'. In the Bible applied to the Papyrus of Egypt.

hull - the body or frame of a ship, apart from the masts, sails, and rigging.

wherry - a large boat of the barge kind + phrase hell of a hurry.

turbine +  turban - a head-dress of Muslim origin.

dhow - a native vessel used on the Arabian Sea, generally with a single mast, and of 150 to 200 tons burden; but the name is somewhat widely applied to all Arab vessels.

Dublin Bay - embraced by Howth on the North and Dalkey on the South, Dublin Bay has often been compared with the Bay of Naples.

archipelago - any sea, or sheet of water, in which there are numerous islands; and transf. a group of islands.

schooner - a small sea-going fore-and-aft rigged vessel, originally with only two masts, but now often with three or four masts and carrying one or more topsails.


waxen - made of wax; grown up (obs) + wench - a girl, maid, young woman.

prow - the fore-part of a boat or ship

figurehead - a piece of ornamental carving, usually a bust or full-length figure, placed over the cut-water of a ship.

dugong - a large aquatic herbivorous mammal inhabiting the Indian seas + Dublin Historical and Topographical 7: [...] in 938, at the great battle of Burnanburh (Brumby, near Beverley), Aulaf suffered a signal defeat. Five kings and seven earls were amongst the slain, and Aulaf, son of Godfrey, fled to Ireland with the remnant of his followers, as graphically described in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle [...] "Departed the Northmen in nailed ships / Drear remnant of darts on the sea of Dyng, / O'er the waters deep Dublin to seek, / Back to land of the Erse, depressed in mind."

up dip - situated in a direction upwards along the dip (depth of a vessel).

repreach - to preach again + TDV: and has been repeating himself like fish ever since

Holland 58: The mountains on the eastern side of Meccah rise very steeply, like cliffs. quite close to the town, and between their spurs are long narrow ravines called Shebs. The word Sheb means, in Arabic, a rock + shebi (Turkish) - likeness + shevi (Hebrew) - captivity + sheva (Hebrew) - seven.

shide (Anglo-Irish Pronunciation) - side

adi (Hebrew) - ornament + adey ad (Hebrew) - for evermore + adi (Turkish) - ordinary.

hoarish - somewhat hoary + (notebook 1924): 'grow old under turban' + Horus and Set (in next line)

sugar cane - a tall stout perennial grass, cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical countries, and forming the chief source of manufactured sugar + Cain and Seth (Genesis 4:25: 'And Adam knew his wife again; and she bare a son, and called his name Seth: For God, said she, hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew').

starch - a substance obtained from flour by removing some of its constituents, used, in the form of a gummy liquid or paste made with water, to stiffen linen or cotton fabrics in the process of laundry-work, to give a finish to the surface of textile materials, to size paper, and for various other purposes + (notebook 1924): 'plants turn sugar into starch & cellulose' Haldane: Daedalus or Science and the Future 37: 'the average plant turns most of its sugar not into starch which is digestible, but into cellulose which is not, but forms its woody skeleton'.

tuttut - exp. of disapproval or disbelief + Tutankhamen - Egyptian whose resplendent tomb was opened in the 1920s and the king "resurrected." A curse was laid on those who moved his bones + tutto cessa (it) - everything ends, everything comes to an end + tutto un cesso (Italian Colloquial phrase) - a real dump, a complete mess (literally 'all a latrine').

cess - luck + bad cess to - bad luck to.

batin (Turkish) = beten (Hebrew) - belly, abdomen + TDV: an as also for all batin the bulkihead, [he bloats about, the that innebriate,]

bulkhead - one of the upright partitions serving to form the cabins in a ship or to divide the hold into distinct water-tight compartments, for safety in case of collision or other damage.

bloat - to swell, become swollen or turgid + float

inebriated - intoxicated, drunken + annebbiato (it) - clouded, foggy.

offender - one who offends, who transgresses a law, or infringes a rule or regulation.

commune - to receive communion, to communicate intimely; common

gauge - to 'take the measure' of (a person, his character, etc.)

byname - a secondary name, nickname

lashings (Anglo-Irish) - plenty + lashon (Hebrew) - tongue, speech, language.

Honi soit qui mal y pense (Med. Fr.) - 'evil be [to him] who evil thinks of this'; the motto of the Order of the Garter + khanneni (Hebrew) - pity me.

khamishim (Hebrew) - fifty + khamisha khumshey (Hebrew) - five fifths, i.e. Pentateuch.

Joyce's note: 'sober serious'; Caradoc Evans, 25 and passim: "[A Heifer without Blemish] 'What nonsense you talk out of the back of your head! Sober serious, mouth not that you have thrown gravel at Sara Jane's window. She's not worth her broth.'" MS 47472-38, ILA: and that ^+sober serious,+^ he is he and no other he | JJA 44:133 | Nov 1926 |

ee - eye; ye + he

ultimately + timendum (l) - to be feared.

responsible + TDV: who is primarily responsible will be ultimendly respunchable for the high hall cost of everything. ;

hubbub - noisy turmoil; confusion, disturbance + khibbubh (Hebrew) - fondness.

Edinburgh - Scottish Gaelic DUNEIDEANN, city, district of the Lothian region, and capital of Scotland + eden - paradise.